To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

James Michael Curley

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James Michael Curley
James Michael Curley.jpg
41st, 43rd, 45th, 48th Mayor of Boston
In office
January 7, 1946[1] – January 2, 1950[2]
Preceded byJohn E. Kerrigan
Succeeded byJohn Hynes
In office
January 6, 1930[3] – January 1, 1934[4]
Preceded byMalcolm Nichols
Succeeded byFrederick Mansfield
In office
February 6, 1922[5] – January 4, 1926[6]
Preceded byAndrew James Peters
Succeeded byMalcolm Nichols
In office
February 2, 1914[7] – February 4, 1918[8]
Preceded byJohn F. Fitzgerald
Succeeded byAndrew James Peters
53rd Governor of Massachusetts
In office
January 3, 1935 – January 7, 1937
LieutenantJoseph L. Hurley
Preceded byJoseph B. Ely
Succeeded byCharles F. Hurley
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts
In office
March 4, 1911 – February 4, 1914
January 3, 1943 – January 3, 1947
Preceded byJoseph F. O'Connell (10th)
John W. Weeks (12th)
Thomas A. Flaherty (11th)
Succeeded byWilliam Francis Murray (10th)
James A. Gallivan (12th)
John F. Kennedy (11th)
Constituency10th district (1911–13)
12th district (1913–14)
11th district (1943–47)
Member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives
from the 4th Suffolk district
In office
1902–1903
Personal details
Born(1874-11-20)November 20, 1874
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
DiedNovember 12, 1958(1958-11-12) (aged 83)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Mary Emelda Herlihy
(m. 1906; died 1930)

Gertrude Casey
(m. 1937)
Children9 children
2 stepsons
ProfessionPolitician[9]

James Michael Curley (November 20, 1874 – November 12, 1958) was an American Democratic Party politician from Boston, Massachusetts. One of the most colorful figures in Massachusetts politics in the first half of the 20th century, Curley served four terms as Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, including part of one while in prison. He also served a single term as Governor of Massachusetts, characterized by one biographer as "a disaster mitigated only by moments of farce",[10] for its free spending and corruption.

Curley was immensely popular with working-class Roman Catholic Irish Americans in Boston, among whom he grew up and became active in ward politics. During the Great Depression, he enlarged Boston City Hospital, expanded the city's public transit system (now the MBTA), funded projects to improve the roads and bridges, and improved the neighborhoods with beaches and bathhouses, playgrounds and parks, public schools and libraries, all the while collecting graft and raising taxes. He became a leading and at times divisive force in the state's Democratic Party, contesting for power with its White Anglo-Saxon Protestant leadership at the local and state levels, and with Boston's ward bosses. He served two terms in the United States Congress, and was regularly a candidate for a variety of local and state offices for half a century. He was twice convicted of crimes, and notably served time for a felony conviction related to earlier corruption during his last term as mayor.

His political tactics, which tended to drive businesses and economically successful people from the city, damaging the local economy, have become a source of study for economists and political scientists.

Biography

Early life

James Michael Curley was born in Boston's Roxbury neighborhood in 1874. Curley's father Michael left Oughterard,[11] County Galway, Ireland, at age 14, and settled in Roxbury, where he met Curley's mother, Sarah Clancy, also from County Galway.[12] Roxbury, originally an independent city, was annexed to Boston in 1868, and Michael Curley worked as a day laborer and foot soldier for ward boss P. James "Pea-Jacket" Maguire.[13]

Michael Curley died in 1884, when James was ten.[14] James and his brother John worked to supplement the meager family income, while James took classes at the local public school.[15] His mother is likely responsible for instilling in him the strain of generosity that would make up a significant part of his public personality.[16] He left school at fifteen, beginning a series of jobs, including factory work and delivery jobs, the latter of which exposed him to large parts of the growing city. He sought to pass the civil service exam to become a fire fighter, but was too young to take the job.[17] Curley's mother continually intervened to turn him away from his father's unsavory associates while working at a job scrubbing floors in offices and churches all over Boston.[18]

The combination of his mother instilling good hard working values, while he watched his mother's back-breaking work and struggle against a backdrop of semi-criminal political graft in ward politics, influenced Curley's attitude toward the poor and the utility of political organizing for the rest of his life.

The Curley House on 350 Jamaicaway, Jamaica Plain was designated a landmark by the Boston Landmarks Commission in 1989.

Political rise

As Curley came of age, Boston's politics were those of growing Irish power, a trend that was opposed by existing Yankee Protestant powers. Curley involved himself in both the local Roman Catholic church, and in the Ancient Order of Hibernians, a fraternal benefit society that assisted Irish immigrants and poor, and acquired a reputation as a hustler who was willing to help others get ahead. His entrance into politics included the traditional practice of ward politics such as knocking on doors, drumming up votes, and taking complaints. He first ran for the city common council in 1897 and 1898, failing to make the cutoff for a Democratic nomination in ward caucuses each year. Curley claimed because he was at the time outside the political machine, he was denied victory by corrupt counting of the votes.[19] Curley was successful in 1899, by joining the machine faction controlled by Charles I. Quirk.[20]

State Representative

He won election to the state legislature in 1901, and rose in the Democratic organization of Ward 17 to become its chairman. He established the Tammany Club (named in a nod to the New York City Tammany Hall political club) as a platform for his personal political activities, including speechmaking and assisting needy constituents.[21] Curley would recount stories of the ward's poor and needy lining up outside the club to ask for assistance in securing work or subsistance.[22] In his first two years on the common council, Curley placed roughly 700 people into what were essentially patronage positions.[23] His reputation as an urban populist earned him the unofficial title, "Mayor of the Poor".[24]

First arrest

Curley's first public notoriety came when he was elected to Boston's board of aldermen in 1904 while in prison on a fraud conviction. Curley and an associate, Thomas Curley (no relation), took the civil service exams for postmen in place of two men in their district to help them get the jobs with the federal government. Though the incident gave him a dark reputation in Boston's non-Irish circles, it aided his image among the Irish American working class and poor because they saw him as a man willing to stick his neck out to help those in need. During that election, his campaign slogan was, "he did it for a friend."[25] He would also quickly gain a reputation for taking kickbacks in exchange for his support.[26][27]

James Michael Curley during his first term as a Member of Congress in 1912
James Michael Curley during his first term as a Member of Congress in 1912

In 1910, while a member of Boston's board of aldermen, Curley decided to run for the 10th District U.S. congressional seat then occupied by Joseph F. O'Connell. He made this run even though he actually wanted to be mayor, because John "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald wanted to reclaim that seat. In exchange, Fitzgerald promised not to run for reelection after a single four-year term.[28] In the previous election for the seat, O'Connell won by a four-vote margin over his Republican opponent,[29] ex-City Clerk J. Mitchel Galvin.[30] In a three-way primary among O'Connell, Curley, and O'Connell's predecessor William S. McNary, Curley defeated O'Connell[31] and McNary. After winning the nomination of the Democratic Party Curley went on to win the general election by a substantial plurality over Galvin, who was again the Republican nominee.[29]

Mayor of Boston

Curley's election as Mayor of Boston in January 1914 marked his consolidation of control over the city's politics, which he would retain until 1950, serving four separate terms (1914–1918, 1922–1926, 1930–1934 and 1946–1950),[32] and always having influence even when he wasn't in that office. His first election was marked by a battle against Honey Fitz, who had opted to run for reelection despite his earlier promise not to. Curley secured Fitzgerald's exit from the race by threatening to expose a dalliance the older man had had with a cigarette girl in a Boston gambling den. Curley's role in this was abetted by Daniel H. Coakley, a lawyer of dubious morals whose specialties included extortion and buying off prosecutors to bury criminal charges against his clients.[33]

Curley's first term included his family moving into a luxurious house in Jamaica Plain, which was plainly beyond the means of a typical civil servant's salary. Begun in 1915, the twenty-plus room mansion was apparently built by contractors seeking favors from Curley, the work frequently recorded as "no charge". Curley's finances were regularly investigated by the Boston Finance Commission, a body dominated by hostile Protestant Republicans, but he eluded legal charges in part through the intervention of Coakley.[34] He was also able to effectively muzzle investigations by the local press by threatening libel charges against offending media. In one notable incident, he also physically assaulted the publisher of the Boston Telegraph for publishing unflattering articles.[35]

In his first term Curley embarked on a series of public improvements, a practice he continued in his later terms as mayor. Projects included the development of recreational facilities throughout the poorer parts of the city, expansion of its public transit systems, and an enlargement of Boston City Hospital. He accomplished this with little regard to city finances, raising property taxes and securing loans from city banks, sometimes by threatening city inspectional actions against bank facilities. He deliberately tweaked the sensibilities of the Protestant "good government" advocates, suggesting that the Boston Public Garden be sold off, and that the Shirley-Eustis House be razed for failing to meet modern codes.[36]

Curley's attempt at reelection was foiled by Martin Lomasney, the boss of Boston's West End. Lomasney, a longtime opposition figure to Curley in the city, orchestrated the entry of an Irish-American candidate into the 1917 mayoral race, who successfully siphoned enough votes away from Curley to hand victory to Andrew J. Peters.[37] In 1918, the state legislature acted to curb the ability of Curley to entrench himself in the mayoralty by enacting legislation forbidding Boston mayors from holding consecutive terms.[38]

Governor of Massachusetts

James Michael Curley during his second term as Mayor of Boston in 1922
James Michael Curley during his second term as Mayor of Boston in 1922

When Curley was denied by a place in the Massachusetts delegation to the 1932 Democratic National Convention by Governor Joseph B. Ely, Curley engineered his selection as a delegate from Puerto Rico (under the alias of Alcalde Jaime Curleo). Some say his support was instrumental in winning the presidential nomination for Franklin D. Roosevelt, but he broke with Roosevelt after the president refused to appoint him Ambassador to Ireland.[39]

In 1924, when he was Mayor of Boston, Curley ran for Governor of Massachusetts, but was defeated by then Republican Lieutenant Governor Alvan T. Fuller.[40] In 1934, Curley tried again. This time he defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Gaspar G. Bacon, an opponent of Roosevelt's New Deal, by more than 100,000.[41]

Curley's single term as governor was described by one commentator as "ludicrous part of the time, shocking most of the time, and tawdry all of the time."[41] It began with a shoving match with outgoing Governor Joseph B. Ely, and descended into bare-knuckle politics. Curley expended significant political capital seeking to defang the Boston Finance Commission, which was closing in on the financial malfeasance of his mayoral terms. Committee members were accused of failing to do their jobs and impeached, and investigators were fired. Curley was eventually able to install a more pliant commission membership, under which its attention turned instead to his political opponents.[42] The negative press surrounding these actions ensured a loss of public popularity, as did his failure to significantly address widespread unemployment. His administration embarked on one major public works project, the Quabbin Reservoir, whose construction contracts were issued in signature Curley style.[43]

Rather than seeking reelection as governor, Curley opted to run for the United States Senate in 1936. He lost against a moderate Republican, Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., in a general election that was otherwise a Democratic landslide.[44] He was twice defeated, in November 1937 and November 1941, for the Boston mayoralty by one of his closest former political confidants, Maurice J. Tobin.[45] In 1938 he made another try for the governorship, defeating incumbent Democrat Charles F. Hurley in a bruising party primary fight. He lost the general election to moderate Republican Leverett Saltonstall.[46] Curley would take his revenge against Tobin later, supporting Republican Robert F. Bradford when Tobin sought reelection as governor in 1946.[47]

After leaving the office of governor, Curley squandered a substantial sum of his money in unsuccessful investments in Nevada gold mines; then he lost a civil suit brought by the Suffolk County prosecutor that forced him to forfeit to the city of Boston the $40,000 he received from General Equipment Company for "fixing" a damage claim settlement.

Second Congressional term

In 1942, Curley managed to revive his faltering career by returning to Congress, serving from 1943 to 1947, this time in the 11th district. He defeated his liberal opponent Thomas H. Eliot, a former New Deal attorney with an exemplary voting record on behalf of the Roosevelt administration, in the Democratic primary. Eliot was the son of a Unitarian minister and grandson of Harvard president Charles Eliot. Curley campaigned largely on appeals to working class anger toward the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Yankee upper class. Ultimately, Curley saw an opening in breaking the lock of ethnic politics in the state with the spectre of growing Communist influence. In a quote from a campaign speech which has famously entered Boston political lore, Curley raised the specter of Communist leanings in his opponent saying, "There is more Americanism in one half of Jim Curley's ass than in that pink body of Tom Eliot." Thus, despite his long-proven corrupting influence and antagonism toward the state's native Yankee population, Curley managed to win over substantial numbers of them, winning the election easily.

Curley appears to have been paid off by Joseph P. Kennedy (who supposedly agreed to pay off some of Curley's debts, and may have helped fund his 1949 run for reelection as mayor) to leave the Congressional seat open in the 1946 election, so that Kennedy's son John could run for it without significant Democratic opposition.[48]

Third Congressional term

In June 1947, Curley was accused of accepting $60,000 from a firm he headed entitled the Engineers Group which was under investigation for war profiteering. He was found guilty of mail fraud and was sentenced to 6–18 months at the Federal Correctional Institution in Danbury, Connecticut before his sentence was commuted after only five months by President Truman, under pressure from the Massachusetts congressional delegation due to Curley's poor health.[49][50]

Last term as mayor

Curley in July 1949
Curley in July 1949

As a result of the extensive corruption in city politics, numerous investigations were conducted against Curley's machine. After several campaigns involving bribery, Curley finally faced felony indictments brought by federal prosecutors. Nonetheless, Curley's popularity with the Irish American community in Boston remained so high that even in the face of this indictment he was re-elected on the slogan "Curley Gets Things Done", winning an unprecedented fourth term as mayor of Boston in November 1945.

A second indictment by a federal grand jury, for mail fraud, did not harm his campaign, and Curley won the election with 45% of the vote.[51] City Clerk John B. Hynes served as acting mayor during his absence. Truman commuted his sentence in 1947, and gave him a full pardon in 1950, for both his 1904 and 1947 convictions.

A crowd of thousands greeted Curley upon his return to Boston, with a brass band playing "Hail to the Chief".[51] In a fit of hubris after his first day back in office, Curley told reporters, "I have accomplished more in one day than has been done in the five months of my absence."[51]

Curley's bid for reelection in November 1949 was squelched by Hynes, who took Curley's public comments as a personal affront,[52] and marshaled support to defeat him. While Curley argued Hynes lacked experience, Hynes responded that the city could not "afford the city bosses anymore", and tapped into widespread dissatisfaction with the city's high tax rate to defeat Curley in the primary.[53] During the lame duck period, Curley granted a large number of tax abatements, further hampering the city's finances, and granted exorbitant city contracts to cronies.[54]

Hynes was again victorious in a November 1951 rematch,[55] and Curley's career in elective politics was over. He was financially supported by a state-granted pension ushered through the legislature by Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill.[56] Curley continued to support other candidates and remained active within the Democratic Party after his defeats. His death in Boston in 1958 was followed by one of the largest funerals in the city's history.[57]

Personal life

Curley's home in Jamaica Plain still stands today and can be identified by its distinctive shamrock-shaped cutouts in the second-floor window shutters.
Curley's home in Jamaica Plain still stands today and can be identified by its distinctive shamrock-shaped cutouts in the second-floor window shutters.

James had two brothers: John J. (1872–1944) and Michael (born 1879), who died at 2½. Curley married twice, first to Mary Emelda Herlihy (1884–1930) in 1906 and then to Gertrude Casey Dennis, widowed mother of two boys, George and Richard.[58]

Curley's personal life was unusually tragic. He outlived his first wife Mary Emelda (née Herlihy) and seven of his nine children. His wife died in 1930 after a long battle with cancer. Twin sons John and Joseph died in infancy. Daughter Dorothea died of pneumonia as a teenager. His namesake, James Jr., a Harvard law student who was being groomed as Curley's political successor, died in 1931 at age 23 following an operation to remove a gallstone. His son Paul, who was an alcoholic, died while Curley ran for mayor in 1945. His remaining daughter Mary died of a stroke in February 1950 and when her brother Leo was called to the scene, he became so distraught that he, too, suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died the same day, at age 35. Two remaining sons, George (1919–1983) and Francis X. (1923–1992), a Jesuit priest, outlived Curley.

Legacy

Historian James M. O'Toole has argued:

Surely there has been no more flamboyant political personality than James Michael Curley, who dominated politics in Boston for half a century. Whether as incumbent or as candidate, he was always there: alderman, congressman, mayor, governor. People loved him or hated him, but they could not ignore him. He mastered the politics of ethnic and class warfare by defining a manichaean world of "us" versus "them"....He presided over state and city during the challenge of the Depression, leaving behind impressive monuments in stone and public works. In the end, he even managed to enter American political mythology, remembered as much in his fictional incarnations as for his real life.[59]

Urban historian Kenneth T. Jackson has argued that:

Curley was among the best-known and most colorful of the big-city, paternalistic bosses, Irish, Catholic, and Democratic....Capitalizing on Irish-American resentment against the Republican, Harvard-educated Brahmans who dominated Boston's social and economic life, Curley like to think of himself as "Mayor of the Poor"....Curley helped immigrants to adjust to urban life by finding them jobs, easing their troubles with the law, building them playgrounds and public baths, and attending their weddings and wakes.... Because his feuds with fellow Irish chieftains like John (Honey Fitz) Fitzgerald, Patrick Kennedy, and Martin Lomasney were legendary, he tried as mayor to centralize patronage and make the ward heeler obsolete. During the depression he used federal relief and work projects as a tool of his political ambitions. But Curley never built a really solid organization in Boston and never enjoyed the power or statewide influence of other well-known urban bosses. [60]

Curley is honored with two statues at Faneuil Hall, across from Boston's new City Hall. One shows him seated on a park bench, the other shows him standing, as if giving a speech, a campaign button on his lapel. A few feet away was a bar named for one of his symbols, The Purple Shamrock.

His house, known in his time as "the house with the shamrock shutters," located at 350 Jamaicaway, is now a city historical site. His former summer home in Scituate also has shamrock shutters.

Curley’ strategy of driving opponents outside of the city, described by Harvard economists Andrei Shleifer and Edward Glaeser in 'The Curley Effect: The Economics of Shaping the Electorate', increased his political base by using distortionary economic policies, leading to long-term economic stagnation.[61]

In popular culture

See also

Boston mayoral elections
Successful: January 1914, December 1921, November 1929, November 1945
Unsuccessful: December 1917, November 1937, November 1941, November 1949, November 1951, November 1955

References

  1. ^ "Congressman Takes Job as Boston Mayor". The Tampa Tribune. January 8, 1946. Retrieved March 15, 2018 – via newspapers.com.
  2. ^ Lewis, William (January 2, 1950). "Hynes Becomes Boston Mayor Today". The Boston Globe. p. 1. Retrieved March 16, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com.
  3. ^ "Curley Inauguration Will Be Held Today". The Boston Globe. January 6, 1930. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com.
  4. ^ "Mansfield to Take Oath This Morning". The Boston Globe. January 1, 1934. p. 20. Retrieved March 16, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com.
  5. ^ "Curley Takes Office Today". The Boston Globe. February 6, 1922. p. 1. Retrieved March 15, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com.
  6. ^ "Mayor Nichols Inaugurated". The Boston Globe. January 4, 1926. p. A1. Retrieved March 16, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com.
  7. ^ "Curley Serves Two Masters". The Barre Daily Times. Barre, Vermont. February 2, 1914. Retrieved March 15, 2018 – via newspapers.com.
  8. ^ "Peters Will Be On Hand At Inaugural". The Boston Globe. February 4, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved March 16, 2018 – via pqarchiver.com.
  9. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Cunnle to Curnutt". politicalgraveyard.com.
  10. ^ Beatty, p. 9
  11. ^ Beatty, Jack (2000). The Rascal King: The Life and Times of James Michael Curley, 1874–1958. Cambridge: Da Capo Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-306-81002-2.
  12. ^ Russell, Francis (June 1959). "The Last of the Bosses". AmericanHeritage.com. American Heritage Publishing. Retrieved 15 Sep 2010.[permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Beatty, pp. 30–31
  14. ^ Beatty, p. 33
  15. ^ Beatty, pp. 43–44
  16. ^ Beatty, pp. 41–42
  17. ^ Beatty, pp. 47–48
  18. ^ "A Look at James Michael Curley in Power". Boston Irish Reporter. Boston Neighborhood News, Inc. 1 Nov 2009. Retrieved 17 Sep 2010.
  19. ^ Beatty, pp. 48–58
  20. ^ Beatty, pp. 62–63
  21. ^ Beatty, pp. 68–72
  22. ^ Beatty, p. 76
  23. ^ O'Neill, p. 69
  24. ^ Nath, V. (November 1997). "Review: Redefining Urban Politics". Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (44): 2864. JSTOR 4406038.
  25. ^ Who's Who in State Politics, 1912. Boston: Practical Politics. 1912. p. 17.
  26. ^ O'Neill, p. 71
  27. ^ December 29, 1992 | Boston's Powerful Rogue | James Curley dominated Hub politics for decades - even from jail | By Lawrence J. Goodrich | publications editor | [1]
  28. ^ O'Neill, pp. 40–41
  29. ^ a b "Foss Wins By 22,000 In Massachusetts; But the Rest of the Democratic State Ticket Has Probably Been Defeated". The New York Times. New York. November 9, 1910. p. 2.
  30. ^ "Galvin May Contest It; Recount Shows O'Connell Elected by Four Votes. Appeal to Congress Suggested By Republican's Lieutenants. McGonagle Displaces Pettiti as Representative in Ward 6. ORIGINAL RECPOUT Contest May Go to Congress. Tie Feared Till the Last. Down to Last Precinct". The Boston Globe. Boston. November 11, 1908. p. 11.
  31. ^ "Both Lose Renomination: Keliher and O'Connell Defeated in Massachusetts Primaries. Majority of the Delegates to Democratic State Convention Will Go Uninstructed". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. September 28, 1910. p. 3.
  32. ^ Municipal Register For 1922, Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1922, p. frontispiece
  33. ^ O'Neill, pp. 43–44; see pp. 101–114 for details on Coakley's activities
  34. ^ O'Neill, pp. 73–74
  35. ^ O'Neill, pp. 80–83
  36. ^ O'Connor (1984), pp. 143–147
  37. ^ O'Neill, pp. 59, 78
  38. ^ Nelson, p. 100
  39. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404701607.html
  40. ^ O'Neill, p. 80
  41. ^ a b O'Neill, p. 88
  42. ^ O'Neill, pp. 88–90
  43. ^ O'Neill, p. 91
  44. ^ O'Neill, pp. 90–91
  45. ^ O'Neill, pp. 92–93
  46. ^ O'Neill, p. 92
  47. ^ O'Neill, p. 96
  48. ^ Nelson, pp. 336, 346
  49. ^ "James Michael Curley". encyclopedia.com. October 1, 2019.
  50. ^ Dirk Langeveld (December 18, 2018). "The Downfall Dictionary: Cataloging the past political scandals of the United States". downfalldictionary.blogspot.com.
  51. ^ a b c O'Connor (1997), pp. 179–195, 204–205
  52. ^ O'Neill, pp. 116–117
  53. ^ O'Neill, pp. 117–127
  54. ^ O'Neill, p. 98
  55. ^ O'Neill, p. 132
  56. ^ O'Neill, pp. 98–99
  57. ^ O'Neill, p. 99
  58. ^ Jack Beatty, The Rascal King: The Life and Times of James Michael Curley (1874-1958) (1992).
  59. ^ James M. O'Toole. "Review" in The New England Quarterly 66#3 (1993) pp. 500-502
  60. ^ Kenneth T. Jackson, "Curley, James Michael," in John A. Garraty, ed., Encyclopedia of American Biography (1974) pp 246-247.
  61. ^ http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/glaeser/files/curley_effect_1.pdf
  62. ^ Duffy, Charles F. (2003). A Family of His Own: A Life of Edwin O'Connor. The Catholic University of America Press. pp. 192–193. ISBN 0-8132-1337-1.
  63. ^ Burke, Gerald F. (November 2006). "James Michael Curley; A Lasting Hurrah". Jamaica Plains Bulletin. Retrieved August 27, 2012.
  64. ^ Nelson, Chris (1997-08-29). "Crooked Boston Mayor Inspires Bosstones' New Hit". MTV News. Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  65. ^ "'People' Editor – James Michael Curley and the #5 License Plate". Jamaica Plain Historical Society.
  66. ^ "The Harvard History of James M. Curley". The Crimson. November 22, 1958.

Bibliography

  • Bulger, William M. "James Michael Curley: A Short Biography with Personal Reminiscences." Commonwealth Editions 2009.
  • Beatty, Jack. The Rascal King: the Life and Times of James Michael Curley. 1992. ISBN 978-0-201-17599-8
  • City of Boston Statistics Department Municipal Register for 1922 (1922) Frontispiece.
  • Connolly, Michael C. "The First Hurrah: James Michael Curley Versus the 'Goo-goos' in the Boston Mayoralty Election of 1914." Historical Journal of Massachusetts 2002 30(1): 50–74. ISSN 0276-8313.
  • Connolly, James J. "Reconstituting Ethnic Politics: Boston, 1909–1925." Social Science History (1995) 19(4): 479–509. ISSN 0145-5532.
  • Dineen, Joseph F., The Purple Shamrock (1949), an authorized biography
  • Kenneally, James. "Prelude to the Last Hurrah: the Massachusetts Senatorial Election of 1936." Mid-America 1980 62(1): 3–20. ISSN 0026-2927.
  • Lapomarda, Vincent A. "Maurice Joseph Tobin: the Decline of Bossism in Boston." New England Quarterly (1970) 43(3): 355–381. ISSN 0028-4866.
  • Lennon, Thomas, producer, Scandalous Mayor. Film. 58 min.; Thomas Lennon Productions, 1991. Distrib. by PBS Video, Alexandria
  • Luthin, Reinhard H. (1954). "James Curley". American Demagogues: Twentieth Century. Beacon Press. ASIN B0007DN37C. OCLC 1098334.
  • Nelson, Garrison (2017). John William McCormack: A Political Biography. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9781628925173.
  • O'Connor, Thomas H. (1984). Bibles, Brahmins, and Bosses, Second Edition. Boston: Boston Public Library. ISBN 0890731004.
  • O'Connor, Thomas H. (1995). The Boston Irish: A Political History. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 978-1555532208.
  • O'Neill, Gerard (2012). Rogues and Redeemers. New York: Crown Publisher. ISBN 978-0307405364.
  • Piehler, G. Kurt. "Curley, James Michael" in American National Biography, 2000, American Council of Learned Societies.
  • Steinberg, Alfred. The Bosses: Frank Hague, James Curley, Ed Crump, Huey Long, Gene Talmadge, Tom Pendergast – The Story of the Ruthless Men who Forged the American Political Machines that Dominated the Twenties and Thirties Macmillan, 1972.
  • Trout, Charles H., Boston, the Great Depression, and the New Deal NY: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Who's who in State Politics, 1912 Practical Politics (1912)
  • Zolot, Herbert Marshall. "The Issue of Good Government and James Michael Curley: Curley and the Boston Scene from 1897–1918" Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York, Stony Brook, 1975. Citation: DAI 1975 36(2): 1053-A.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
John F. Fitzgerald
Democratic nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
1924
Succeeded by
William A. Gaston
Preceded by
Joseph B. Ely
Democratic nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
1934
Succeeded by
Charles F. Hurley
Preceded by
Marcus A. Coolidge
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(Class 2)

1936
Succeeded by
Joseph E. Casey
Preceded by
Charles F. Hurley
Democratic nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
1938
Succeeded by
Paul A. Dever
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joseph F. O'Connell
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 10th congressional district

March 4, 1911 – March 4, 1913
Succeeded by
William Francis Murray
Preceded by
John W. Weeks
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 12th congressional district

March 4, 1913 – February 4, 1914
Succeeded by
James A. Gallivan
Preceded by
Thomas A. Flaherty
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 11th congressional district

January 3, 1943 – January 3, 1947
Succeeded by
John F. Kennedy
Political offices
Preceded by
John F. Fitzgerald
Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts
1914–1918
Succeeded by
Andrew J. Peters
Preceded by
Andrew J. Peters
Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts
1922–1926
Succeeded by
Malcolm Nichols
Preceded by
Malcolm Nichols
Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts
1930–1934
Succeeded by
Frederick Mansfield
Preceded by
Joseph B. Ely
Governor of Massachusetts
1935–1937
Succeeded by
Charles F. Hurley
Preceded by
John E. Kerrigan
Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts
1946–1950
Succeeded by
John Hynes
This page was last edited on 8 July 2020, at 23:19
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.