To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Islamic dynasties of Iran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of kings of Iran of the medieval Islamic period, AD 820 to 1432, arranged genealogically.

For the early Islamic period before 820, see:

For the period after 1506, see

See also Iranian monarchy.

Tahirid dynasty (820–872)

Tahirid dynasty at its greatest extent.
Tahirid dynasty at its greatest extent.
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Tahirid dynasty,[1] 821–872
1 Taher I Emir, Governor-General ?–822 821 822 son of Hoseyn son of Mos'ab
2 Talheh Governor-General ?–828 822 828 son of Taher I
3 Abdollah Governor-General 798–844 828 844
4 Taher II Governor-General ?–862 844 862
5 Mohammad Governor-General ?–890 862 872


Mos'eb
Husayn
Tahir I
(821–822)1
Ibrahim
Talha
(822–828)2
Abdallah
(828–845)3
Ishaq
Tahir II
(845–862)4
MuhammadUbaydallahSulaymanMuhammadAbdullah
Muhammad
(862–872)5

Alavid dynasty (864–928)

Hasanids

Zayd
Hasan
al-Da'i ila'l-Haqq
864–884
Muhammad
al-Da'i ila'l-Haqq
884–900
Hasan
al-Da'i ila'l-Haqq
917–919, 919–923, 927–928

The Samanids captured Tabaristan, and the Alavids fled to Gilan in exile, 900–913.

Husaynids

Ali
Muhammad
QasimMuhammad
Hasan al-Utrush
914–917
Ja'far
919, 923–925
Ahmad
919, 923
Muhammad
925–927
Husayn
927, 929

Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)

Map of the Saffarid Dynasty (861 CE-1003 CE).
Map of the Saffarid Dynasty (861 CE-1003 CE).
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Saffarid dynasty, 861–1002
1 Ya'qub Emir, Great Founder 840–879 872 879 son of Leyth
2 Amr I Emir ?–901 870 901 brother of Ya'qub
3 Tahir I Emir 883–908 901 908
4 Al-Layth Emir ?–928 908 910
5 Mohammad Emir ?–? 910 911
6 Ahmad Emir, Governor-General 906–963 923 963
7 Khalaf I Emir 937–1009 963 1002


Laith
Ya'qub
867–879
TaherAliAmr
879–901
Layth
908–910
Muhammad
910–912
Muhammad
KhalafTâhir
901–908
Ya`qûb
Muhammad`Amr
912–913
Ahmad
922–963
Khalaf
963–1003

Samanid dynasty (819–999)

Samanid Empire at its greatest extent.
Samanid Empire at its greatest extent.
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Samanid dynasty, 819–1005
1 Ahmad I ?–864/5 819 864/5
2 Nasr I ?–892 864/5 892
3 Isma'il I Adel ?–907 892 907
4 Ahmad II Shaheed ?–914 907 914
5 Nasr II
Nasr II Samarqand coin 921 922.jpg
Saeed ?–943 914 942
6 Nuh I Hamid ?–954 942 954
7 'Abd al-Malik I Rashid ?–? 954 961
8 Mansur I Mo'ayyed ?–976 961 976
9 Nuh II Radhi ? –997 976 996
10 Mansur II Abol Hareth ?–999 996 999
11 'Abd al-Malik II Abol Favares ?–? 999 999
12 Isma'il II Montaser ?–1005 1000 1005


Saman Khuda
Asad
NuhAhmad IYahya
819–855
Ilyas
Nasr I
864–892
Isma'il I
892–907
Ahmad II
907–914
Nasr II
914–943
Nuh I
943–954
'Abd al-Malik I
954–961
Mansur I
961–976
Nuh II
976–997
Mansur II
997–999
'Abd al-Malik II
999)
Isma'il II
al-Muntasir

Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Ziyarid dynasty, 928–1043 AD
1 Mardavij Abolhajjaj, Emir ?–934 928 934 son of Ziyar
2 Voshmgir Abutaher ?–967 934 967 son of Ziyar
3 Bisotoon Zahir od-Dowleh ?–976 967– 976 son of Voshmgir
4 Qabus Shams ol-Ma'ali, Abolhasan 976 1012 son of Voshmgir
5 Manuchehr Falak ol-Ma'ali 1012 1031 son of Qabus
6 Anushiravan Sharaf ol-Ma'ali 1031 1043 son of Manuchehr
7 Keykavous Onsor ol-Ma'ali son of Eskandar son of Qabus
8 Gilanshah son of Keykavous


Vardanshah
Ziyar
Mardavij
930-935
Vushmgir
935-967
FarhadBisutun
967-977
Qabus
977-1012
Manuchihr
1012-1031
DaraIskandar
Anushirvan
1030-1050
Keikavus
1050-1087
Gilanshah
1087-1090

Buyid dynasty (934–1062)

Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent.
Buyid Dynasty at its greatest extent.
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Buyids of Fars (933–1062)
Imad al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir, Amir al-umara 891 – 949 934 949 Son of Buya Also Senior Buyid Emir (934-949)
Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw
Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir, Shahanshah 936–983 949 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla and nephew of Imad al-Dawla Senior Buyid Emir (976-983) and Emir of Iraq (978-983)
Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil Emir, Amir al-umara 962–989 983 989 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir and Emir of Iraq (987-989)
Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzuban Emir, King 964–998 989 998 son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir of Iraq and self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986)
Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz
Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir, King, Shahanshah 971–1012 998 1012 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir of Iraq (988-1012) and Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012)
Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja Emir 992–1024 1012 1024 Son of Baha' al-Dawla Also Emir of Iraq and Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021)
Abu Kalijar Marzuban
AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir, Shahanshah ?1011 – 1048 1024 1048 Son of Sultan al-Dawla Also Emir of Kerman (1028-1048), Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048) and Emir of Iraq (1044-1048)
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun Emir ?–1062 1048 1054 Son of Abu Kalijar Lost Fars to Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah Emir ?–? 1051 1054 Son of Abu Kalijar Lost Fars to Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun Emir ?–1062 1054 1062 Son of Abu Kalijar Killed by the Shabankara tribal chief Fadluya
Buyids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamadan (935–1038)
Rukn al-Dawla Abu Ali Hasan
Ruknal-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir, Amir al-umara 898–976 935 976 Son of Buya Also Senior Buyid Emir (949-976)
Fakhr al-Dawla
(First reign)
Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir 952–997 976 980 Son of Rukn al-Dawla
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla Abu Mansur
Muayyadal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir 941–983 976 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir of Hamadan (976–983), Jibal (977–983), Tabaristan (980–983), and Gorgan (981–983)
Fakhr al-Dawla
(Second reign)
Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir, King, Shahanshah 983–997 976 997 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir of Hamadan & Tabaristan (984-997) and Senior Buyid Emir (991-997)
Majd al-Dawla Abu Taleb Rostam
AbuTalebRostamCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir 993–1029 997 1029 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla Only in Rey, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Shams al-Dawla Abu Taher
Shamsal-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir ?–1021 997 1021 Son of Fakhr al-Dawla Only in Isfahan and Hamaedan, briefly self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir
Sama' al-Dawla Abu'l-Hasan Ali Emir ?–1023 1021 1023 Son of Shams al-Dawla Only in Hamadan, Deposed by Kakuyids
Buyids of Iraq and Khuzistan (945–1055)
Mu'izz al-Dawla Abu'l-Husayn Ahmad Emir, Amir al-umara 915–966 945 966 Son of Buya
Izz al-Dawla Abu Mansur Bakhtiyar Emir, Amir al-umara 943–979 966 979 Son of Mu'izz al-Dawla Self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (976-978)
Adud al-Dawla Fanna Khusraw
Adud al-DawlaCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir, Shahanshah 937–983 977 983 Son of Rukn al-Dawla Also Emir of Fars (949-983) and Senior Buyid Emir (976-983)
Samsam al-Dawla Abu Kalijar Marzban Emir, King 964–998 983 987 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also self-proclaimed Senior Buyid Emir (983-986) and Emir of Fars & Kerman (989-998)
Sharaf al-Dawla Abu'l-Fawaris Shirdil Emir, Amir al-umara 962–989 987 989 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Emir of Fars (983-989) and Senior Buyid Emir (987-989)
Baha' al-Dawla Abu Nasr Firuz
Baha' al-DawlaBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir 970–1012 989 1012 Son of Adud al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir (997-1012) and Emir of Fars (999-1012)
Sultan al-Dawla Abu Shuja Emir 992–1024 1012 1021 Son of Baha' al-Dawla Also Senior Buyid Emir (1012-1021) and Emir of Fars (1012-1024)
Musharrif al-Dawla Abu 'Ali Emir, Shahanshah, King 1002–1025 1021 1025 Son of Baha' al-Dawla Closest thing to Senior Buyid Emir (1024-1025)
Jalal al-Dawla Abu Tahir Jalal al-Dawla Emir 994–1043 1027 1043 Son of Baha' al-Dawla
Abu Kalijar Marzuban
AbuKalijarBuyidCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Emir, Shahanshah ?1011 – 1048 1043 1048 Son of Sultan al-Dawla Also Emir of Fars (1024-1048), Emir of Kerman (1028-1048) and Senior Buyid Emir (1037-1048)
Al-Malik al-Rahim Abu Nasr Khusrau Firuz Emir ?–1058 1048 1055 Son of Abu Kalijar Also Senior Buyid Emir (1051-1055). Deposed by Tughril of the Seljuqs


Imad al-Dawla
934–949
Rukn al-Dawla
935–976
Mu'izz al-Dawla
945–967
Fakhr al-Dawla
976–997
'Adud al-Dawla
949–983
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
980–983
Izz al-Dawla
967–978
Shams al-Dawla
997–1021
Majd al-Dawla
997–1029
Sharaf al-Dawla
983–989
Samsam al-Dawla
983–998
Baha' al-Dawla
998–1012
Sama' al-Dawla
1021–1024
Fana-KhusrauQawam al-Dawla
1012–1028
Sultan al-Dawla
1012–1024
Musharrif al-Dawla
1021–1025
Jalal al-Dawla
1027–1044
Abu Kalijar
1024–1048
Al-Malik al-Aziz
Abu Ali Fana-KhusrauAbu Mansur Fulad Sutun
1048–1062
Al-Malik al-Rahim
1048–1055
KamravaAbu'l-Muzaffar BahramAbu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
Abu'l-Ghana'im al-MarzubanSurkhab

Ghaznavids (963–1187)

Ghaznavid dynasty at the greatest extent.
Ghaznavid dynasty at the greatest extent.
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Ghaznavid dynasty, 955–1186 AD
1 Alptigin Emir 880–963 955 963
2 Eshaq Emir ?–966 963 966 son of Alptigin
3 Belkatigin Emir ?–972 966 972
4 Piritigin Emir ?–976 972 976 Killed
5 Sabuktigin Naser od-Din, Abumansur, Emir 942–997 976 997 son of Juq Qarabajkam
6 Esma'il Emir ?–? 997 998 son of Sabuktigin Abdicated
7 Mahmud
Sultan-Mahmud-of-Ghazni.jpg
Yameen od-Dowleh, Abolqasem, Soltan 971–1030 998 1030 son of Sabuktigin
8 Mohammad I Jalal od-Dowleh, Abuahmad, Soltan 997–1040 1030 1030 son of Mahmud Deposed by Mas'ud I
9 Mas'ud I Shahab od-Dowleh, Abusa'd, Soltan 997–1040 1030 1040 son of Mahmud
8 Mohammad I Jalal od-Dowleh, Abuahmad, Soltan 997–1040 1040 1040 son of Mahmud Killed by Mowdud
10 Mowdud Shahab od-Dowleh, Abolfath, Soltan 1011–1049 1040 1049 son of Mas'ud I
11 Mas'ud II Soltan ?–? 1049 1049 ?
12 Ali Baha' od-Dowleh, Abolhasan, Soltan ?–? 1049 1049 son of Mas'ud I
13 Mohammad II Soltan ?–? 1049 1049 son of Mowdud
14 Abd or-Rashid Ezz od-Dowleh, Abumansur, Soltan 1022–1052 1049 1052 son of Mahmud
15 Toghrel Soltan ?–1052 1052 1052 Usurper. Killed
16 Farrokhzad Jamal od-Dowleh, Abushoja', Soltan 1026–1059 1052 1059 son of Mas'ud I
17 Ebrahim Zaheer od-Dowleh, Abolmozaffar, Soltan 1026 or 1040–1098 1059 1098 son of Mas'ud I
18 Mas'ud III Ala' od-Dowleh, Abusa'id, Soltan 1061–1114 1098 1114 son of Ebrahim
19 Shirzad Kamal od-Dowleh, Soltan ?–? 1114 1115 son of Mas'ud III
20 Arsalan Shah Soltan od-Dowleh, Abolfat'h, Soltan 1083–1117/8 1115 1117/8 son of Mas'ud III
21 Baharm Shah Yameen od-Dowleh, Abolmozaffar, Soltan ?–1152 1117/8 1152 son of Mas'ud III
22 Khosrow Shah Taj od-Dowleh, Abushoja', Soltan ?–1160 1152 1160 son of Baharm Shah
23 Khosrow Malek Saraj od-Dowleh, Abolmolook, Soltan ?–1193 1160 1186 son of Khosrow Shah


Alptigin
963–977
EbrahimPiriSebük Tigin
977–997
Belka Tigin
Ismail
997–998
Mahmud
998–1030
Mohammed
1st, 1030–1031
2nd, 1041
Mass'ud I
1031–1041
Maw'dud
1041–1050



Nasrid dynasty (Sistan) (1029–1225)

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Nasrid dynasty (Sistan),[2] 1029-1225
1 Tadj al-Din I Abu l-Fadl Nasr Malik 1029 1073 Malik of Sistan under the Ghaznavids
2 Baha al-Dawala Tahir ibn Nasr Malik 1073 1088 son of Tadj al-Din I Nasr
3 Badr al-Dawala Abu ‘l-‘Abbas ibn Nasr Malik 1088 1090 son of Tadj al-Din I Nasr
4 Baha al-Dawala Khalaf ibn Nasr Malik 1090 1106 son of Tadj al-Din I Nasr
5 Taj al-Din II Nasr ibn Khalaf Malik 1106 1164 son of Baha al-Dawala Khalaf
6 Taj al-Din II Nasr ibn Khalaf Malik 1164 1169 son of Baha al-Dawala Khalaf
7 Taj al-Din II Nasr ibn Khalaf Malik 1106 1164 son of Baha al-Dawala Taj al-Din II Nasr
8 Taj al-Din III Harb ibn Muhammad ibn Nasr
Nasrid-coin-obv-Taj.png
Malik 1169 1213 grandson of Tadj al-Din I Nasr Vassal to the Ghurids
9 Yamin al-Din Bahram Shah ibn Harb Malik 1213 1221 son of Taj al-Din III Harb Killed during the Mongol invasion, ushering in a period of succession instability and subsequent dissolution.
10 Taj al-Din IV Nasr ibn Bahram Shah Malik 1221 1221 son of Bahram Shah
11 Shihab al-Din Mahmud I ibn Harb Malik 1221 1225 son of Taj al-Din III Harb
12 Rukn al-Din Mahmud ibn Bahram Shah Malik 1221 1222 son of Bahram Shah
13 Abu ‘l-Muzaffar Ali ibn Harb Malik 1222 1222 son of Taj al-Din III Harb
14 Ala al-Din Ahman ibn Uthman Nasr al-Din ibn Harb Malik 1223 1223 son of Taj al-Din III Harb
15 Uthman Shah ibn Uthman Nasr al-Din ibn Harb Malik 1225 1225 son of Taj al-Din III Harb



Great Seljuq Empire, 1037–1194

A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
A map showing the Great Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Seljuq Empire, 1029–1194
1 Toğrül I Mohammad Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Beg, Sultan 995–1063 1029 1063 son of Mikayil son of Seljuq
2 Alp Arslan Mohammad Azad od-Dowleh, Abushoja', Sultan 1029–1072 1064 1072 son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I killed by a captured soldier
3 Malik Shah I Hasan
Büyük Selçuklu Sultanı Melikşah.jpg
Jalal od-Dowleh, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1055–1092 1072 1092 son of Alp Arslan killed by assassins
4 Mahmud I Nasir od-Din, abolqasem, Sultan 1086–1094 1092 1094 son of Malik Shah I
5 Barkiyaruq Mohammad Rukn od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan 1080–1105 1094 1105 son of Malik Shah I
6 Malik Shah II Mu'izz od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1101–? 1105 1105 son of Barkiyaruq deposed & blinded by Mohammad I
7 Mohammad I Tapar Ghiyath od-Din, Abushoja', Sultan 1082–1118 1105 1118 son of Malik Shah I
8 Sanjar Ahmad Mu'izz od-Din, Abolhareth, Sultan 1087–1157 1097 1157 son of Malik Shah I
9 Mahmud II Moghith od-Din, Sultan 1104–1131 1118 1131 son of Mohammad I
10 Dawud Moghith od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ?–1132 1131 1132 son of Mahmud II
11 Toğrül II Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Sultan 1109–1134 1132 1134 son of Mohammad I
12 Mas'ud Ghiath od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1109–1152 1134 1152 son of Mohammad I
13 Malik Shah III Moghith od-Din, Sultan 1128–1160 1152 1153 son of Mahmud II
14 Mohammad II Ghith od-Din, Abushoja', Sultan 1128–1160 1153 1160 son of Mahmud II
15 Süleyman Shah Mu'izz od-Din, Abolhareth, Sultan 1118–1162 1160 1161 son of Mohammad I deposed
16 Arsalan Rukn od-Din, Sultan 1134–1176 1161 1176 son of Toğrül II
17 Toğrül III Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Sultan ?–1194 1176 1194 son of Arsalan killed

Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty (1077–1231)

Khwarazmian Empire at its greatest extent.
Khwarazmian Empire at its greatest extent.
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Khwārazm-Shāh Empire, 1153–1231
1 Atsiz Ala' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan ?–1156 1153 1156 son of Muhammad I of Khwarazm Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127
2 Il-Arslan Taj od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ?–1171 1156 1172 son of Atsiz
3 Soltanshah Mahmud Jalal od-Din, Abolqasem, Sultan ?–1172 1172 1193 son of Il-Arslan
4 Tekish Ala' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan ?–1199 1172 1200 son of Il-Arslan
5 Mohammad Ala' od-Din, Qotb od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ?–1221 1200 1221 son of Tekish
6 Mingburnu Jalal od-Din, Sultan ?–1231 1220 1231 son of Mohammad II Killed


Anushtiginids

Anush Tigin
1077–1097
Muhammad I
1097–1127
Aziz
1127–1156
Il-Arslan
1156–1172
Sultan Shah
1172–1193
Takesh
1172–1200
Muhammad II
1200–1220
Jalal al-Din
1220–1231

- Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia, 1218–1221


- Mongol Empire, 1231–1256
- Ilkhanate, 1256–1335

Chupanids (1335–1357)


Chupan
HassanTimurtashDemasq KajaShaikh MahmoudBagdad Katun
Hassan KuchakMalek AshrafDelsad Katun

Muzaffarids (1335–1393)


Sharaf al-Din Mozaffar
Mubariz al-Din Muhammad
1314–1358
Imad al-Din Ahmad
1387–1391
BayazidSharaf al-Din MuzaffarShah Shuja
1335–1364
1366–1384
Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud
1358–1366
Shah Mansur
1391–1393
Mubariz al-Din Shah Yahya
1387–1391
Mujahid al-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali
1384–1387

Jalayirids (1335–1432)


Husein Gurkandaughter of Arghun
Hasan Buzurg
1336–1356
Delsad Katun
Uvais I
1356–1374
AlishahHusain I
1374–1382
Ahmad
1383–1410
Hasan
1374
Shah Valad
1410–1411
Tandura KhatunAl'a od-Dowleh
Mahmud
1411–1415
Uvais II
1415–1421
Mohammed
1421–1422
Husain II
1424–1432

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Tahirids were among the first Persian Iranian dynasties after the Arab conquest.
  2. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth (January 1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. pp. 211–. ISBN 978-0-231-10714-3.

Bibliography

  • Zambaur, E. Manuel (1927). de genealogie et de chronologie pour l'historie de l'Islam. Hannover.
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1967). The Islamic Dynasties: a Chronological and Genealogical survey. Edinburgh.
  • The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 4, The Period From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge University Press, 1975.
  • The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, Cambridge University Press, 1968.
  • The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 6, The Timurid and Safavid Periods, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 7, From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 02:24
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.