To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

James Cholmondeley

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


James Cholmondeley
General James Cholmondeley c.1759-61.jpg
General James Cholmondeley ca 1759-1761 by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Born18 April 1708
Cholmondeley Hall, Cheshire
Died13 October 1775
Carrington House, Mayfair, London [1]
Buried
Allegiance Great Britain
Service/branchBritish Army
Years of service1725-1750
RankGeneral 1770
UnitColonel;
48th Foot 1741-1743
34th Foot 1743-1747
12th Lancers 1749
1st Carabiniers 1749–1750
6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons 1750–1775
Commands heldGovernor of Chester 1770-1775
Battles/warsWar of the Austrian Succession
Fontenoy
1745 Rising
Falkirk
RelationsGeorge, 2nd Earl of Cholmondeley, 1666-1733 (father)
George, 3rd Earl of Cholmondeley, 1703-1770 (brother)
George, later Marquess Cholmondeley, 1749-1827 (nephew)
Other workMember of Parliament
Bossiney 1731-1734
Camelford 1734-1741
Montgomery 1741-1747

James Cholmondeley (18 April 1708 – 13 October 1775) was a British Army officer and Member of Parliament between 1731 and 1747.

He fought at Fontenoy and during the 1745 Rising commanded a brigade at the Battle of Falkirk, where he suffered severe exposure. He retired from politics in 1747 and ceased his active military service in 1750, although promoted General in 1770.

His marriage ended in divorce in 1737 and he had no children; he died in 1775 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Life

Cholmondeley Hall, where James grew up; demolished in 1804
Cholmondeley Hall, where James grew up; demolished in 1804

James Cholmondeley was born in April 1708, third son of George, 2nd Earl of Cholmondeley (1666-1733) and Anna Elizabeth van Ruytenburgh (ca 1672–1722). His eldest brother, also named James, died young and George, Viscount Malpas (1703-1770) became heir; he had three sisters, Henrietta (1701-1769), Elizabeth (1705-1762) and Mary (1714-1783).[3]

In 1726, he married Lady Penelope Barry (1708-1783), only child of the Earl of Barrymore and Elizabeth Savage. She was also heiress to Earl Rivers, who owned extensive estates near the Cholmondeley lands in Cheshire. The marriage was not successful and when they divorced in 1737, one of the conditions was neither would remarry; this meant that after Penelope died in 1783, the Rivers possessions passed into the Cholmondeley family.[4]

He died childless in 1775 and his property was inherited by his nephew, George, later Marquess Cholmondeley.[5]

Career

James was connected by marriage to Sir Robert Walpole, Whig Prime Minister 1721-1742
James was connected by marriage to Sir Robert Walpole, Whig Prime Minister 1721-1742

His father benefitted from backing William III in 1688 and George I in 1714, being rewarded with titles and offices, including command of the 3rd Troop of Horse Guards.[6] In April 1725, James was commissioned into his father's troop, which was normally based in London, allowing its officers to combine a military career and political office.

His elder brother George married the daughter of Sir Robert Walpole, who was Whig Prime Minister from 1721 to 1742. He held a number of government positions, although his brother-in-law Horace Walpole (1717-1797) later described him as "a vain and empty man", promoted beyond his ability by his father-in-law.[7]

This connection led to James becoming Member of Parliament for the government-controlled borough of Bossiney in 1731, then Camelford in the 1734 British general election. In 1739, commercial tensions with Spain resulted in the War of Jenkins' Ear; the military had been allowed to decay during the long period of peace since 1715 and early setbacks damaged Walpole's popularity.[8]

Fontenoy, May 1745; as part of the rearguard, Cholmondeley's unit helped the Allies retreat in good order
Fontenoy, May 1745; as part of the rearguard, Cholmondeley's unit helped the Allies retreat in good order

Cholmondeley was appointed colonel of the 48th Foot, a new regiment raised in January 1741 for the war. A few months later, he was returned as MP for Montgomery in the 1741 General Election but the government lost over 40 seats. While he continued to support the government, in February 1742 Walpole was removed from office and replaced by Earl Granville.[9]

Britain now became involved in the War of the Austrian Succession and Cholmondeley transferred to the 34th Foot in December 1742. He campaigned in Flanders from 1743 to 1745, under the Duke of Cumberland and fought at Fontenoy in May 1745. While this was an Allied defeat, his unit was part of the rearguard action that enabled their forces to retreat in good order.[10]

Grosvenor Square, Mayfair ca 1770; Cholmondeley lived nearby
Grosvenor Square, Mayfair ca 1770; Cholmondeley lived nearby

Promoted Brigadier-General in July, his regiment was among the reinforcements sent to Britain in November during the 1745 Rising and served in Scotland under Henry Hawley. In early January 1746, the Jacobites besieged Stirling Castle; on 13th, Hawley ordered 4,000 men under Cholmondeley and John Huske north to Falkirk to relieve it, following himself with another 3,000 men. The Battle of Falkirk began late in the afternoon of 17 January in failing light and was marked by confusion and command failures on both sides.[11] A violent snow storm broke out as the regiments deployed, making co-ordination extremely difficult; the government left was routed but Cholmondeley's brigade on the right held their ground and prevented a major Jacobite success.[12]

He fell seriously ill as a result of the extreme weather conditions and was not present with his regiment at Culloden in April. This ended his active military career, although he remained Colonel of the 6th Dragoons until his death. He was promoted general in 1770 but in the 18th century, this simply meant the holder was eligible for command; there were far more generals than positions available and many never held an active post.[13]

He retired from Parliament in 1747 and little is known of his life after this, although Dutch author Isabelle de Charrière records meeting him during her visit to London in 1766.[14] When his brother George died in 1770, he replaced him as Governor of Chester but normally resided at Carrington House, in Mayfair. He died on 13 October 1775 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, near his uncles Robert and Richard, who died in 1678 and 1680 while pupils at Westminster School.[15]

References

  1. ^ Gater, G.H (ed), Wheeler, E.P (1935). 'Scotland Yard: South of Whitehall Place', in Survey of London: Volume 16, St Martin-in-The-Fields I: Charing Cross, ed. G H Gater and E P Wheeler (Online ed.). London Council.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "Cholmondeley family". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  3. ^ "James Cholmondeley". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Papers relating to divorce of Colonel James Cholmondeley and Lady Penelope Cholmondeley (nee Barry)". National Archives. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  5. ^ Croston 1883, p. 480.
  6. ^ Henderson T.F, Spain, Jonathan (2004). "Cholmondeley, George, second earl of Cholmondeley". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/5344. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. ^ "Cholmondeley family". Elisa Rolle. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  8. ^ Avery, Emmett L, Scouten, A.H. (1968). "The Opposition to Sir Robert Walpole, 1737-1739". The English Historical Review. 83 (327): 331–336. doi:10.1093/ehr/LXXXIII.CCCXXVII.331. JSTOR 564916.
  9. ^ Walpole, Horace (author), Wright, John (ed) (1842). Letter to Sir Horace Mann, January 1742 in The Letters of Horace Walpole': Volume I. Lea & Blanchard. p. 214.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Skrine, Francis (author), Grant, James (author) (2017). Fontenoy, Britain & The War of Austrian Succession, 1740-1748, With a Short Account of the Battle of Fontenoy. LEONAUR. p. 171. ISBN 978-1782826453.
  11. ^ Royle, Trevor (2016). Culloden; Scotland's Last Battle and the Forging of the British Empire. Little, Brown. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-1408704011.
  12. ^ Edwards, HN (1925). "The Battle of Falkirk 1746". Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 4 (17): 129. JSTOR 44220106.
  13. ^ Wood, Andrew B (2011). The Limits of Social Mobility: social origins and career patterns of British generals, 1688-1815 (PDF). PHD LSE. pp. 67–68.
  14. ^ "Lettre de Zuylen" (PDF). Genootschap Belle van Zuylen. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Cholmondeley family". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 15 May 2019.

Sources

  • Avery, Emmett L, Scouten, A.H. (1968). "The Opposition to Sir Robert Walpole, 1737-1739". The English Historical Review. 83 (327).
  • Colburn, Henry (1880). A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire. 42 pt. 1.
  • Croston, James (1883). Historic sites of Lancashire and Cheshire. J. Heywood. p. 480.
  • Edwards, HN (1925). "The Battle of Falkirk 1746". Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 4 (17).
  • Henderson T.F, Spain, Jonathan (2004). Cholmondeley, George, second earl of Cholmondeley (Online ed.). Oxford DNB.
  • Royle, Trevor (2016). Culloden; Scotland's Last Battle and the Forging of the British Empire. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408704011.
  • Sedgwick, Romney (1970). "CHOLMONDELEY, Hon. James (1708-75)". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  • Skrine, Francis (author), Grant, James (author) (2017). Fontenoy, Britain & The War of Austrian Succession, 1740-1748, With a Short Account of the Battle of Fontenoy. LEONAUR. ISBN 978-1782826453.
  • Walpole, Horace (author), Wright, John (ed) (1842). Letter to Sir Horace Mann, January 1742 in The Letters of Horace Walpole': Volume I. Lea & Blanchard.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Wood, Andrew B (2011). The Limits of Social Mobility: social origins and career patterns of British generals, 1688-1815. PHD LSE.

External links

Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Robert Corker
John Hedges
MP for Bossiney
1731–1734
With: John Hedges
Succeeded by
The Viscount Palmerston
Townshend Andrews
Preceded by
Thomas Hales
John Pitt
MP for Camelford
17341741
With: Sir Thomas Lyttelton
Succeeded by
The Earl of Inchiquin
Charles Montagu
Preceded by
Sir William Corbet
MP for Montgomery
17411747
Succeeded by
Henry Herbert
Military offices
New regiment Colonel, later 48th Foot
1741–1742
Succeeded by
Lord Henry Beauclerk
Preceded by
James Cavendish
Colonel, later 34th Foot
1742–1749
Succeeded by
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
Preceded by
Sir John Mordaunt
Colonel, later 12th Lancers
1749
Succeeded by
Lord George Sackville
Preceded by
Phineas Bowles
Colonel, 1st Carabiniers
1749–1750
Preceded by
The Earl of Rothes
Colonel, 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons
1750–1775
Succeeded by
Edward Harvey
Preceded by
The Earl of Cholmondeley
Governor of Chester
1770–1775
Succeeded by
Charles Rainsford
This page was last edited on 28 June 2021, at 08:53
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.