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Jōmon pottery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Incipient Jomon rope pottery 10000–8000 BCE[citation needed]
Incipient Jomon rope pottery 10000–8000 BCE[citation needed]
Middle Jomon Period rope pottery 5000–4000 BCE
Middle Jomon Period rope pottery 5000–4000 BCE
Jomon vessel 3000–2000 BCE, Flame-style Pottery [de; ja; pl](Flamboyant Ceramic, Kaen-doki)
Jomon vessel 3000–2000 BCE, Flame-style Pottery [de; ja; pl](Flamboyant Ceramic, Kaen-doki)

The Jōmon pottery (縄文土器, Jōmon doki) is a type of ancient earthenware pottery which was made during the Jōmon period in Japan. The term "Jōmon" (縄文) means "rope-patterned" in Japanese, describing the patterns that are pressed into the clay.

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  • ✪ Prehistoric Japan: Jomon to Yayoi: Early Ceramics (Part 1 of 2)
  • ✪ Jomon pottery patterns and its meanings_2D
  • ✪ Jomon, Yayoi, Kofun Period | Japanese Art History | Little Art Talks
  • ✪ Jomon pottery patterns and its meanings_3D
  • ✪ 2309(2) Jomon Patterns as Quipe, Jomon Letters Theory縄文模様=キープ=縄文文字説byはやし浩司Hiroshi Hayashi, Japan

Transcription

- SO I WILL NOW TURN TO MORE SERIOUS THINGS AND TO SORT OF LOOK AT JAPAN AND WHERE THE FIRST ART CAME FROM. THE JAPANESE ISLANDS THEMSELVES ONCE FORMED PART OF THE GREATER LAND MASS, AS YOU CAN SEE HERE. I THINK I'LL COME BACK TO THAT ONE. AND THERE IS ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE THAT ONCE THE JAPAN SEA WAS ACTUALLY AN ENCLOSED SEA, SORT OF ALMOST LIKE AN ENORMOUS LAKE THAT WAS ATTACHED IN THE NORTHERN AREAS UP AROUND MONGOLIA AND DOWN HERE IN THE AREA OF KOREA. HOWEVER, AROUND 12,000 YEARS AGO THERE WAS A WARMING TREND AND THE GLACIERS FROM THE NORTH STARTED TO MELT AND FLOODED THESE AREAS AND FLOODED THE SEA, WHICH ROSE UP AND OPENED PASSAGES TO THE NORTH AND ALSO DOWN HERE TO THE SOUTH. SO THAT WE HAVE TODAY THE ISLANDS, THE FOUR MAIN ISLANDS, OF JAPAN THAT ARE QUITE DISTINCT AND SEPARATE FROM THE MAINLAND. KNOWING THAT ONCE JAPAN WAS PART OF THE MAINLAND, HOWEVER, HELPS US TO UNDERSTAND HOW MOVEMENT OF BOTH PEOPLE AND ANIMALS HAVE MADE THEIR WAY TO THE EAST. JAPAN ITSELF, IT CONSISTS OF FOUR ISLANDS, THREE OF WHICH ARE MOST IMPORTANT. HERE WE HAVE THE LARGE CRESCENT SHAPED ISLAND OF HONSHU THAT SORT OF REFLECTS THE COASTLINE OF CHINA AND ASIA OVER HERE. SO HONSHU IS THE MAIN ISLAND, THE LARGEST ONE, AND WE WILL BE MOSTLY CONCERNED WITH THIS ISLAND AND IN PARTICULAR WITH ART THAT DEVELOPS HERE IN THE YAMATO PENINSULA, OR THE AREA OF THE NARA PENINSULA TODAY. THIS IS THE SMALL ISLAND OF SHIKOKU AND THEN THE OTHER ISLAND OF KYUSHU. KYUSHU ALSO IS GOING TO BE AN IMPORTANT PLAYER, PARTICULARLY BECAUSE OF ITS PROXIMITY HERE TO KOREA. SO THERE'S A SORT OF A DIRECT LINE BETWEEN KYUSHU AND IN THE WESTERN COAST OF HONSHU BECAUSE OF ITS CLOSENESS TO THE MAINLAND. HOKKAIDO DOES NOT PLAY A SIGNIFICANT ROLE REALLY UNTIL THE LATTER PART OF THE 19TH CENTURY. THE PEOPLE OF HOKKAIDO ARE THE AINU WHO ARE PHYSICALLY, ACTUALLY, DISTINCT AND DIFFERENT FROM THE PEOPLE OF THE THREE OTHER ISLANDS. THEY MANIFEST STRONG CENTRAL ASIAN CHARACTERISTICS. AND IT REALLY WASN'T UNTIL POLITICALLY HOKKAIDO BECAME SIGNIFICANT TO THE JAPANESE, AS I SAY, IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY WHEN THE RUSSIANS WERE BEGINNING TO ESTABLISH BASES THAT HOKKAIDO WAS ABSORBED INTO JAPAN. AND THEN WE HAVE THE RYUKYU ISLANDS WAY DOWN TO THE SOUTH AND OKINAWA AND DOWN HERE. THESE ISLANDS ALSO HAVE PLAYED A PERIPHERAL ROLE. SO WE ARE IN FACT DEALING WITH AN INSULAR CULTURE. THIS INSULAR CULTURE, OR ISLAND CULTURE, HAS GIVEN THE JAPANESE A SENSE OF INVULNERABILITY AND SECURITY THAT'S ALLOWED THEM TO DEVELOP A HOMOGENEITY THAT IS BASED ON LANGUAGE AND SPECIFIC CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS DISTINCT FROM THOSE ON THE MAINLAND. MANY HISTORIANS HAVE REMARKED ON THE SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE JAPANESE ISLANDS ON THE EASTERN EDGE OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF AND THE BRITISH ISLES ON THE WESTERN END OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENTAL SHELF. EACH IS PEOPLED BY PEOPLE WHO HAVE MOVED FROM THE MAINLANDS. PROBABLY THESE WERE PUSHED OUT BY FORCE OF POPULATION LOOKING FOR MORE FERTILE LANDS BUT, FINDING THEMSELVES IN AN INSULAR ENVIRONMENT, THEY DEVELOPED SEPARATE FROM THE MAINLAND AND DEVELOPED A VERY DISTINCT SORT OF SENSE OF SELF. SO JAPAN'S GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION RESULTED, THEN, IN A HIGHLY SENSITIVE AWARENESS OF WHAT WAS OUTSIDE HER CULTURE ON THE ONE HAND AND PARTICULARLY AN AWARENESS OF THE CHINESE CULTURE AND ALSO AN ACUTE SENSE OF SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND OF HER UNIQUENESS ON THE OTHER HAND. AND THIS MANIFESTS ITSELF PARTICULARLY IN THE ARTISTIC AND AESTHETIC ARENA. AND ONE COULD SAY THAT ALSO OF THE BRITISH. AWARENESS OF THE MAIN CULTURES ON THE MAINLAND OF THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT AND YET THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF BEING BRITISH. FOR MANY BRITISH THEY STILL NOT ARE PART OF EUROPE. I'M SURE SOME OF YOU ARE FOLLOWING THE EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET AND ALL THE PROBLEMS. THERE IS THAT PSYCHOLOGICAL SORT OF AWARENESS OF NOT BEING-- APART FROM, BEING AN OUTSIDER OF AND THEN BUILDING UP ONE'S DISTINCTIVENESS. AND SO THIS BRINGS US NOW TO THE FIRST PERIOD WHICH IS KNOWN AS THE JOMON PERIOD. THIS STARTS TO DEVELOP AROUND 12,000 TO 10,000 B.C. WITH THIS WARMING TREND. AND FROM WHAT WE CAN GATHER FROM THE EARLY ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS, THE PEOPLE WERE HUNTER-GATHERERS TO BEGIN WITH AND THEY LIVED IN VERY SIMPLE ABODES WHICH WERE PIT DWELLINGS THAT WERE ESSENTIALLY PITS DUG OUT OF THE EARTH, SOME OF THEM TWO TO THREE FEET DEEP. MASON, I THINK, SAYS ONE AND A HALF FEET DEEP. BUT THEY DEFINITELY WERE PITS IN THE GROUND THAT WERE COVERED BY THATCHED ROOFS. THESE ARE RECONSTRUCTIONS OF WHAT THE EARLY JOMON PIT DWELLINGS MIGHT HAVE LOOKED LIKE. WE CAN TELL THIS FROM SOME OF THE LATER RELIEFS THAT WE HAVE FOUND ON METALWORK, BUT IT DOES GIVE US A SENSE OF BUILDING THAT FIRST TOOK PLACE IN JAPAN. THE CHARACTERS ON THE RIGHT ARE THE CHARACTERS FOR JAPAN. ESSENTIALLY IT MEANS JAPAN OR SUN-- THIS IS THE CHARACTER FOR SUN-- AND SOURCE DOWN HERE. AND THESE ARE THE KANJI, OR THE CHINESE CHARACTERS USED TO DESCRIBE JAPAN AND THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED WHERE THE SUN ROSE, WHERE THE SUN WAS BORN, THE BEGINNING OF THE SUN. SO IT'S VERY APPROPRIATE THAT JAPAN IS KNOWN IN THIS WAY. WHEN MARCO POLO FIRST CAME TO JAPAN, HE CALLED IT CIPANGU AND THE TERM THAT WE USE IS A SORT OF A TRANSLITERATION OF MANY INTERPRETATIONS OF NIHON, OR JAPAN. THESE ARE CHARACTERS ALSO THAT YOU'LL PROBABLY SEE IN PAINTINGS AND THROUGHOUT THE READINGS, SO CHARACTERS TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH. HERE IS A SKETCH OF WHAT PERHAPS AN ORIGINAL BUILDING MAY HAVE LOOKED LIKE. ACTUALLY, THIS MAY BE A LITTLE BIT LATER FROM JOMON COMING INTO YAYOI, BUT YOU'LL SEE THAT IT IS SET DOWN INTO THE GROUND AND THEN THATCHED OVER A TIMBERED STRUCTURE. SO A VERY SIMPLE WAY OF LIFE. I WOULD ALSO DRAW YOUR ATTENTION TO THE CERAMIC WARE HERE AND BACK HERE AND OVER HERE. THESE CERAMICS, THESE VESSELS, WERE USED TO STORE AND COOK FOOD IN. NOW, THE EARLIEST FORMS OF JOMON CERAMICS ARE VERY SIMPLE. THEY'VE BEEN CALLED BULLET-SHAPED VESSELS WITH POINTED BOTTOMS WHICH INDICATES THAT THEY HAD NO STABLE BASE TO STAND ON. THEREFORE, THEY WERE PROBABLY EITHER SUSPENDED IN SOME WAY BY A ROPE OR THEY WERE ACTUALLY STOOD IN THE GROUND-- HOLES WOULD'VE BEEN MADE IN THE GROUND FOR THEM-- OR STANDS COULD'VE BEEN CONSTRUCTED OUT OF WOOD. BUT AT THIS POINT THEY'RE HIGHLY UNSTABLE SO IN A WAY NOT PARTICULARLY UTILITARIAN. THE USE FOR THEM WOULD BE PROBABLY FOR STORAGE OF VARIOUS NUTS AND SHELLFISH. THE MARKINGS ON THE OUTSIDE WERE MADE FROM TWINES AND GRASS THAT WERE SORT OF BRAIDED TOGETHER AND IMPRESSED ON THE WET CLAY, OR ON THE DAMP CLAY, AND WAS MADE INTO DESIGNS AND PATTERNS, AS YOU SEE, AROUND HERE. AND IN OTHER CASES, STICKS WERE USED TO ETCH IN DESIGNS ON THE SURFACE. NOW, JOMON POTTERY IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE THE EARLIEST CERAMICS IN THE WORLD DATE BACK TO AROUND 12,000 B.C. WITH THESE EARLY PIECES IN JAPAN, FAR EARLIER THAN THE WORKS FROM THE NEAR EAST. SO IT SEEMS THAT CERAMIC WARE IS SOMETHING THAT DEVELOPED NATURALLY. IT DIDN'T TAKE A LOT OF INGENUITY FOR PEOPLE TO REALIZE THAT MUD WOULD START TO CAKE IF LEFT IN THE SUN AND ONCE FIRE WAS DISCOVERED IT WAS FOUND THAT THEY COULD BAKE THESE SORT OF MUD BOWLS THAT THEY WERE MAKING. SO ALL OVER OF THE WORLD, SORT OF, CERAMICS AS AN INDUSTRY DEVELOPED SPONTANEOUSLY AND A LOT OF IT MANIFESTS VERY SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS, WHETHER IT'S IN CENTRAL AMERICA, INDIA, OR THE MESOPOTAMIAN AREA. AND SO HENCE I THINK THESE ARE SORT OF NATURAL IMPULSES AND ALSO WE HAVE THE NATURAL IMPULSE TO DECORATE THINGS, TO BEAUTIFY THINGS THAT MAN MAKES. AND THAT'S WHAT WE SEE OCCURRING HERE, IS THE CORD MARKINGS, THE JOMON THAT HAS GIVEN THE NAME TO THIS EARLY PERIOD. THE CORD MARKINGS ESSENTIALLY BEAUTIFY THE OUTSIDE AREAS, OR THE OUTSIDE SURFACE. MOST OF THE CORD PIECES CAME FROM CENTRAL HONSHU. THE ROLLED STICK DESIGN SUCH AS WE SEE HERE, THESE CAME FROM THE KYUSHYU AREA. THEN THERE ARE WORKS SUCH AS THIS WHICH HAVE SHELLS EMBEDDED INTO THEM AND THESE CAME FROM THE NORTHERN HONSHU AREA. SO THERE ARE THREE STYLES OF EARLY JOMON POTS. THEY HAVE SHELLS IN THEM, AS WE SEE HERE, COMBINED WITH A SORT OF A CORD MARKING OR STICK MARKING. THEN YOU HAVE CORD MARKS AND ROLLED STICKS. NOW, AS YOU CAN SEE WITH THESE TWO POTS, WE ARE MOVING INTO ANOTHER-- THERE'S SORT OF THE MIDDLE JOMON PERIOD. I DON'T WANT YOU TO GET HUNG UP ON ALL OF THE STAGES BECAUSE IF YOU WERE A CONNOISSEUR, THEN EVERY SINGLE STAGE BECOMES SIGNIFICANT, BUT RIGHT NOW I WANT YOU TO BE MORE AWARE OF THE TYPE. AND IT'S QUITE LOGICAL WHAT HAPPENS: FROM A POINTED BOTTOM THAT DOESN'T STAND TO A FLAT BOTTOM THAT DOES STAND, AS YOU CAN SEE HERE AND ALONG HERE AS WELL. NOW, THE POTS BECOME QUITE ELABORATE. THAT IS AN INDICATION OF A SORT OF LATER TIME WHERE, AS ONCE THE CORD MARKS WERE SORT OF RATHER HAPHAZARD OVER THE SURFACE, NOW THEY ARE IN VERY DISTINCT HORIZONTAL REGISTERS IN VARIOUS DIAGONALS AND TWIRLED. BUT I DRAW YOUR ATTENTION PARTICULARLY TO THIS DESIGN. IT'S FORMED OF ARCS AND LINE. THIS IS THE CHAKOMEN DESIGN WHICH WE WILL BE SEEING LATER IN THE KOFUN PERIOD. SO THE INCIPIENT BEGINNINGS OF DISTINCTLY JAPANESE DESIGNS ARE ALREADY BEGINNING. NOW, I THINK THAT SOME OF THE MOST AMAZING POTS COME FROM THIS PERIOD. THEY ARE QUITE WONDERFUL. THEY ARE FLAMBOYANT, THEY'RE ENERGETIC, AND YOU WONDER WHERE ON EARTH DID THIS COME FROM. THE EARLY PARTS WERE VERY MODEST, VERY SIMPLE. THEY DID BECOME SOMEWHAT UTILITARIAN. BUT THEN WE HAVE THESE THAT TEND TO HAVE QUITE NARROW BASES, WAISTED BODIES-- I MEAN WITH A WAIST W-A-I-S-T-- AND THEN THESE ELABORATE TOPS WHICH HAVE THESE FLANGES WITH CIRCLES IN THEM. NOW, ROPES COULD HAVE BEEN PLACED THROUGH THE OPENINGS HERE ALL THE WAY AROUND, BUT ALSO IT'S BEEN THOUGHT THAT POSSIBLY IT PLAYS A MORE RITUAL PURPOSE, WHATEVER. WE DON'T REALLY KNOW. SOME SORT OF FERTILITY RITE MAY HAVE BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH IT. WHATEVER, THEY ARE QUITE DISTINCTIVE. THERE'S NO POTTERY IN THE WORLD THAT LOOKS LIKE THIS. SO IT'S NOT GOING TO BE A VERY DIFFICULT TYPE FOR YOU TO REMEMBER. I THINK IT'S JUST EXCITING AND IT SHOWS THAT SORT OF WONDERFUL, SORT OF CREATIVE SPARK, THAT WILL KEEP SPURTING UP AND EMERGING THROUGHOUT OUR STUDY OF JAPANESE ART. HERE ARE TWO MORE. THIS ONE, NOW, ACTUALLY HAS ADDED RELIEF WORK ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE BODY OF THE VESSEL AND THEN THERE'S THIS SMALL VESSEL HERE THAT AGAIN HAS THIS OPEN AREA WORKED IN WITH THESE POD-LIKE ADDITIONS TO THE TOP. AND THE SIDE IMAGES ALMOST LOOK LIKE FACES. THIS COULD BE ALIKE A NOSE WITH TWO EYES BUT IT'S ACTUALLY A HOLE THAT GOES THROUGH. PERHAPS THESE ARE EYES. PERHAPS THESE ARE, IN FACT, FEMININE FORMS AND THEY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SORT OF THE SENSE OF THE VESSEL AS THE CONTAINER OR SO THE VESSEL AS AN IMPORTANT SORT OF FERTILITY SYMBOL. THIS IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE FERTILITY RITES ASSOCIATED, AS WE'LL SEE WITH SHINTO, ARE IMPORTANT, PARTICULARLY WITH AN AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY AND THIS IS SOMETHING THAT JAPAN IS INCREASINGLY BECOMING AT THIS STAGE. THIS IS ANOTHER SMALL VESSEL, A SMALL BOWL, THAT IS MORE ENCLOSED THAT HAS A VERY DISTINCT DESIGN OVER THE SHOULDERS THAT HAS THE CORD MARKING ON IT. THIS ONE HAS A SPOUT NOW, WHICH IS VERY USEFUL FOR POURING. SO NOW THE VESSEL IS BECOMING MORE SOPHISTICATED AND THEY CAN BE USED IN A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT WAYS. BUT STILL THE SURFACE OF THEM ARE IMPORTANT. NOW, THESE ARE ALL HAND BUILT WORKS AND THEY'RE VERY LOW FIRED CLAY SO THESE, TO BEGIN WITH, WOULD BE SUN-DRIED AND THEN WITH LOW FIRE KILNED. VERY SIMPLE KILNS, NOTHING ELABORATE AT THIS STAGE. THEY'RE ALL UNGLAZED AS WELL. THESE ARE A SERIES OF SLIDES THAT I JUST WANT TO SHOW YOU TO GIVE YOU A SENSE OF HOW THE VESSELS WERE ACTUALLY MADE. THEY WERE NOT THROWN ON A POT. THEY WERE MADE FROM SLAB AND COIL USING THE COIL TECHNIQUE. THIS IS A VERY SIMPLE FORM AND, IN FACT, IT'S THE WAY MOST PEOPLE ARE INTRODUCED TO CERAMICS RIGHT IN SORT OF EARLY KINDERGARTEN PERIOD WHEN ONE WORKS WITH COILS AND SO BUILDS IT UP WITH ONE'S HANDS IN A SIMPLE WAY. BASKETS ARE USED TO SUPPORT THE BASE AS IT IS BUILT UP. SO THE LOWER PART HERE, THIS IS A BASKET AND THEN YOU GET THE UPPER PART BEING THE ACTUAL CLAY. OVER HERE WE CAN SEE A VARIETY OF DIFFERENT CORD MARKINGS. THESE ARE DESIGNS THAT SOME OF THEM ACTUALLY ARE BEYOND BEING STRAIGHT CORD MARKING. THESE ARE WOVEN PIECES. SO IT'S LIKE WOVEN MATTING THAT WOULD'VE BEEN IMPRESSED ON THE LEATHERED SURFACE OF THE ACTUAL CERAMIC BOWL. AND HERE IS A CORD THAT HAS BEEN MADE TO DEMONSTRATE HOW THE CORDS WOULD'VE BEEN JUST ROLLED OVER THE SURFACE OF THE VESSELS IN ORDER TO LEAVE THEIR IMPRINT AND DESIGN. AND AGAIN, THIS IS JUST A SERIES OF PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING HOW, AFTER THE VESSEL HAS BEEN LIFTED, THE TOP IS BUILT UP. AND WE CAN SEE IT STEP BY STEP. AND THEN HOW THE ADDITION OF THOSE DECORATIVE FLANGES ARE PUT ON THE TOP, AS YOU CAN SEE. AND THEN STICKS ARE USED TO DECORATE AND DESIGN THE SURFACE, THEN A WOODEN TOOL IS USED TO ACTUALLY CARVE OFF THE EXCESS CERAMIC PIECES OR TO MOLD OTHER PIECES ON. AND THEN THE ACTUAL CORD MARKINGS ARE APPLIED AT THE END. AND I CAN'T QUITE SEE WHAT'S HAPPENED HERE. OH, THIS IS THE ORIGINAL AND THIS IS THE COPY OF IT THAT HAS JUST BEEN MADE. SO THIS IS A WORK THAT DATES BACK TO PROBABLY AROUND 3,000 B.C. AND THIS IS A CONTEMPORARY COPY TO SHOW HOW IT WAS MADE. - -- - MM-HMM? - IS IT DONE POTTER'S WHEEL? - NO, NO, THIS IS NOT ON POTTER'S WHEEL. THIS WAS MADE BY THE COILING TECHNIQUE, ALL DONE BY HAND. THESE ARE SOME OF THE TOOLS, SIMPLE TOOLS, THAT WERE ALSO USED MADE OF WOOD. AND SOME OF THEM MIGHT ALSO HAVE BEEN MADE OF STONE. THIS IS AN INTERESTING ONE HERE BECAUSE THE DESIGN IS ALL THE WAY AROUND, SO IT CAN ACTUALLY BE ROLLED OVER THE SURFACE OF THE VESSEL, LEAVING A CONTINUOUS IMPRINT ALL THE WAY ALONG. I MEAN THIS FASCINATION WITH SURFACE D COR, SURFACE ENLIVENMENT, IS VERY IMPORTANT AND WE'LL FIND THAT GOES RIGHT THROUGH TO THE AIDO PERIOD, THE CONCERN, AS I SAY, WITH BEAUTIFYING AN OBJECT AND ESSENTIALLY MAKING AN AESTHETIC STATEMENT. THIS IS JUST A CLOSE-UP OF SOME SORT OF STICK MARKINGS. THESE ARE ACTUALLY MADE WITH STICKS AND IMPRESSIONED INTO THE SURFACE OF THE VESSEL. OKAY. NOW HERE WE HAVE-- THIS IS AN OLD KILN THAT HAS BEEN EXCAVATED FROM THE LATE JOMON PERIOD. IT IS MADE ALSO FROM-- THIS IS MADE ACTUALLY FROM STONE AND THE FIRES WOULD'VE BEEN PUT INSIDE OR UNDERNEATH AND THE VESSELS INSIDE. AND THIS WAS A PLACE FOR THE HEAT TO ESCAPE. SO A VERY SORT OF SIMPLE FORM OF KILN WAS USED AT THIS TIME. AND NOW I'M JUST SHOWING YOU SOME MORE VERY LOVELY PIECES WHERE YOU CAN SEE AGAIN THE FLAMBOYANT TREATMENT OF THE UPPER PART OF THE VESSEL, LONG BODY. I MEAN IT'S ALMOST SORT OF ANTHROPOMORPHIC IN A WAY. YOU CAN SORT OF SENSE THIS SORT OF THE LOWER PART OF THE BODY, THEN YOU GET THE UPPER PART OF THE BODY EVEN SORT OF WITH LIKE UPLIFTED ARMS. THESE ARE TWO PIECES THAT WE ACTUALLY HAVE IN OUR OWN MUSEUM. NOW, BEFORE WE ALL GET UPTIGHT WITH THE NUMBERS OF PIECES, THEY'RE ALL ON THE STUDY GUIDE. THIS IS B60, P932 ON THE LEFT AND B62, P52, B55 ON THE RIGHT. KAKUDO ONE AND TWO. I'M NOT GOING TO DO THIS, THOUGH, AFTER THIS. I'M GOING TO TELL YOU THAT THESE ARE IN THE MUSEUM. YOU'VE GOT A REFERENCE ON YOUR STUDY GUIDE AND ALSO IN HERE. SO YOU WILL HAVE SORT OF A REFERENCE TO ALL THE MUSEUM PIECES. WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO DO IS DRAW YOUR ATTENTION TO THESE ARE IN OUR COLLECTION. YOU'VE GOT IT HERE. AND THEN I WILL BE SHOWING YOU MANY OTHER WORKS THAT WILL ENHANCE WHAT WE HAVE IN THE COLLECTION. I'M TRYING TO GET TO CONTEXTUALIZE THE WORK SO YOU'LL GET AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW THEY FIT, WHAT THEY MEAN. SO I'M NOT GOING TO BE JUST TALKING ON OUR OWN PIECES. I THINK ALREADY YOU COULD SORT OF SENSE WHERE THEY BELONG AND ASSOCIATE THEM WITH THE PIECES I'VE ALREADY BEEN TALKING ABOUT. AGAIN, TWO MORE PIECES FROM THE MUSEUM. THIS WORK HERE VERY SIMILAR TO THAT OTHER SPOUTED WORK THAT WE SAW. IT'S A VERY PRETTY PIECE WITH ADDITIVE PIECES ON THE SHOULDERS. AND THEN WE'VE GOT THIS WONDERFUL WORK HERE WHICH PROBABLY IS AN INCENSE BURNER BECAUSE THE TOP IS ENCLOSED. THEREFORE, IT MAKES IT IMPRACTICAL TO SORT OF PUT THINGS INSIDE, BUT INCENSE COULD BE PLACED INSIDE AND THEN THE SORT OF SMOKE AND THE PERFUMES COULD SORT OF COME OUT THROUGH THE HOLES. NOW, SOME OF THE MOST ENDEARING PIECES ARE FROM THE JOMON DOGU. DOGU ARE FIGURINES MADE OF LOW FIRED CLAY, ALL AGAIN UNGLAZED. THESE ARE SMALL IMAGES VARYING IN SIZE FROM ABOUT THREE INCHES TO ABOUT NINE INCHES, THE LARGEST. THEY ARE ALL ANTHROPOMORPHIC, OR SEEMINGLY SO, BUT IN A HIGHLY ABSTRACT WAY. THEY REFLECT AGAIN THE IMAGES THAT WE HAVE SEEN, EARLY PIECES I'M SURE THAT YOU SAW FROM THE SHANG PERIOD IN CHINA AND THE EARLY INDUS VALLEY PIECES THAT WE SAW IN INDIA, THE FIGURINES THAT WOULD BE USED USUALLY FOR RITUAL PURPOSES VERY OFTEN, AGAIN, FOR FERTILITY. AND WHEN I USE THAT TERM FERTILITY I'M NOT JUST USING IT FOR SORT OF HUMAN FERTILITY BUT I'M USING IT IN THE BROAD UNIVERSAL SENSE OF SORT OF AGRICULTURAL FERTILITY OF WHICH MAN IS JUST A VERY SMALL PART. SO WHAT WE SEE, THESE EXTRAORDINARY SORT OF FIGURES, SOME OF THEM HAVE HEART-SHAPED FACES WITH PRONOUNCED ROUND EYES. AND THIS LOOKS LIKE A MOUTH. AND IT'S WEARING EARRINGS. THE HAIR APPEARS TO BE DONE IN A VERY DISTINCTIVE WAY. THESE APPENDAGES ARE SORT OF LIKE VESTIGIAL ARMS IN SOME WAY, AND THEN WE GET THE LEGS DOWN BELOW WHICH HAVE CORD MARKINGS ON THEM. WHAT IS INTERESTING IS THIS TREATMENT HERE THAT HAS BEEN INTERPRETED BOTH AS A PHALLIC SYMBOL AND A VAGINA. AND SO THIS IS SOMETHING THAT WE'LL SEE IN BOTH OF THEM, IN MANY OF THEM, WHERE THEY SEEM TO BE ANDROGYNOUS FIGURES THAT SORT OF HAVE BOTH OF THE SEXES WITHIN THEM. THEN WE GET A PIECE LIKE THIS WHICH IS REALLY HARD TO MAKE OUT AND ONE SORT OF REALLY WONDERS. THIS IS SORT OF WHERE THE EYES WERE, THAT WE'VE GOT THIS SORT OF SMALL POSSIBLY PHALLIC SYMBOL. THIS COULD BE THE WOMB RIGHT HERE. WE'RE NOT SURE. THERE'S A LOT OF SPECULATION. AND NO ONE HAS REALLY BEEN ABLE TO COME UP WITH ANYTHING CONCRETE. NOW, THESE ARE SOME MORE OF THE HEART-SHAPED FIGURES, OR HEART-SHAPED FACED FIGURES. THEY REALLY ARE QUITE LOVELY, VERY ENDEARING. THE EYES ARE ACTUALLY PROTRUDING AND THE NOSE IS VERY DISTINCTIVE. AGAIN, THE ARMS HAVE THIS VERY STRANGE SORT OF SMALL VESTIGIAL SORT OF STUMP-LIKE TREATMENT TO THEM AND HERE THE LEGS ARE VERY WIDE. THIS AREA, OF COURSE, RESEMBLING THE WOMB AREA BUT THEN WE GET THAT LINE COMING UP, POSSIBLY A PHALLIC SYMBOL, AND THEN PROTRUDING BREASTS AS WELL. THIS IS ACTUALLY THE BACK SO HERE YOU SEE THE BACK OF THIS ONE. AND THERE'S A HOLE-- IT'S ALMOST LIKE ONE COULD PUT A ROPE THROUGH THE BACK THERE AND SUSPEND THE PIECE. AND THEN MAYBE IT COULD EVEN BE WORN AS SOME SORT OF AMULET. OOPS, SORRY. I'M GOING THE WRONG WAY. NOW HERE WE HAVE A WONDERFUL SORT OF FACE. I CAN'T TELL, YOU KNOW, WHETHER HE'S SHOUTING OR SINGING, GRIMACING OR WHAT BUT IT LOOKS ALMOST LIKE A HALLOWEEN PUMPKIN. AND IT'S A MARVELOUS FACE. THE BODY IS QUITE SIMPLY DONE. AGAIN YOU'VE GOT THE FUNNY LITTLE ARMS THAT ARE SORT OF EXTENDING OUT. AND THEN WE GET THIS STRANGE FIGURE HERE, THIS VERTICAL SORT OF LINE HERE NOW ENDING IN THE CURL AT THE TOP BUT WITH NO RECOGNIZABLE SORT OF FACIAL FEATURES AT ALL, BUT DEFINITELY HAS SOME SORT OF ANTHROPOMORPHIC SENSE TO IT. IT'S SORT OF LIKE THE ABOMINABLE SNOW SNOWMAN. VERY DISTINCTIVE, THOUGH. HERE ARE SOME MORE PIECES, ANOTHER ONE WHICH HAS THIS FACE THAT YOU CAN'T-- IT'S ALMOST LIKE IT'S CALLING, IT'S SHOUTING, PERHAPS EVEN DEEP BREATHING. THAT'S ANOTHER POSSIBILITY. HERE AGAIN WE GET THIS VERTICAL PHALLIC SYMBOL BUT ALSO WITH THE BREASTS AND WITH THE-- I WANT TO CALL IT THE LINGER IN THE YONAI, YOU KNOW, SORT OF--BUT INCORPORATING THESE IMAGES WITHIN THEMSELVES. BUT WHAT I FIND INTERESTING IS IF YOU LOOK AT THIS FACE IT APPEARS THAT POSSIBLY IT IS A MASK BECAUSE THERE'S A VERY DISTINCT EDGE TO IT. AND IF THIS IS SO, IT MAY INDICATE SOME SORT OF MEDIUM OR SOME SORT OF SHAMANISTIC ROLE THAT IS BEING PLAYED AND THESE ARE FIGURINES RESEMBLING THE SHAMAN. AND SO PERHAPS THESE ARE SORT OF THREE DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS THAT ARE USED BY SHAMANS IN THEIR RITUALS BUT ALSO REFLECTING WHAT THEY MAY LOOK LIKE. AGAIN, THIS IS ANOTHER ONE WITH THE VERTICAL LINE DOWN THE FRONT, VERY PRONOUNCED USE OF THE BREASTS AS WELL. LET'S SEE. HERE, THE BREASTS HERE. BUT THEN THE TOP, PERHAPS THAT'S A HELMET. IT'S VERY HARD TO TELL. AND THEN TALKING ABOUT HELMETS, THIS DEFINITELY IS SOME SORT OF HELMET. THIS HAS BEEN DESCRIBED AS A BEEKEEPER. WELL, I MEAN, IT DOES LOOK LIKE SORT OF A BEEKEEPER'S HELMET BUT WHETHER THAT WAS THE CASE OR NOT, YOU KNOW, ONE'S NOT SURE. IT'S ALSO BEEN DESCRIBED AS A WOMAN WARRIOR BECAUSE OF THE PRONOUNCED BREASTS BUT OF COURSE WE DO HAVE THE PHALLUS AS WELL. AND WHETHER THIS REALLY IS A WOMAN OR--WE JUST DON'T KNOW. AND THEN WE GET A FIGURE LIKE THIS, WHICH IS QUITE DISTINCT. IT ALSO HAS MORE PRONOUNCED FEET AS WELL, BUT YOU GET THE SMALL BREASTS AND THAT VERTICAL LINE. THIS ONE IS ONE OF THE TRULY ENIGMATIC CHARACTERS. IT HAS GOT AN EXTRAORDINARY ALMOST FELINE TYPE OF FACE TO IT. HOWEVER, THE BODY SORT OF HAS LIKE AN ARM WITH WEBS. THIS IS ALMOST LIKE A SORT OF DUCK'S SORT OF WEBBING BETWEEN THE JOINTS OF THE FINGERS, WHATEVER. IT ALSO, THE BODY IS COVERED OR IMPRESSED WITH A DOTTED PATTERN. THIS HAS--IT'S BEEN SUGGESTED THAT THIS IS POSSIBLY FUR OR IT MIGHT EVEN BE A ROBE THAT'S BEEN WORN. AGAIN, IT IS HARD TO TELL. I THINK THERE'S A POSSIBILITY THAT MAYBE THIS AGAIN IS A MASK BECAUSE OF THE WAY IN WHICH IT IS SORT OF ADDED ON TO THE SORT OF FRONT OF THE HEAD AREA. OF COURSE, THIS IS ALL PRESUMPTUOUS. AND THEN WE GET THESE WONDERFUL DOGUS. ALL OF THESE COME FROM LIKE THE MIDDLE AND LATE JOMON PERIOD. THESE ARE HOLLOW FIGURINES. THEY'RE NOT SOLID. VERY THIN WALLS WHICH IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE THE THIN WALLS INDICATE A SOPHISTICATED TREATMENT OF THE CLAY AND THE ABILITY OF THE CRAFTSMAN TO HANDLE CLAY IN THIS WAY. NOW, THESE ARE LIKE BUG EYES. THEY LOOK LIKE SORT OF FLIES THAT HAVE-- YOU'VE SEEN IT UNDER A MAGNIFYING GLASS. THESE ONES HAVE ALSO BEEN DESCRIBED AS WEARING SNOW GOGGLES, WHETHER IN SORT OF 3,000 TO 5,000 B.C. THEY WERE IN FACT WEARING SNOW GOGGLES I DON'T KNOW. BUT AGAIN IT COULD BE SOME SORT OF MASK. ALSO, IT IS A FACT THAT, YOU KNOW, THIS DOES COME FROM THE SNOW AREAS AND FROM SUN YOU DO CLOSE YOUR EYES TO TRY TO KEEP THE SUN OUT. BUT IT'S ALSO BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EYE AS BEING ESSENTIALLY THE PASSAGE TO THE INNER SOUL, TO THE SPIRIT. AND BECAUSE THESE ARE HOLLOW IT COULD BE A RECEPTOR FOR THE KAMI. AGAIN, SPECULATION. I'M FASCINATED BY THE ACTUAL TEXTILE OR SEEMINGLY SORT OF BODY COVER TEXTILES THAT THE FIGURES ARE WEARING, VERY DISTINCTIVE TYPE OF PATTERNS. IN THIS INSTANCE THE VERTICAL LINE HAS SORT OF CONVOLUTED INTO THESE WONDERFUL CURLICUES BUT WE DO GET THE BREASTS. SO DOGU COME IN ALL SHAPES AND SIZES. NOW, THIS HERE IS A PHOTOGRAPH OF SOME TRIBALS FROM SUMMER IN ETHIOPIA WHO ARE ACTUALLY DOING BODY PAINTING WITH A SORT OF A WHITE FLOUR-BASED PAINT. AND I'M SHOWING YOU THIS BECAUSE THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY THAT THESE DESIGNS THAT WE'VE SEEN ON ALL OF THE DOGU ARE, IN FACT, REFLECTIONS OF DECORATING THE BODY AND BODY PAINTINGS. ANOTHER HAS--SUGGESTION, OF COURSE, IS THAT THEY ARE WEARING A FORM OF CLOTHING AND THAT IS A POSSIBILITY, BUT I THINK PARTICULARLY WITH REGARD TO THE FACES AND THE TREATMENT OF THE FACES, THE PAINTING OF THE FACES, THAT DOES CALL FROM SOME OTHER TREATMENT BEYOND TEXTILE. ALSO WE SEE THE BREASTS SO CLEARLY. THAT'S ANOTHER THING. NOW, THIS WOMAN IS FROM HOKKAIDO. SHE'S AN AINU AND THIS IS A PHOTOGRAPH THAT WAS TAKEN IN THE 1920S. AND IF YOU LOOK CAREFULLY YOU SEE THAT HER MOUTH HAS BEEN TATTOOED. SO THAT'S LIKE A TATTOOED MUSTACHE. SO THERE'S THE POSSIBILITY ALSO THAT THE BODY MAY HAVE BEEN TATTOOED AS WELL, THE WHOLE BODY AND OF COURSE THE FACE. WHICH REMINDS ME, OF COURSE, THE TATTOOING SOME OF YOU MAY BE FAMILIAR WITH, THE VERY ELABORATE AND DEVELOPED FORM OF TATTOOING THAT IS EXTANT IN JAPAN TODAY WHERE WHOLE BODY TATTOOS TAKE PLACE. MAYBE SOME OF THAT WAS GOING ON AT THIS TIME. SO THESE ARE SORT OF THINGS TO THINK ABOUT. AND THEN THESE ARE TWO SMALL HEADS, BOTH OF WHICH ARE IN OUR COLLECTION HERE AND I MANAGED TO GET SLIDES OF IT WITHOUT-- BUT I'D ALREADY DONE THE STUDY GUIDE, SO THESE PIECES THAT WE HAVE AND THE REFERENCE OF COURSE WILL BE IN KAKUDO'S CATALOGUE. SO THIS GIVES US AN INTRODUCTION TO THIS VERY VITAL PERIOD OF THE SORT OF NEOLITHIC PERIOD OF JAPANESE HISTORY, THE PREHISTORICAL TIME WHEN EXTRAORDINARY THINGS WERE BEGINNING TO BE MADE AND IT INDICATES A VERY STRONG AESTHETIC AND CREATIVE SENSE. SO LET'S TAKE A BREAK NOW, JUST 10 MINUTES. WHAT I REALLY ENCOURAGE ALL OF YOU TO DO IS TO GO UPSTAIRS. WE'RE GOING TO GET EXERCISE NOW. YOU HAVE TO WALK UPSTAIRS-- THAT'S EVEN BETTER FOR YOU-- AND TO VISIT THE GALLERIES TO LOOK AT THE JAPANESE CERAMICS THAT ARE ON DISPLAY AND IT'S ALL UP THERE. SO I WOULD HIGHLY RECOMMEND YOU DOING IT SORT OF LIKE RIGHT AFTER THE CLASS SO IT'S RIGHT FRESH IN YOUR MEMORY. OR WHENEVER YOU'RE IN THE MUSEUM JUST WALK PAST IT. EVERY TIME YOU LOOK AT THEM THESE THINGS WILL START TO BECOME ENGRAINED ON YOUR CONSCIENCE. SO WE'RE REALLY FORTUNATE TO BE WORKING WITH THIS COLLECTION RIGHT HERE.

Contents

Outline

Oldest pottery in Japan

The pottery vessels crafted in Ancient Japan during the Jōmon period are generally accepted to be the oldest pottery in Japan and among the oldest in the world.[1]

Dating

Odai Yamamoto I site in Aomori Prefecture currently has the oldest pottery in Japan. Excavations in 1998 uncovered forty-six earthenware fragments which have been dated as early as 14,500 BC (ca 16,500 BP); this places them among the earliest pottery currently known.[2] This appears to be plain, undecorated pottery. Such a date puts the development of pottery before the warming at the end of the Pleistocene.

'Linear-relief' pottery was also found at Fukui Cave Layer III dating to 13,850–12,250 BC. This site is located in Nagasaki prefecture, Kyushu. Both linear-relief, and 'nail-impressed' pottery were found at Torihama shell mound, in Fukui prefecture, dating to 12000-11000 BC.[3]

Bits of pottery discovered in a cave in the northwest coast of modern-day Kyushu date back to as far as 12,700 BCE in radiometric dating tests.[4]

It is believed by many that Jōmon pottery was probably made even earlier than this date. However, due to ambiguity and multiple sources claiming different dates based on different dating techniques, it is difficult to say for sure how far back Jōmon Pottery was made. Some sources claim archaeological discoveries as far back as the 14th millennium BCE.[1][5]

Chronology

The Jōmon Period in Ancient Japan lasted until roughly 300 BCE. From there, it is divided into six periods: Incipient Jōmon, from 10,500–8,000 BCE, Earliest Jōmon, from 8,000–5,000 BCE, Early Jōmon, from 5,000–2,500 BCE, Middle Jōmon, from 2,500- 1,500 BCE, Late Jōmon, from 1,500–1,000 BCE, and Final Jōmon, from 1,000–300 BCE.[6] There are over 80 sites in Japan where Incipient Jōmon pottery vessels have been found,[5][7] but the majority of Jōmon pottery remains come from the later periods.

It was later followed by the Yayoi pottery.

Characteristics

The majority of Jōmon pottery has rounded bottoms and the vessels are typically small. This shows that the vessels would typically be used to boil food, perhaps fitting into a fire.[8] Later Jōmon pottery pieces are more elaborate, especially during the Middle Jōmon period, where the rims of pots became much more complex and decorated.[4]

The name Jōmon itself means “rope-patterned”. This refers to the impressions on the surface of the pottery which were created by pressing rope into the clay before it was heated to approximately 600–900 degrees Celsius.[4]

A specific type of clay figurines produced during this period are the dogū.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Craig, O.E; Saul, H. "Earliest evidence for the use of pottery". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature12109.
  2. ^ Kaner, S. (2003). "Jomon pottery, Japan". Current World Archaeology. Current Publishing. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 27 Sep 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. ^ Junko Habu, Ancient Jomon of Japan. Volume 4 of Case Studies in Early Societies. Cambridge University Press, 2004 ISBN 0521776708 p.29
  4. ^ a b c Rice, Prudence M. “On the Origins of Pottery.” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 6, no. 1 (1999): 1–54. Database on-line. Springerlink; accessed October 3, 2007.
  5. ^ a b Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. “Chronology of the earliest pottery in East Asia: progress and pitfalls.” Antiquity 80, (2006): 362–371. Database on-line. EBSCOhost; accessed October 3, 2007.
  6. ^ Hall, M. E. “Pottery Styles during the Early Jomon Period: Geochemical Perspectives on the Moroiso and Ukishima Pottery Styles.” Archaeometry 43, no. 1 (2001): 59–75. Database on-line. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost; accessed October 5, 2007.
  7. ^ The Maebashi-shi Board of Education (2016). "移りゆく縄文土器". Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
  8. ^ Pearson, Richard. “Debating Jomon Social Complexity.” Asian Perspectives 46, no.2 (2007): 361–388. Database on-line. Project Muse; accessed October 5, 2007.

External links

Media related to Jōmon pottery at Wikimedia Commons

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