To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Jacques Toubon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jacques Toubon
Jacques Toubon.jpg
Toubon in 2009
Defender of Rights
In office
17 July 2014 – 16 July 2020
PresidentFrançois Hollande
Emmanuel Macron
Preceded byDominique Baudis
Succeeded byClaire Hédon
Minister of Culture
In office
PresidentFrançois Mitterrand
Prime MinisterÉdouard Balladur
Preceded byJack Lang
Succeeded byPhilippe Douste-Blazy
Minister of Justice
In office
PresidentJacques Chirac
Prime MinisterAlain Juppé
Preceded byPierre Méhaignerie
Succeeded byÉlisabeth Guigou
Mayor of the 13th arrondissement of Paris
In office
Preceded byNone
Succeeded bySerge Blisko
Personal details
Born (1941-06-29) 29 June 1941 (age 79)
Nice, France
Political partyRPR
Alma materSciences Po Lyon
École nationale d'administration

Jacques Toubon (born 29 June 1941) is a right-wing French politician who held several major national and Parisian offices. He has been serving as Defender of Rights (Ombudsman) between 2014 and 2020.[1]

Political career

Governmental functions

Minister of Culture : 1993–1995.[2]

Keeper of the Seals, Minister of Justice : 1995–1997.

Electoral mandates

European Parliament

Member of European Parliament : 2004–2009. Elected in 2004.

National Assembly of France

Member of the National Assembly for Paris : 1981–1993 (Became minister in 1993). Elected in 1981, reelected in 1986, 1988, 1993.

Municipal Council

Deputy-mayor of Paris : 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995.

Councillor of Paris : 1983–2008. Reelected in 1989, 1995, 2001.

Mayor of the 13th arrondissement of Paris : 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995.

Councillor of the 13th arrondissement of Paris : 1983–2001. Reelected in 1989, 1995.

Controversial actions

Jacques Toubon is known for the controversial so-called Toubon Law, enforcing the use of the French language in official French government publications, and advertisements published in France. Since the law can largely be described as being hostile to English, Jacques Toubon is sometimes referred to, jokingly, as "Mr Allgood" ("All Good" being a translation of "Tout bon").

Jacques Toubon is also remembered for the "helicopter affair". In 1996, an initial criminal enquiry had been opened by Laurent Davenas, then head prosecutor of Évry for alleged misuse of government funds, in which Xavière Tiberi, wife of then mayor of Paris Jean Tiberi (from Toubon's party) was involved. (See corruption scandals in the Paris region). However, this was not a full criminal investigation and no investigative magistrate had been named. Davenas then went on vacation in the Himalaya. His deputy then announced his decision to open a full investigation. The Rally for the Republic leaders were frightened by the possible implications of such an investigation, and Jacques Toubon, then minister of justice, famously hired a helicopter to fetch the mountaineering prosecutor and convince him to rein in his deputy (Davenas refused). [1]

Jacques Toubon has been the topic of much lampooning. In addition to "Mr Allgood", Les Guignols de l'info have referred to him as "M. Bouffon" ("Mr Buffoon").

Personal life

He was married to art expert Lise Toubon.[3]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Ball, Rodney (1997). The French-speaking world: a practical introduction to sociolinguistic issues. Psychology Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-415-12986-2.
  3. ^

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Jack Lang
Minister of Culture
Succeeded by
Philippe Douste-Blazy
Preceded by
Pierre Méhaignerie
Minister of Justice
Succeeded by
Élisabeth Guigou
This page was last edited on 3 March 2021, at 22:32
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.