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Javanese Surinamese

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Javanese Surinamese people
Total population
102,000 (2019)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Paramaribo: 23.670 (10%) · Wanica: 21.175 (18%) · Commewijne: 14.829 (47%)
Languages
Javanese · Dutch · Sranan Tongo · Indonesian
Religion
Islam 64.21%, Christianity 14.46%, Kejawèn 1.68%, Hinduism 0.8, No Religion 1.82%, Other 3.25%, Unknown 13.65%, Not Answered 0.13%
Related ethnic groups
Javanese · Javanese French Guianans

Javanese Surinamese people are an ethnic group of Javanese descent in Suriname. They have been present since the late 19th century, when their first members were selected as indentured laborers by the Dutch colonizers from the former Dutch East Indies.

History

Javanese immigrants from the Dutch East Indies, picture taken between 1880 and 1900.
Javanese immigrants from the Dutch East Indies, picture taken between 1880 and 1900.

After the abolition of slavery, the plantations in Suriname needed a new source of labor. In 1890, the influential Netherlands Trading Society, owner of the plantation Mariënburg in Suriname, undertook a test to attract Javanese indentured workers from the Dutch East Indies. Until then, primarily Indian indentured workers from British India worked at the Surinamese plantations as field and factory workers. On 9 August, the first Javanese arrived in Paramaribo. The test was considered successful and by 1894 the colonial government took over the task of recruiting Javanese hands. They came in small groups from the Dutch East Indies to the Netherlands, and from there to Paramaribo. The transport of Javanese immigrants continued until 1914 (except 1894) in two stages through Amsterdam.

Monument commemorating 100 years (1890-1990) of Javanese presence in Suriname. Sana Budaya, Paramaribo, Suriname.
Monument commemorating 100 years (1890-1990) of Javanese presence in Suriname. Sana Budaya, Paramaribo, Suriname.

The workers came from villages in Central and East Java. Departure points were Batavia, Semarang and Tandjong Priok. The recruited workers and their families awaited their departure in a depot, where they were inspected and registered and where they signed their contract.

The immigrants were recruited to work on the plantations. The exception was a group in 1904, when 77 Javanese were recruited specifically to work at the Colonial Railways. From World War I Javanese also worked at the Suriname Bauxite Company in Moengo. Immigration continued until 13 December 1939. The outbreak of World War Two ended transplantation schemes.

Population

A total of 32,965 Javanese immigrants went to Suriname. In 1954, 8,684 Javanese returned to Indonesia, with the rest remaining in Suriname. The census of 1972 counted 57,688 Javanese in Suriname, and in 2004 there were 71,879. In addition, in 2004 more than 60,000 people of mixed descent were recorded, with an unknown number of part Javanese descent.

Diaspora

In 1953, a large group of 300 families (1,200 people), led by Salikin Hardjo, went back to Indonesia on the ship Langkuas of the Royal Rotterdam Lloyd. They intended to settle in Java or Lampung, but their request was not approved by the Indonesian government, and instead they were sent to West Sumatra. They established the village of Tongar, also referred to as Tongass in Kabupaten Pasaman, north of Padang, clearing land and building new houses. They integrated smoothly with the Minangkabau community, despite the fact that most of the Javanese were Christian. Marriages with the mainly Muslim Minangkabau were common. The current generation is said to identify more as Indonesian than Surinamese, but still maintain contacts with family and friends in Suriname and the Netherlands, sometimes traveling to those countries.

In the 1970s, 20-25,000 Javanese Surinamese went to the Netherlands. They settled mainly in and around cities such as Groningen, Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam and Zoetermeer. They are well integrated into Dutch society, but preserve their Javanese identity through associations and regularly organized meetings. Most still have relatives in Suriname and send remittances, and regularly visit Suriname.

Notable people

References

  1. ^ "Suriname". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 18 December 2019.
  • Bersselaar, van den, D., H. Ketelaars, 1991, De komst van contractarbeiders uit Azië: Hindoestanen en Javanen in Suriname, Leiden, ISBN 90-5292-037-0
  • Breunissen, K., 2001, Ik heb Suriname altijd liefgehad: het leven van de Javaan Salikin Hardjo, Leiden, ISBN 90-6718-183-8
  • Bruin, de, H., 1990, Javanen in Suriname, Paramaribo
  • Derveld, F.E.R., 1982, Politieke mobilisatie en integratie van de Javanen in Suriname : Tamanredjo en de Surinaamse nationale politiek, Groningen: Bouma's boekhandel, ook verschenen als proefschrift Leiden, ISBN 90-6088-078-1
  • Grasveld, Fons en Klaas Breunissen, 1990, Ik ben een Javaan uit Suriname, Hilversum: Stichting Ideële Filmprodukties, ISBN 90-900360-0-8
  • Hardjomohamed, R., 1998, Javanese female immigrants in the historiography of Suriname, Suriname
  • Hoefte, R., 1990, De betovering verbroken: de migratie van Javanen naar Suriname en het rapport-Van Vleuten (1909), Dordrecht, ISBN 90-6765-458-2
  • Hoefte, R., 1998, In place of slavery: a social history of British Indian and Javanese laborers in Suriname, Gainesville, ISBN 0-8130-1625-8
  • Jorna, E., 1985, "Naar een land van melk en honing?": Javaanse emigratie naar Suriname 1890-1917, Leiden, doctoraalscriptie
  • Kempen, M. van, 2003, 'Javanen'. In: Een geschiedenis van de Surinaamse literatuur. Breda: De Geus, pp. 197–209. (overzicht van de Surinaams-Javaanse orale literatuur)
  • Mangoenkarso, P.P., 2002, De eerste 94 Javanen op plantage Mariënburg in Suriname, Rijswijk
  • Mitrassing, F.E.M., 1990, Etnologische trilogie: Suriname: Creolen, Hindostanen, Javanen: gedenkschriften, Paramaribo
  • Mulder, K., 1987, Reserve-arbeid in een reserve-kolonie: immigratie en kolonisatie van de Javanen in Suriname 1890-1950, Rotterdam, doctoraalscriptie.
  • Six-Oliemuller, B.J.F.G., 1998, Aziaten vergeleken: Hindoestanen en Javanen in Suriname, 1870-1875, Leiden, doctoraalscriptie
  • Suparlan, P., 1995, The Javanese in Suriname: ethnicity in an ethnically plural society, Tempe
  • Vruggink, Hein i.s.m. John Sarmo, 2001, Surinaams-Javaans - Nederlands Woordenboek, KITLV Uitgeverij, Leiden, ISBN 90-6718-152-8
  • Waal Malefijt, de, A., 1963, The Javanese of Surinam, Assen
  • Waal Malefijt, de, A., 1960, The Javanese population of Surinam, Colombia
  • Wengen, van, G.D., 1975, The cultural inheritance of the Javanese in Surinam, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-04365-9
  • Winden, van der, Y., 1978, Javanen in Suriname: bibliografie van publicaties verschenen over de Javaanse bevolkingsgroep in Suriname, Den Haag
  • Villerius, S. E. (2019). Development of Surinamese Javanese: Language contact and change in a multilingual context (Ph.D. thesis). Radboud University. hdl:2066/199947. ISBN 978-94-6093-313-4.

External links

This page was last edited on 19 January 2022, at 00:43
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