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Jamie Whitten
Jamie L. Whitten.jpg
42nd Dean of the United States House of Representatives
In office
January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1995
Preceded byGeorge H. Mahon
Succeeded byJohn Dingell
Chair of the House Appropriations Committee
In office
January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1993
SpeakerTip O'Neill
Jim Wright
Tom Foley
Preceded byGeorge H. Mahon
Succeeded byWilliam Natcher
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Mississippi
In office
November 4, 1941 – January 3, 1995
Preceded byWall Doxey
Succeeded byRoger Wicker
Constituency2nd district (1941–73)
1st district (1973–95)
Member of the
Mississippi House of Representatives
In office
1931–1932
Personal details
Born
Jamie Lloyd Whitten

(1910-04-18)April 18, 1910
Cascilla, Mississippi, U.S.
DiedSeptember 9, 1995(1995-09-09) (aged 85)
Oxford, Mississippi, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic

Jamie Lloyd Whitten (April 18, 1910 – September 9, 1995) was an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who represented the Deep South state of Mississippi in the United States House of Representatives from 1941 to 1995. He was at the time of his departure the longest-serving U.S. Representative ever. He is the longest-serving member of Congress ever from Mississippi. He was a New Deal liberal in economic matters, and took a leading role in Congress in forming national policy and spending regarding agriculture.

Early life, education, and early career

Jamie Whitten was born in Cascilla, Mississippi. He attended local public schools and the University of Mississippi where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He worked as a school teacher and principal and was elected as a Democrat to the Mississippi House of Representatives, where he served in 1931 and 1932. He attained admission to the bar in 1932, and from 1933 to 1941 he was District Attorney of Mississippi's 17th District, which included his home county of Tallahatchie.

U.S. House of Representatives

Elections

In 1941, Whitten was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in a special election to represent the state's 2nd District, in the northern part of the state. The seat had come open as a result of incumbent Congressman Wall Doxey's election to the United States Senate. He was elected to a full term in 1942 and was re-elected 25 more times.

In 1966, Whitten faced a challenge from Seelig Wise, a cotton and soybean farmer from Coahoma County, the first Republican to be elected to the Mississippi State Senate since Reconstruction. Whitten won easily, and Wise was defeated for reelection to the state Senate in 1967, as the second Rubel Phillips gubernatorial campaign went down to crushing defeat statewide.[1]

Whitten's district was renumbered as the 1st District after the 1970 Census.

Tenure as leader in agricultural policy

Whitten had the support of the Democratic caucus and served as chair of the Appropriations subcommittee on agriculture (1949-1978, except 1953-54). He was chair of the entire committee 1979-1992. Throughout that period he had a decisive voice on agricultural spending and to a large extent on policies.[2]
In 1977 his subcommittee lost control of environmental issues. He lost his influence after suffering a debilitating stroke in February 1992.[3] As a champion for American farmers, he fought against the FDA's early 1970s recommendation of restricting the use of antibiotics in livestock.He required that scientists prove the danger of antibiotic use.[4]
Whitten was a New Dealer who supported most liberal spending issues. He supported distribution of free food to the poor from surplus commodity stocks, school lunch programs and food stamps in coalition with urban Democrats.[5] In the 1980s he clashed with the conservative Reagan administration on policy matters. He voted against Reagan's economic plans, tax cuts, increased defense spending, balanced budget initiative, tort reform, welfare reform, abortion restrictions, missile defense system, and the Persian Gulf War. Although Whitten represented a district that grew increasingly suburban and Republican from the 1970s onward, his opposition to Reagan's program did not affect him at the ballot box. Indeed, his seniority and popularity resulted in his facing only "sacrificial lamb" opponents on the occasions he faced any opposition at all, even in years when Republican presidential candidates carried the district in landslides. Nonetheless, it was taken for granted that he would be succeeded by a Republican when he retired.
Whitten was originally a segregationist, as were many of his colleagues from Mississippi and the rest of the South. He signed the Southern Manifesto condemning the U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown vs. Board of Education, which desegregated public schools. Along with virtually the entire Mississippi congressional delegation, he voted against the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960, 1964, 1965 and 1968. Whitten later apologized for these votes, calling them a "mistake" caused by severe misjudgment. He voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1991.
Declining to run for reelection to a historic 28th term in 1994, Whitten retired from the House as America's longest-serving Congressman (53 years and two months). He retired to his home in Oxford, Mississippi and died there on September 9, 1995, aged 85, eight months. His service from November 4, 1941, to January 3, 1995 set a record for length of service in the House, which remained unbroken until February 11, 2009, when Michigan Congressman John Dingell surpassed it. Whitten is also the 5th longest-serving Congressman (House and/or Senate) behind Daniel Inouye, Carl T. Hayden, Robert Byrd and John Dingell.

Throughout most of his tenure in the House, Whitten served on the Appropriations Committee, ultimately serving as Chairman from the 1979 retirement of George H. Mahon until newly-elected Democrats in the House Democratic Caucus removed him in favor of William Huston Natcher after the 1992 election. In 1985, when then-junior Appropriations Committee member Dick Durbin spoke with Chairman Whitten about possibly sitting on the Budget Committee, Whitten told him, "Well, if you want to be on that committee, you can be on that committee, but I want you to remember one thing, the Budget Committee deals in hallucinations and the Appropriations Committee deals in facts."[6] While on the floor of the Senate on March 21, 2018, now Senator Durbin referred to that quote from Whitten as "Whitten's Law," which implies that the Budget Committee is a political branch that makes budget promises while the Appropriations Committee is obliged to either make or break those promises during the budget-making process.

Impact on constituents

Whitten has been criticized for using his position to advance the interests of his peers—rich white cotton farmers—while holding back poor blacks: "Whitten’s power and influence allowed his district to receive $23.5 million dollars in individual federal farm subsidies to reduce acreage in cotton production, which only went [to] .3 percent of the population, while constituents who lived below the poverty threshold, approximately 59 percent, received only $4 million dollars in federal food relief aid. Such imbalances perpetuated poverty, food insecurity, hunger, and malnutrition, and infuriated civil rights activists who understood the centrality of federal food relief to the diets of Whitten’s impoverished constituents—mostly displaced Black farmers, sharecroppers, or day-laborers. Moreover, Whitten’s maneuverings also killed a federal program designed to teach displaced Black sharecroppers and farmworkers how to drive tractors during Orville Freeman’s tenure as the US Secretary of Agriculture."(Mississippi's War Against the War on Poverty)

Publications

Whitten authored That We May Live, written largely as a pro-development, pro-chemical pesticide answer to Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, the seminal 1962 book that helped spur the modern environmental movement.[7]

Honors

The Jamie Whitten Historical Site is located at the bridge of the Natchez Trace Parkway over the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, two projects that Whitten had successfully fought to fund over his house tenure, overcoming strong opposition from conservatives to their construction using federal funds.

In June 1995, Congress renamed the main headquarters building of the United States Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC the Jamie L. Whitten Building in his honor.[8]

The Beta Beta chapter of Beta Theta Pi fraternity at the University of Mississippi has named their leadership award after brother Whitten. Each year one graduating brother is selected to receive the award based on his leadership and commitment to the chapter, university, and community.

References

  1. ^ Billy Hathorn, "Challenging the Status Quo: Rubel Lex Phillips and the Mississippi Republican Party (1963-1967)", The Journal of Mississippi History XLVII, November 1985, No. 4, p. 262
  2. ^ Sidney E. Brown, "An Analysis of the Federal Extension Service Appropriations," Journal of the Northeastern Agricultural Economics Council vol 8 (April 1979) DOI: 10.1017/s0163548400004611
  3. ^ Michael Barone and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 1996 (1995) pp. 751–752.
  4. ^ "FDA, farmers still debate the use of antibiotics in animals". Washington Post. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  5. ^ Senate Appropriations Committee, Agriculture-environmental and Consumer Protection Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1975, Hearings Before ... 93-2 Parts 8-9 (1974) pp 219, 224 online
  6. ^ 164 Cong. Rec. S1881 (daily ed. March 21, 2018) (statement of Sen. Durbin) https://www.congress.gov/crec/2018/03/21/CREC-2018-03-21-pt1-PgS1881.pdf
  7. ^ "Jamie L. Whitten Collection, Series 23: That We May Live" (PDF). University of Mississippi Library and Archives. Retrieved 2019-09-20.
  8. ^ "Histories of the USDA Headquarters Complex Buildings". U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2004. Archived from the original on 2009-04-25. Retrieved 2009-05-10.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Wall Doxey
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Mississippi's 2nd congressional district

1941–1973
Succeeded by
David R. Bowen
Preceded by
Thomas G. Abernethy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Mississippi's 1st congressional district

1973–1995
Succeeded by
Roger F. Wicker
Honorary titles
Preceded by
George H. Mahon
Dean of the House
1979–1995
Succeeded by
John Dingell
This page was last edited on 26 March 2021, at 02:08
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