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Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jammu and Kashmir

1846–1952
Map of Kashmir
Map of Kashmir
StatusPrincely state
CapitalSrinagar
Jammu
Common languagesKashmiri, Dogri, Ladakhi, Balti, Shina, Pahari-Pothwari, Gujari, Kundal Shahi, Bhaderwahi, Burushaski, Brokskat, Domaaki, Khowar, Bateri, Purgi, Zangskari, Tibetan, Punjabi, Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Sanskrit
Religion
Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism
GovernmentPrincely state
Maharaja 
• 16 March 1846 – 30 June 1857
Gulab Singh (first)
• 23 September 1925 – 17 November 1952
Hari Singh (last)
Dewan 
• 15 October 1947 – 5 March 1948
Mehr Chand Mahajan (first)
• 5 March 1948 – 17 November 1952
Sheikh Abdullah (last)
History 
1846
• Independence from British India
15 Aug 1947
22 Oct 1947
• Accession to the Indian Union
26–27 Oct 1947
• Constitutional state of India
17 November 1952
• Disestablished
1952
Area 
• Total
85,885[1] sq mi (222,440 km2)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sikh Empire
British Raj
Interim Government of India
Jammu and Kashmir (state)
Azad Kashmir
Gilgit-Baltistan
Today part ofJammu and Kashmir (India)
Ladakh (India)
Azad Kashmir (Pakistan)
Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan)
Hotan County (China)
Kargilik County (China)

Jammu and Kashmir, also known as Kashmir and Jammu,[2] was a princely state during the British East India Company rule as well as the British Raj in India from 1846 to 1947. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, when the East India Company, which had annexed the Kashmir Valley,[3] Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs as war indemnity, then sold the region to the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, for rupees 75 lakh. (75,00,000)

At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India, Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the State followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October 1947, Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir, to engage the Pakistan-supported forces.[4] The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory stayed under Indian control, later becoming the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir.[5]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ How was India Formed | Princely States and Jammu and Kashmir
  • ✪ Facts you never knew about Jammu and Kashmir
  • ✪ Jammu & Kashmir - In depth | History, Religion, Politics, British role, Article 370, 35a
  • ✪ #Kashmir#HariSingh#Pakisthan#Pashtun#OperationGulmarg#कश्मीर Kashmir Issue before The Freedom (1947)
  • ✪ Princely States of India emerging together as Nation: Rare Footage

Transcription

Hey Everybody, my name is Priya and you are watching Finology Legal! This is current political India map, in which there are 29 states and 7 union territories. Before 2019 map, 1956 map had come which talks about how states was divided on the base of lingustic way. Before 1956 map, 1950 map had come in which we enacted the Constitution. But...In today's video we will see this map.The whole area is British India. Now will talk about boundaries and territories.. So British India and Afghanistan was separated through this line which called as "Durand Line" - it was created by 1893. Now lets talk about 1947 and the importance of 1947. What is the importance of 1947? 15th august 1947 we got our independence. How territories of British India will be divided? British India which part will become India and Pakistan. All this thing was decided by Mountbatten Plan,1947. Mountbatten Plan had two objectives. First Objective: British India was divided into India and Pakistan two dominance. Second objective: In British India, which are the Princely states. So, what will happen with Princely sates? Princely states territories will come under India or Pakistan that has to decided. Now British Government or Muslim Leak decided that the area in which Muslim Population is more.So, that are will go to Pakistan. After hearing all this thing Mountbatten Plan was created of 1947. Mountbatten Plan was enacted by British Parliament passed the Indian Parliament Act, 1947. According to which India and Pakistan named to dominance was going to be created. In this plan, the biggest problem was created in Punjab and Bengal provinces. Because in this two provinces, the population Hindu and Muslim was equal. So, to create the boundaries in this area. Two boundary commission was appointed. Boundary commission was appointed for Punjab and Bengal. Both the boundary commission head was Sir Cyril Radcliffe, who reached India on 18th August 1947. By hearing this all things, we feel the work is very easy. Let's know what difficulties had been faced? First problem, was limited time. In both the areas the boundary has to be created within 5 weeks. Second problem, limited expertise. Before, this Sir Cyril Radcliffe never came to India. So, Sir Cyril Radcliffe was not aware about Indian cultural differences or existing religious tension of India. Third problem and most important problem was that to create the two boundary. Sir Cyril Radcliffe was provided maps and census report was given it is not precised and was outdated. So, 14th August, 1947 Pakistan and 15th August,1947 India. They both got there independence's. Two separate nation was existing. Both the country demaracted by the separate boundary which was released after two days of independence on 17th August, 1947. This both the line is called "Radcliffe Line". This was the Mounbatten Plan or Indian Independence first objective, for creating India and Pakistan country. Let's know, the second objectives of Mountbatten Plan. 17th august 1947 India and Pakistan map seen like this. In this map green color signifies the territory which was princely states according to Mountbatten plan or Indian Independence Act. Princely sate have the option that, they can join India or Pakistan or declare themselves as independent state. So, the Princely state was to be integrated in India and it was big task. Princely state was integrated in India and people join to integrate it like Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, V.P. Menon and Jawaharlal Nehru and Lord Mountbatten was helping in this work. All the tehnics had been used. So, that Princely state can be integrated in India. Had a talk with all the Maharaja's and negotiation had been done. Do you know Negotiation has a approach i.e."Carrot and Stick approach". In this case how we had applied the Carrot and Stick approach. On one hand we are talking about incentives . We uses to say that, the kings was integrate in India. we will give you lots of incentives. Incentives like "Privy Purse". Privy Purse is a kind of a fund, in which we say that after joining India. we will provide you fund for maintenance and expenditure. This was incentive or carrot. Now talk about stick. In Stick , the Princely state which from Radcliffe line was at the side of India. Radcliffe Line who was at the side of India and if you will not integrated in India. If you not join the India. So, India will take military action against Princely State. Totally Pakistan and India had 565 Princely State. India has 552 Princely State and Pakistan has 13 Princely state. From this 552 states, we had signed the "Instrument of Accession" with 549 states and they became the part of India. Instrument of Accession is like a treaty between Indian Government and Maharaja of Princely State. In this treaty, there is an condition on which bases Princely State will integrate with India. Like Indian Government offer Privy Purse to Princely State. Princely State on that behalf join India. Princely State say that it will fully adopt Indian Constitution. Total 549 states to join India had signed Instrument of Accession. 3 state which was not able to be integrated in India were Jungarh, Hyderbad and Jammu & Kashmir. Let see, what problem this states were facing? In Jungarh, the Nazam was Muslim but, most of the population was Hindu in majority. The Nazam had to go Pakistan and the population had to become the part of India. Due to this Jungarh had done referendum. Referendum is a voting system, in which people decide they want to become the part of India or Pakistan. So, the referendum happened in Jungarh from this it was decided that Jungarh will become part of India. Let's talk about Hyderbad Amongst the Princely State the Hyderbad was the richest and the biggest state. Hyderbad problem was different. The Nazam of Hyderbad neither want join Pakistan or India. The Nazam want to establish Hyderbad as an Independent State. During the time of Independence, the whole nation was facing religious tension, lawlesseness or lootmaar was going on and that similar thing was happening in Hyderbad. Hyderbad forces was not able to control the lawlessness. So, to help Hyderbad the Indian Government mainly Sadar Vallabhbhai Patel lauch "Operation Polo". In Operation Polo the neighbouring state was sending the police for assisting them. Due to this 19th September 1948, Indian Government signed the Instrument of association with Nazam of Hyderbad. Hyderbad is integrated in India. Let's talk about the 3rd state i.e., Kashmir. After independence, when we were making our Constitution because of which acts as a protector of Rights Before this J&K is that princely state which had their own legislation and on the bases of those legislation, the citizen of J&K was getting lots of rights and protection already. From those rights and protection, there was one right i.e., Right to property. When J&K was to be integrated in India or had to adopt the Indian Constitution and one question has been raised. Along with the question to adopt, another question was raised that right to property which was available to them from before will be their right only. Right to Property will be open to other citizens of India. The problem in Kashmir was as similar with Jungar and Hyderbad. Kashmir majority population was Muslim but, the Raja was Hindu. When Mountbatten Plan was made created. Many people thought that Kashmir will become part of Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh signed a Standstill agreement with India and Pakistan.It means that, Maharaja neither he want to become part of India nor Pakistan. Maharaja want to keep J&K as Independent state. On October 1947, Pakistan slowly started sending his army towards the Kashmir and started occupying the territory of Kashmir and tried to remove the Maharaja from its post. Maharaja Hari Singh got scared and ask assistance from Indian Government. But, Indian government ask on what basis or on what position or relation we should give you the assistance and you are not the part of India. On 26th October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh and Indian government signed Instrument of Accession. J&K became part of India. After signing of IOA Indian Government send his army to J&K and remove Pakistan forces. The result of the war is that in 1st January 1949 both the country had an agreement of ceasefire had been signed. The result of Ceasefire agreement is LOC [Line of Control]. It was decided that, both the country army, how much terrority has been occupied. So, that terrority will be occupied by respected country. J&K 2/3rd part was with India and 1/3rd part was with Pakistan. After signing Instrument Of Accession J&K new leader was Sheikh Abdullah. Instrument of Accession is an treaty, in which lots of conditions and on which bases integration is happening. When Kashmir agreement happened, we signed Instrument of Accession. So, why IOA is so different and and how Article 35A and Article 370 came in existence. We will discuss the existence of Article 35A and Article 370 on the second part of the video.

Contents

Rulers

S.no Name Reign Ref
1. Gulab Singh 1846–1857 [1]
2. Ranbir Singh 1857–1885 [1]
3. Pratap Singh 1885–1925 [1]
4. Hari Singh 1925–1948 [1]
5. Karan Singh (Prince Regent) 1948–1952

Administration

According to the census reports of 1911, 1921 and 1931, the administration was organised as follows:[6][7]

In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given:[6]

Prime Ministers

# Name Took Office Left Office
1 Raja Hari Singh 1925 1927
2 Sir Albion Banerjee January 1927 March 1929
3 G. E. C. Wakefield 1929 1931
4 Hari Krishan Kaul[8] 1931 1932
5 Elliot James Dowell Colvin[8] 1932 1936
6 Sir Barjor J. Dalal 1936 1936
7 Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar 1936 July 1943
8 Kailash Narain Haksar July 1943 February 1944
9 Sir B. N. Rau February 1944 28 June 1945
10 Ram Chandra Kak 28 June 1945 11 August 1947
11 Janak Singh 11 August 1947 15 October 1947
12 Mehr Chand Mahajan 15 October 1947 5 March 1948
13 Sheikh Abdullah 5 March 1948 17 November 1952

Geography

1909 map showing Kashmir
1909 map showing Kashmir

The area of the state extended from 32° 17' to 36° 58' N and from 73° 26' to 80° 30' E.[9] Jammu was the southernmost part of the state and was adjacent to the Punjab districts of Jhelum, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Gurdaspur. There is a fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is known as the Kandi, the home of the Chibs and the Dogras. To travel north, a range of mountains 8,000 feet (2,400 m) high must be climbed.

This is a temperate country with forests of oak, rhododendron, chestnut, and higher up, of deodar and pine, a country of uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the Himalayan range, known as the Pir Panjal, lead to the second story, on which rests the valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum river.[9]

Steeper parts of the Himalayas lead to Astore and Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a tract drained by the river Indus. To the northwest, lies Gilgit, west and north of the Indus. The whole area is shadowed by a wall of giant mountains that run east from the Kilik or Mintaka passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs and the Chinese dominions past Rakaposhi (25,561 ft), along the Muztagh range past K2 (Godwin-Austen Glacier, 28,265 feet), Gasherbrum and Masherbrum (28,100 and 28,561 feet (8,705 m) respectively) to the Karakoram range which merges in the Kunlun Mountains. Westward of the northern angle above Hunza and Nagar, the maze of mountains and glaciers trends a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral and so on into the limits of Kafiristan and Afghan territory.[9]

Transport

There used to be a route from Kohala to Leh; it was possible to travel from Rawalpindi via Kohala and over the Kohala Bridge into Kashmir. The route from Kohala to Srinagar was a cart-road 132 miles (212 km) in length. From Kohala to Baramulla the road was close to the River Jhelum. At Muzaffarabad the Kishenganga River joins the Jhelum and at this point the road from Abbottabad and Garhi Habibullah meet the Kashmir route. The road carried heavy traffic and required expensive maintenance by the authorities to repair.[10]

Flooding

In 1893, after 52 hours of continuous rain, very serious flooding took place in the Jhelum valley and much damage was done to Srinagar. The floods of 1903 were much more severe, a great disaster.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e David P. Henige (2004). Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers. Orchid Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-974-524-049-0.
  2. ^ "Kashmir and Jammu", Imperial Gazetteer of India, Secretary of State for India in Council: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 15: 71–, 1908
  3. ^ Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 111–125.
  4. ^ "Q&A: Kashmir dispute - BBC News".
  5. ^ Bose, Sumantra (2003). Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Harvard University Press. pp. 32–37. ISBN 0-674-01173-2.
  6. ^ a b Karim, Maj Gen Afsir (2013), Kashmir The Troubled Frontiers, Lancer Publishers LLC, pp. 29–32, ISBN 978-1-935501-76-3
  7. ^ Behera, Demystifying Kashmir 2007, p. 15.
  8. ^ a b Copland, Ian (1981), "Islam and Political Mobilization in Kashmir, 1931-34", Pacific Affairs, 54 (2): 228–259, JSTOR 2757363
  9. ^ a b c "Kashmir and Jammu" Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 72.
  10. ^ "Kashmir and Jammu" Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 79.
  11. ^ "Kashmir and Jammu" Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 15, p. 89

Bibliography

This article incorporates text from the Imperial Gazetteer of India, a publication now in the public domain.

This page was last edited on 12 January 2020, at 16:30
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