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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jeanne Humphrey Block
Born(1923-07-17)July 17, 1923
DiedDecember 4, 1981(1981-12-04) (aged 58)
Alma materStanford University
Spouse(s)Jack Block
Scientific career
FieldsPsychology
InstitutionsUniversity of California, Berkeley
InfluencesErnest Hilgard
Maud Merrill James

Jeanne Lavonne Humphrey Block (July 17, 1923 - December 4, 1981) was an American psychologist. She conducted research into sex-role socialization and, with her husband Jack Block, created a person-centered personality framework. Block was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and conducted her research with the National Institute of Mental Health and the University of California, Berkeley. She was an active researcher when she was diagnosed with cancer in 1981.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Promoting Learning & Engagement in STEM through ASL CLEAR - Mandy Houghton and Jeanne Reis
  • ✪ Aga Khan Program Lecture: Nora Akawi, “Traversing Territories”
  • ✪ A young scientist's quest for clean water | Deepika Kurup

Transcription

Hello everyone. Hello. Lighting is important in my world, so I want to make sure you can see me. I'm Mandy Houghton and I did some research with the CIQM Project and I am now a program manager at the Center for Research and Training, and I am delighted to be here with you. I'm here to talk about essentially promoting learning and engagement in STEM. And that may not seem as critical to some people in the world, but for deaf signing individuals, promoting learning and engagement in STEM through ASL is a very critical piece of our success, and we believe that you can partner in our achievement, and I'm going to tell you exactly how today. So you'll notice that I have to go back and forth because I can't present behind the podium. There's a barrier here for me. My interpreter needs to see me. You need to see me. I need to see you. Whether you know ASL or not, I find that podiums do not work for deaf people in general as well as they do for people who are speaking their presentations. So that's just one piece of the picture that we have to think about as deaf people. So I thank you all for inviting me, and I'm delighted to be here. So take a look at this slide for a moment. This is from the National Science Foundation. These are their statistics related to people who are working in the STEM fields and they took a look at the general population that essentially represents you all. 15.3% of the general population enters the STEM fields. How many deaf and hard of hearing people? I know you're good at math, right. I know you are. Not even one percent. It's hard to even see the line on this graph. I mean, I'm technically not here. You can't see me. I'm an illusion, right? Because it doesn't even look like there's a full one percent in this field. So just hold this stat in mind as we get through this talk, because we are here to affect change in this very statistic that I'm talking about. So CIQM has three different parts three major goals in this collaboration between Gallaudet, Howard, Harvard. Sharing language and culture in the world. We come together and we engage with one another even when we don't share the same language and culture. We learn effective ways for communicating with one another, right? How do we deliver knowledge? We deliver it through communication, right? And in STEM that is no less the case. And then all of those pieces come together to support real-world application and collaboration. We collaborate with any number of people from different backgrounds, from different walks of life. So with this collaboration between Gallaudet, Howard, and Harvard, we can really engage with people who are quite different from us. I'm often the first deaf researcher people have worked with. Have any of you worked with a deaf researcher in the past? Raise your hand if you have. Two! Two of you. Yes, and I remember you. My colleague I think mentored with you. Andy, is that right? Andy? Yeah. So just a brief history of my time with Harvard in the CIQM program. I worked with Dr. Evelyn Hu, her group, and Dr. Danqing Wang. And I worked on the gallium nitride micro discs project. There were a number of ways that we engaged with one another. Danqing Wang was not a signer, but you see, I'm signing despite the fact that she can't. I just can't help myself, right? But over time, we developed a number of ways of communicating with each other. She would sometimes type her comments to me. I would do the same. We would use interpreters. Interpreters were a huge part of the success of my engagement in the program. But interpreters are not with me 24/7. They're not in my pocket. They don't come to the grocery store with me, so I have to be prepared to communicate with colleagues and others in many ways, including typing back and forth. So sharing language and culture is one of the components of our work together. There are deaf people in the world, but we often don't see them and we don't recognize diversity within smaller populations. There may be deaf people who were born able to hear and eventually became deaf, or people who were born hard of hearing and somehow engage with people who can hear in a speaking way and engage with deaf people in Sign. They may never learn to sign, deaf people, even if they are quite deaf. And that kind of diversity is often unrecognized in the larger world. I mean, were you even aware that there might be a culturally deaf versus a physically deaf person and that represents a significant difference? Is that something that's ever even crossed your mind? Yeah. There's also the language component. So you'll notice that I'm signing, and then I stop, and the interpreter keeps going. And that's because we have two different languages in operation here. I'm presenting in ASL, the interpreter is presenting the content to you in English, and that takes a bit of time. There's a couple of beats behind and that translation needs to also b e done as effectively as possible, so interpreters need content knowledge, which they don't all bring to the task. So if you wanted to say, for example, "Hey Mandy" in a room, you also would engage with me in a different way. You can't just kind of shout, "Hey Mandy," right? And what I find is that people will maybe walk across the room to get my attention, but then they don't know what to do from there. Like, tapping somebody on the shoulder is a little bit weird for people. Also, we flash lights to get one another's attention. In my lab, it actually became customary as a way of getting one another's attention, just because, I don't know, it just turned into a thing and everybody liked having the lights flicked on and off to get one another's attention. The other piece of the language and culture component is the domain-specific vocabulary that we deal with here. I mean, there was a lot of it so far today. And oftentimes in ASL and other languages in the world, that domain-specific vocabulary is different, or it's nonexistent. So in my time at CIQM I was really talking to people about all of these components as well as learning the content, learning how to engage with one another and learning how we can connect and unlock the secrets of science. So I did a lot training of my colleagues and my faculty members to get those points across to them. So why is this experience, the CIQM experience, important for somebody like me, or for other deaf individuals who might enter this program? Well, recall the statistic that I opened with, that 0.19%. We don't have representation in the fields of STEM. And that doesn't mean that we're any less capable. It's just that the doors aren't open to access those fields for us. The main issue I think is language. The second issue is opportunity, and I think both of those issues come together to present a pretty significant barrier. So I'm going to teach you a little bit about what deaf people go through. We've published a good deal on this subject, but when we really look at how language develops, particularly for bilingual children, in this case deaf bilingual children who learn ASL first and then learn English either as a school subject or learn it in the home from their parents. In general, deaf people who enter a school environment have either limited ASL or only social ASL skills. You know, maybe they talk to their peers, they know how to use ASL in a conversational environment. But then when they enter the classroom and even college, pre-K through 12 right up through college, they are getting their instruction in ASL, perhaps, but when it comes time to take a test, to do a presentation, to write a paper, it's all done in academic English. And for a deaf child, academic English is English in any written form, for the most part. So we don't even have the experience of academic language in our first language, in ASL, that allows us to make that leap to academic English in our second language. And vocabulary is an important component of all language, right? It's the building block. Terms in English have connotation. You know if it's a positive or a negative, or a neutral term. That comes along with the term. You have morphemes, you have little parts of the words that come together to build larger words. You have association from one content to another, or metaphorical associations. Register, you know, a term is more conversational or more academic. Grammatical form, you know that it's a noun, an adjective, an adverb, by its conjugation. And then of course you have the context, the utterance before and after. In ASL, as I mentioned, we generally deal with the issue of moving from social or conversational ASL directly to academic English. What happens in ASL when there is no specific sign for a given academic concept is that that sign is finger-spelled, meaning that it's borrowed from the English language and spelled out in ASL, or it's abbreviated. And that finger-spelled term or that abbreviation has none of the connotation, morphemes, association, register, or grammatical form. It has only context, what happens before and after. In a perfect world, we wouldn't have to borrow from English, if you will, or another language to get our point across. Think about finger-spelling "photosynthesis". Even if your teacher spelled it in your first language, in English, it would be "P-H-O-T-O-S-Y-N-T-H-E-S-I-S". It's hard to parse that kind of presentation for a very complicated academic term. Imagine spelling out words instead of saying them, which when uttered in a language they have a sort of intonation, they have a certain affect. They're just easier to comprehend. But if we were able to expand the vocabulary of ASL, we would be able to move from conversational ASL to ac ademic ASL. We would be able to talk at greater depth about complex concepts, and we would be able to kind of file them away against these more powerful vocabulary items in ASL rather than having to move immediately into our second language in order to discuss photosynthesis or atoms or neutrons or whatever it may be. So building from a strong conversational first language to a strong academic first language would allow students to engage in the STEM fields. I think that 0.19, essentially zero percent, would grow over time. We're not there yet, but I believe we can get there. Math and science concepts don't belong to any particular language. This is true, I think, yes? Can you agree that math and science concepts don't belong to any particular language? It's content that we're talking about more than language. We want our students to access content, and we don't language to be a barrier for them. English doesn't own any information any more than French does, or Italian, or Russian, or Afrikaans, or any other language, right? Japanese ... you can go to Japan and talk about STEM in Japanese, and English doesn't have any bearing there, right? And we want the same to be true for the deaf community. We want deaf people to be able to explain all math and science concepts in our first and most natural and most comfortable language. Right? Our access to language really is a key. It opens the doors to many possible roads. And lack of access to those languages, lack of access to content in our first language, closes the same doors. We just want equal standing. So how do we proceed in order to build that road toward greater participation among deaf people in the STEM fields? I believe you are part of the potential for success. We can't do it without one another, right? We need every contributing person to be part of the field, to be contributing to the diversity of perspectives that are necessary to solve some of our fundamental STEM problems and explore our most interesting STEM questions. So opportunities like this, Harvard seeking funding to make sure that there are opportunities for internships and fellowships for deaf people and for people from other communities I think is a critical component of fostering greater participation in STEM. And it is very, very important to me that we continue and increase collaborations between signers and non-signers. People who are signers are not always deaf. They might be interpreters. They might be teachers of the deaf. They might be faculty members who can hear. I mean, I need a partnership with this interpreter working with me today in order for my presentation to you to be effective, to be understood. So the kind of partnership that we have with CIQM, replicated on broader scales, would ensure that the mechanisms are in place for those qualified deaf individuals who are interested STEM have those opportunities, the doors are open, we can make the kind of progress that we're looking for. We still don't have ASL signs that are shared among the community for many STEM terms. And I mean simple terms. Atom, molecule, compound, element. Words that you don't even think about. Words that you have known since elementary school and have been available to you from the start of your science learning have just been developed by our team and are now being shared with the broader community via online resources. So that kind of development needs to continue. There are so many STEM terms in the world, you know? We could do this for the rest of our lives and never run out. Finding the kinds of funding and the support and the collaboration to keep this engine going I think is a critical component for us. And that's what I mean when I say the collaboration between signers and non-signers is so important. You know, I want to be able to stand up here and talk to you about atoms and molecules without having to spell "A-T-O-M", "M-O-L-E-C-U-L-E-S", and interrupt, essentially, my thought process, my flow in my first language by jumping into my L2. And then finger spelling is a really complex set of moving parts, let's say, which interpreters actually find difficult to comprehend, so then I often find that I have to slow down or I have to eliminate content in order to make sure that the interpreter stays with me. So that limits my ability to express myself effectively as a scientist. So that leads me to our project. The ASL CLEAR project. So ASL CLEAR is an online resource, and it is developed for the purpose of disseminating signs that have been developed by STEM content experts who are deaf, who are ASL signers. So I'll talk a little bit more about that. This is our current team of deaf subject matter experts. We have people from a variety of domains. As you can see, they come from different backgrounds and different areas of expertise. And let me just go back for a moment to this. Keep in mind this piece, the "sharing language and culture" piece, okay? Just for a moment, think about that, and take a look at this team. I mean, we represent the deaf community, but we don't represent the diversity in the deaf community. You'll see that there's not much diversity here on this slide. Not only that, when you look at the content expertise, you'll see that it's kind of all over the map. So I'm not working with another deaf nanoscientist, because I haven't found one yet. And that's true for Barbara, who's in marine biology. There's no other marine biologist on the team. She's a Ph.D. student studying algae and climate change at Oregon State University as the only deaf student there who's studying marine biology at her level, and the only deaf student in the country as well. She doesn't have anybody to bounce her ideas off of in academic ASL. So how does she light herself up, you know? How does she get inspired? How does she talk to people about the solutions they're finding, and how they compare to hers, and the data that they're looking at? You have that on a day-to-day basis. You can just recharge with your colleagues very readily. That's not the case for us. So again, what's important is the kinds of experiences that we can have at programs at CIQM, right? But we need to make sure that these opportunity es are available to as many deaf people who are interested as possible. So this is the ASL CLEAR website, and you may notice that there's only one English word, and it is, "English". So this is our online resource, and that is what people see when they first enter the ASL CLEAR resource. It is an ASL-based website. It's incredibly unique. It might be the only website that you can entirely navigate through ASL and images in the world. You use ASL to search for content. You enter various parts of signs, much like you would enter the letters of words. So the sign for "atom", for example, has two parts. It looks like this. So "atom", your word, "A-T-O-M", right, how many parts do you have? "A-tom", right? You have these two parts. "A" is how it starts. If you look in a dictionary, like, "atom", it starts with an A, you look it up and you see "atom" in the dictionary. But if I'm looking for this sign, how am I going to search for it? I can't look for "A." I have to look for the actual parts of the sign, and there are two hand shapes in the sign. And I can use this interface to select the hand shapes of the sign. I can also choose the location, so that middle icon is the location, the top of the head, the lower half, the torso, the arm, or the area in space in front of signer. And then there's the movement of the sign as well. So you can search for a term in your language, if you're searching for an ASL sign, using the linguistic parts of the ASL sign, and find it. Or, if you're an English speaker and you want to find a sign, you use the English search function, and you can access it by just typing the letters. So from a kind of long view, we'll show you what ASL CLEAR looks like. So as soon as you hover over any one of the search parameters that are available, hand shape, location, or movement, you'll get a drop-down menu that just appears on hover. And then you can get information about each of the search features. You can get some help to help you understand how to do the search. And all possible variations of hand shapes and locations and movements are there in the search feature so that you can kind of whittle down what you're looking for. It's an interactive, search, so if you select one feature, it'll automatically present you with all the signs in the database that contain that feature, and then as you add more features it will narrow down until you've found the sign that you're looking for. And then, when you find the vocabulary that you're looking for, it appears in the main screen, and the ASL signs above are "term", "definition," and "example." So think about a dictionary entry, right? How do you pronounce the word, that shows up in a dictionary. This gives you the citation form of the sign, how it's uttered in ASL, and then you also will see its definition and an example sentence with that sign in it. In the right-hand pane, there are a series of windows that contain related content. So if you chose the sign for "atom", you would see in the right-hand pane all the lectures that contain that sign, "atom". So it's like a textbook in that you can explore and find interrelated content and start to build your knowledge-base in ASL just by going through the various possible connections that are available to you in ASL CLEAR. So teachers and students can use it for this purpose. You might notice this here which looks a little bit interesting. These are characters that we call graphemes, and it's how we annotate the sign. It represents the different parts of signs as I mentioned. The hand shapes, the locations, and the movements. So what do we do to develop this resource? How does our team get to that final version of the app that I just showed you? How do we get to the point where we're ready to release a sign, a lecture, a definition, and so on, to our community? So you'll notice the studio shots here. There's a real process of taking a close, hard look at a given concept, and also stepping back and thinking about how that concept is presented in a larger picture of a given STEM topic. And those discussions take a lot of time. We talk about the grammar and the structure of ASL. We talk about academic discourse. There are rules for academic discourse in ASL just like there are in any other language, right? When you write a paper, you don't just kind of scribble a few thoughts down. You think about how you structure it, you open it, you present the body and you present your arguments in support of whatever case you're making, and then you write a nice conclusion. So we do the same thing in ASL, in video form. And then when we're done with the video, there's a whole process of reviewing. We look at, does it make sense? Would it be understood by people in a different subject matter? You know, so our mathematicians review our science content, and vice versa. Do we need to edit it, do we need to make changes? As soon as it's really internally vetted and approved, then it's released to the public, and if there are any doubts or concerns, it's redone. So after that whole series of review processes and ultimately release, who do we release the content to? We release it to students, to teachers who work with deaf students who are in training, to interpreters. And through those trainings and through the kind of engagement with our end users we evaluate how well we're doing, you know. Is it working for them? Are they picking up the signs? Are they adopting them? Are they learning more effectively through them? And are these signs essentially serving as content placeholders that allow them to build on that knowledge more effectively, just like you having learned more complex academic language are able to build on your knowledge. So in sum, what we do with this application is we engage in various collaborations. We're working now with Harvard CIQM project. We also have worked with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association. We created a whole series of modules on estuaries, for example, and we didn't even have a sign for "estuary", so we had to start there, and then build a whole set of modules out of that. In the classroom, we teach folks how to use ASL CLEAR as an instructional support, and we're very, very excited about each and every one of these collaborations, and today in particular about the CIQM collaboration. We'd love to see every one of you become part of our community to help support the success of ASL CLEAR in any way that you would be interested in supporting. So I'd like to thank the CIQM team, the National Science Foundation, the Mass Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, who funded much of our early work, Boston University, the Learning Center for the Deaf, the project team, as well, who works on ASL CLEAR, and perhaps some of you in the long run, who will contribute in various ways. If you'd like to find out more information, you're always free to go to asleducation.org and aslClear.org is the actual app, but asleducation.org will give you a lot of information about the Center for Research and Training that is under the Learning Center for the Deaf, and what we do in terms of bilingual education and assessment and so on. The ASL CLEAR project, you know, we're looking for content experts always, but we're also looking for technical support, video support, so if you have any of those areas of expertise and you find this a compelling project, we hope to see you on our doorstep someday. I wish you all the best of luck with your internships and research, and thank you again for your time and attention. [From audience] Is the ASL CLEAR project a way to make an encyclopedia of ASL terms for scientific usage? Yeah. I think you could see at as in part an online dictionary. It is also an instructional resource. So if you think about a textbook where you can kind of understand the content and also get the glossary of specific terms, in that sense we're trying to capture all of that content in ASL, in video form. So it's not quite limited to being a dictionary or an encyclopedia. It's a little bit of both, but it's also a textbook, it's also an instructional resource that discusses STEM content in ASL. Yes. I see, yes, I see what you mean. On ASL Clear, if a student, let's say if a deaf student, is using the search function that I showed you at the top. Yeah, so if for example, like I showed you the sign for "atom", you search those two hand shapes. If you select one of the parent hand shapes, you'll get a set of sub hand shapes, and this would be the parent hand shape that then, let's say unfolds to five or six sub hand shapes. And those sub hand shapes are all permutations on the parent hand shapes. They're just, if you will, slight iterations of it. And so we find that because of the structure, people are able to conduct searches of the sign. You can use even simpler aspects of the linguistic elements, like the location of the sign. So if you think about ... this isn't a STEM word per se. I guess it could be, but the sign for "father" or "mother". They are exactly the same in ASL, except they're in two different locations. So you could choose the upper area of the head and you would get "father", and you could then use the hand shape that I've just shown, the "five" hand shape if you will. And just by getting those two features, you should land on the sign for "father" in a smaller array of signs and then be able to pick it out. And we do find that people are able to complete those kinds of searches in ASL CLEAR. Yes. Yeah, the technology is just not there yet. Actually, technology is just not ready for ASL in general, I have to say. Because often what happens is people who develop that kind of technology, if they don't fully understand ASL, they focus on the hands. And in focusing on the hands alone, you've lost about 60-80% of the language that occurs not on the hands. If I raise my eyebrows and I utter a sign, and then I lower my eyebrows and utter the same sign, it's a completely different sentence. Right. So all of those pieces need to be in place, right? And there have been numerous attempts, numerous attempts, and millions of dollars expended in the effort. And they often focus on the wrong things. They focus on the hands. They forget about the body, the face, and all the other elements of the language that need to be captured and then integrated it's not a linear language, it's a simultaneous language, so four or five things are happening at once, and all of those things need to be captured, processed, and then translated into English. Oh yes, you can be involved in our project. If you have experience with doing, I don't know, full staff development, back-end, front-end work, online design, web applications. If you have a good sense of visual design, we would love to talk to you. You could also, perhaps, contribute in ways that are beyond just the technical aspects, but more into the content area. Like, my team does not have a quantum materials expert. So if you wanted to help us develop, let's say our quantum materials module, we could certainly use your expertise. We have a math professor. We have a marine biologist. We have a microbiologist. But that doesn't give us the content expertise that you all bring. So with you and an interpreter in house, we could see what we needed to see to capture that concept in ASL, and then perhaps even have you review it with us. So concepts I think happen in a language-free way, and then we apply language to them in order to convey them to one another. So I see a lot of spaces in which you could be helpful, and I think you could probably even think outside the box. There are many ways that we haven't even imagined that folks could contribute to ASL CLEAR, or many directions that ASL CLEAR could go in that we haven't even thought about. So I think the most important piece is that we know that science is beyond language and all about language at the same time. So how do we collaborate to make that happen in the deaf community as well? We're very excited to be engaged in this new partnership with new possibilities. And we have two years to prove that we're worthy of more funding. It's always an ongoing adventure to maintain some parity in the many different communities represented in STEM, so we hope that this partnership continues forever. (Laugh). Okay, well thank you very much. Thank you all. Thank you.

Biography

Block was born in 1923 in Tulsa, Oklahoma.[1] She was raised in a small town in Oregon. After graduating from high school, she entered Oregon State University as a home economics major, but she was dissatisfied with her education. She joined SPARS, the women's branch of the United States Coast Guard, in 1944. While serving in World War II, Block was badly burned and nearly died. She was treated with skin grafts, and she was able to return to military service until 1946.[2]

After completing a psychology degree at Reed College, she attended graduate school at Stanford University.[2] At Stanford, Block met two mentors, Ernest Hilgard and Maud Merrill James. Hilgard wrote a popular general psychology textbook and co-wrote a textbook on learning theories, and he became president of the American Psychological Association.[3] James had been an associate of intelligence researcher Lewis Terman.[4] Block also met her future husband and research collaborator, Jack Block, during her time at Stanford.[2]

Pregnant at the time she finished her Ph.D. at Stanford in 1951, Block worked mostly part-time in the 1950s while she raised four children. Block and her husband created a person-centered personality theory that became popular among personality researchers. The theory examined personality in terms of two variables, ego-resiliency (the ability to respond flexibly to changing situations) and ego-control (the ability to suppress impulses).[5] In 1963, she was awarded a National Institute of Mental Health fellowship and she moved with her family to Norway for a year.[2] She joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1965.[6]

In the 1970s, Block published an analysis the sex-role socialization occurring in several groups of children in the United States and Northern Europe. Even across countries, boys were typically raised to be independent, high-achieving and unemotional, and girls were generally encouraged to express feelings, to foster close relationships and to pursue typical feminine ideals.[7]

Block was made a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and received the Hofheimer Prize for outstanding psychiatric research from the American Psychological Association (APA).[6] She was elected president of the APA Division of Developmental Psychology.[6] Block died on December 4, 1981.[8] She had been diagnosed with cancer earlier that year.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b "Jack and Jeanne Block". www.foundationpsp.org. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Lips, Hilary M. (2016). A New Psychology of Women: Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity, Fourth Edition. Waveland Press. pp. 182–183. ISBN 9781478633709.
  3. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (November 3, 2001). "Ernest R. Hilgard, leader in study of hypnosis, dies at 97". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  4. ^ O'Connell, Agnes N.; Russo, Nancy Felipe (1990). Women in Psychology: A Bio-bibliographic Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313260919.
  5. ^ Miller, Harold L. (2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology. SAGE. p. 703. ISBN 9781452256719.
  6. ^ a b c "Jeanne Humphrey Block, Psychology: Berkeley". University of California.
  7. ^ Rosenzweig, Mark R. (1974). Annual Review of Psychology. Popular Prakashan. p. 259. ISBN 9780824302252.
  8. ^ Helson, Ravenna (1983). "Obituary: Jeanne Block (1923-1981)". American Psychologist. 38 (3): 338–339. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.38.3.338.
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