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Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Christian and a Muslim playing chess, illustration from the Book of Games of Alfonso X (c. 1285).[1]
A Christian and a Muslim playing chess, illustration from the Book of Games of Alfonso X (c. 1285).[1]

During the high medieval period, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via Andalusia, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant. These included Latin translations of the Greek Classics and of Arabic texts in astronomy, mathematics, science, and medicine. Other contributions included technological and scientific innovations via the Silk Road, including Chinese inventions such as paper and gunpowder.

The Islamic world also influenced other aspects of medieval European culture, partly by original innovations made during the Islamic Golden Age, including various fields such as the arts, agriculture, alchemy, music, pottery, etc.

Many Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including English, mostly via Old French, date from this period.[2] This includes traditional star names such as Aldebaran, scientific terms like alchemy (whence also chemistry), algebra, algorithm, etc. and names of commodities such as sugar, camphor, cotton, coffee, etc.

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  • ✪ The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7
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Transcription

The religion of Islam significantly influenced knowledge-making in the greater Mediterranean and western Asian world. Islamicate scholars—meaning people influenced by Islamic civilization, regardless of their religious views—gave us terms such as “algebra,” “azimuth,” “algorithm,” “alcohol,” “alkali,” and “alembic.” We’ll dive into Islamic medicine and philosophers such as the great Persian polymath Ibn Sina in future episodes. For now, let’s explore the beginnings of Islamicate natural philosophy. [Intro Music Plays] Islamicate power expanded rapidly after the Prophet Muhammad’s death in CE 632. What began as one vast Arab-governed state soon fractured into two spheres of political influence: a western one centered in southern Spain, with a capital at Córdoba, and an eastern one including the great cities of northern Africa as well as Arabia and Mesopotamia. This eastern empire, the highly urbanized Abbasid Caliphate, existed in some form, increasingly fragmented, from 750–1517. The Abbasid Caliphate was a crossroads or trading zone for Persian, Indian, and Byzantine cultures, as well as for the religions of Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Many languages flourished across the Abbasid Caliphate, as they did in the Emirate of Córdoba. This blend of cultures and belief systems made early Islamicate science cosmopolitan—that is, generally inclusive in character. A high literacy rate thanks to Islam’s focus on the Qur’an meant that many people—well, noble men, at least—could study natural philosophical texts. Further, Islam-the-religion called on its adherents to treat others as equals, helping make Islamicate knowledge production more egalitarian. And ongoing support by pious philanthropists including heads of states allowed Islamicate polymaths to study natural phenomena systematically. Baghdad, the first Abbasid capital, was founded by its second caliph, al-Mansur, in 754. A sprawling metropolis quickly grew up around the original, carefully planned city. And Baghdad became the largest urban area in the world by 930, with a population of one million. Key for our story today: Baghdad housed the Bayt al-Ḥikmah or House of Wisdom. This great library grew out of al-Mansur’s private collection, which he opened up to visiting scholars, including delegations from India. Al-Mansur’s successor, Caliph al-Rashid, carried on this tradition. Al-Rashid also supported the Translation Movement, which we’ll get to shortly. But first, let’s reflect on his rule as a great example of the cosmopolitan character of the early Abbasids. Charlemagne sent a mission from France to al-Rashid’s court in 799 with gifts. So in 802, al-Rashid sent Charlemagne an embassy including an elephant named Abul-Abbas and a water clock that featured clockwork knights who emerged once per hour. You could see the elephant’s journey as one origin of veterinary science: the Abbasid diplomats kept the elephant healthy walking from India to Baghdad to France, and it lived for years after in captivity. And, to the Franks, the water clock was simply mind-blowing, something they’d never even imagined! But it was al-Rashid’s successor, Caliph al-Maʾmūn, who in 832 refounded the House of Wisdom specifically as an international center for translation and research. Al-Maʾmūn was involved in the House’s daily operations, and he sponsored knowledge production programmatically, inspiring his successors to do the same. By 850, the House of Wisdom had become the largest library in the world. Al-Maʾmūn sponsored families of scholar–translators to bring useful texts into Arabic from Greek, Chinese, Sanskrit, Persian, and Syriac. This should be known as the “Useful Texts into Arabic Movement” but, for some reason, is called the Translation Movement instead. This movement began with Persian texts concerning astrology and astronomy. Remember that, across the ancient and medieval worlds, astronomy was the study of the heavens, and astrology the study of the influence of heavenly bodies on earthly matters. While both were studied, astrology was seen as more useful. After texts about the stars, the translators moved onto others. To feed this program, al-Maʾmūn sent emissaries to collect Greek scientific manuscripts from the Byzantines—and began demanding them as loot in war. The Translation Movement lasted from roughly 750–950. By 950, virtually every Greek scholarly text had been translated multiple times, and the libraries were brimming. Many translators of Baghdad particularly fell for the works of Aristotle. One of the greatest Islamicate philosophers, Ibn Rushd, is sometimes called “The Commentator,” meaning the number-one Aristotle fan. To this day, more classical Greek commentaries on Aristotle may be available in Arabic than English! Why was Caliph al-Maʾmūn so into the Persian and Greek science? For one, supporting translations was a sign of civic status, and a worthy cause. Al-Maʾmūn also saw scientific translation as highly practical. For example, a better understanding of astronomy led to more accurate official timekeeping for mosques. And improved geographical knowledge helped more accurately align prayers to Mecca. The Translation Movement also fostered a strong appreciation for reasoned thought, at least among the ruling and scholarly classes. This rubbed off on religious philosophy, giving rise to the school of mu‘tazilism. Mu‘tazila such as al-Maʾmūn believed that rationalism could be used to understand both the physical world and God. They brought the Greek tradition of reasoned debate about the nature of the cosmos into an Islamicate social context, looking beyond a literal reading of the Qur’an for sources of knowledge. In fact, places of learning under the Abbasid Caliphate included observatories, hospitals, and public libraries, as well as mosques and madrasas, or Islamic colleges. Madrasas were critical centers of knowledge transmission. There were thirty in Baghdad in the 1200s, and one hundred and fifty in Damascus by 1500. Each madrasa had its own library full of paper books. Paper had been introduced to western Asia from China, and paper factories appeared in Samarkand, Baghdad, Cairo, Morocco, and finally in Spain by 1150. While they were religious centers, madrasas were also places where students could learn law as well as Greek natural philosophy, including logic and arithmetic, astronomy, and astrology. Abbasid scholars didn’t merely translate foreign writers. In translating the texts, these polymaths wrote commentaries on them, comparing, summarizing, and analyzing them. Even when motivated by utilitarian concerns, the work of careful reading and comparison led many scholars to pursue new questions in natural philosophy. For example, observatories arose throughout the Islamicate world. Al-Maʾmūn built two observatories, one in Baghdad and another outside Damascus. At these sites, scholars refined astronomical handbooks, called zīj, that helped fix prayer times. In fact, by the late ninth century, Islamicate polymaths such as Abu Maʿshar, the famous Persian physician al-Razi —whom we’ll meet again soon—and the Indian-influenced al-Biruni were even proposing heliocentric models of the solar system. Their theories went against Aristotle but with observed data! In geography, Islamicate scholars extended Ptolemy’s system. Our scientific hero today, Caliph al-Maʾmūn, commissioned a measurement of earth’s circumference that was pretty amazing: two groups ventured into the desert, finding a specific location by following the stars. One group walked north and the other south, tracking the stars for one degree. They counted their paces. Then they walked back, remeasured, averaged the measurements… and multiplied by 360 to derive a circumference of 24,480 miles. The modern measurement? 24,901—less than 2% more accurate than the one made by al-Maʾmūn’s team. And don’t get me started on astrolabes! You know—mechanical devices used for measuring incline by astronomers and navigators? To determine the position of celestial bodies in the night sky? The ones Islamicate astronomers improved by adding the azimuth, or direction of compass bearing? And then merged with armillary spheres, or models of the entire cosmos constructed from rings and hoops that revolved on their axes, around 900? And then improved into geared mechanical astrolabes in 1235? I’m looking at you, Abi Bakr of Isfahan!? MEANWHILE—back at the House of Wisdom… In addition to translation and improvement on Greek natural philosophy, scholars were also innovating in new realms. In mathematics, medieval Islamicate scholars focused on arithmetic and algebra. They adopted the number zero and the “Arabic” decimal-style numerals from India, using them so much that they became known to us as, well, Arabic. They also developed trigonometry. One example of this work in particular jumps out: in 820, at the House, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi wrote Kitab al-Jabr, or The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, an original manual of practical math. Al-Khwarizmi wasn’t the first to work on algebra, but he set out the general rules for solving equations that was highly influential for centuries. Algebra introduced a theory that treated rational numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes—all numbers—as similar objects, ready to be manipulated. Or, as my dude himself says it: “When I consider what people generally want in calculating, I found that it always is a number.” Mic drop! This opened up the possibility of exploring new areas of mathematics such as algorithms, quadratic equations, and polynomial equations. Also at the House of Wisdom, thinkers such as Mohammad Mūsā worked on the basic laws of physics. Others focused on optics, performing many experiments. And doctors and philosophers trained and traded works. But what about the engineers—the scholars working on technē instead of epistēmē? The Abbasid state privileged public service and the interests of the state, focusing on improving useful arts such as hydraulic engineering and agricultural science. The Abbasids used the arch, rather than the Greek post and lintel system. And they constructed large dams, waterwheels, and qanats, or underground channels to tap groundwater. Abbasid technology thus resembled that of the Romans, with craftspeople, not scholars, typically building actual stuff. But a few stand-out engineers from this time period created wonders so—er—wondrous, that they deserve a little attention from ThoughtBubble: In 850, at the House of Wisdom, the Banū Mūsā brothers—Mohammad, just mentioned, and Ahmad and Hasan—wrote The Book of Ingenious Devices: a compendium of one hundred devices and how to use them. This included the earliest programmable machine, “The Instrument that Plays by Itself.” Medieval automation, whaaat!?h And it gets cooler. In 1206—far from Baghdad, in what is now Diyarbakır, Turkey—the polymath al-Jazarī wrote an even more amazing book on machines: The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices also covers one hundred machines, with instructions on how to build them. Most of these are trick vessels, but others include water wheels, watermills, a giant water clock, elephant- and castle-shaped clocks, fountains improving upon designs by the Banū Mūsās, a candle clock, and musical automata. Al-Jazarī even designed a water-powered, perpetually-playing flute! How did these devices work? Well, it helped that al-Jazarī invented the camshaft, which would make it into Europe by the 1300s, an early version of the crankshaft, and the segmental gear. You can look up how these work online, but the point is: our modern world runs on them, and this guy figured them out in medieval times. That is so. Dang. Cool. But the coolest of al-Jazarī’s inventions were his full-on automata—medieval robots. He made humanoid machines including one that could serve water or tea. He made a flushing toilet with a nearby servant, who refilled the basin when flushed. And the pièce de résistance: al-Jazarī constructed a four-piece robot band that floated on a lake, entertaining party guests. The music? Most likely programmable, using tiny pegs and levers. Thanks Thought Bubble! We could spend several more episodes on science in the early Islamicate world. And we will come back to some of the people and themes mentioned today. There’s a common understanding of the history of medieval Eurasia and North Africa long-held by many English speakers is just plain wrong: instead of a “dark age” defined by conflicts between Muslims and Christians who didn’t understand one another, we encounter urban centers of trade and knowledge exchange populated by natural philosophers with a keen desire to build upon earlier insights regardless of their origins. Next time—we’ll build many cities and one very long canal in the rich Middle Kingdom, China. Crash Course History of Science is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Scishow, Eons, and Sexplanations. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Contents

Transmission routes

The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, was one of the most advanced world maps of its era.
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, was one of the most advanced world maps of its era.


Europe and the Islamic lands had multiple points of contact during the Middle Ages. The main points of transmission of Islamic knowledge to Europe lay in Sicily and in Spain, particularly in Toledo (with Gerard of Cremone, 1114–1187, following the conquest of the city by Spanish Christians in 1085). In Sicily, following the Islamic conquest of the island in 965 and its reconquest by the Normans in 1091, a syncretistic Norman-Arab-Byzantine culture developed, exemplified by rulers such as King Roger II, who had Islamic soldiers, poets and scientists at his court. The Moroccan Muhammad al-Idrisi wrote The Book of Pleasant Journeys into Faraway Lands or Tabula Rogeriana, one of the greatest geographical treatises of the Middle Ages, for Roger.[3]

The Crusades also intensified exchanges between Europe and the Levant, with the Italian maritime republics taking a major role in these exchanges. In the Levant, in such cities as Antioch, Arab and Latin cultures intermixed intensively.[4]

During the 11th and 12th centuries, many Christian scoolars travelled to Muslim lands to learn sciences. Notable examples include Leonardo Fibonacci (c. 1170 –c. 1250), Adelard of Bath (c. 1080–c. 1152) and Constantine the African (1017–1087). From the 11th to the 14th centuries, numerous European students attended Muslim centers of higher learning (which the author calls "universities") to study medicine, philosophy, mathematics, cosmography and other subjects.[5]

Aristotelianism and other philosophies

An medieval Arabic representation of Aristotle teaching a student.
An medieval Arabic representation of Aristotle teaching a student.

In the Middle East, many classical Greek texts, especially the works of Aristotle, were translated into Syriac during the 6th and 7th centuries by Nestorian, Melkite or Jacobite monks living in Palestine, or by Greek exiles from Athens or Edessa who visited Islamic centres of higher learning. The Islamic world then kept, translated, and developed many of these texts, especially in centers of learning such as Baghdad, where a "House of Wisdom" with thousands of manuscripts existed as early as 832. These texts were in turn translated into Latin by scholars such as Michael Scot (who made translations of Historia Animalium and On the Soul as well as of Averroes's commentaries)[6] during the Middle Ages.[1] Eastern Christians played an important role in exploiting this knowledge, especially through the Christian Aristotelian School of Baghdad in the 11th and 12th centuries.

Later Latin translations of these texts originated in multiple places. Toledo, Spain (with Gerard of Cremona's Almagest) and Sicily became the main points of transmission of knowledge from the Islamic world to Europe.[7] Burgundio of Pisa (died 1193) discovered lost texts of Aristotle in Antioch and translated them into Latin.

From Islamic Spain, the Arabic philosophical literature was translated into Hebrew, Latin, and Ladino. The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, Muslim sociologist-historian Ibn Khaldun, Carthage citizen Constantine the African who translated Greek medical texts, and Al-Khwarizmi's collation of mathematical techniques were important figures of the Golden Age.

Averroes was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.[8]
Averroes was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.[8]

Avicennism and Averroism are terms for the revival of the Peripatetic school in medieval Europe due to the influence of Avicenna and Averroes, respectively. Avicenna was an important commentator on the works of Aristotle, modifying it with his own original thinking in some areas, notably logic.[9] The main significance of Latin Avicennism lies in the interpretation of Avicennian doctrines such as the nature of the soul and his existence-essence distinction, along with the debates and censure that they raised in scholastic Europe. This was particularly the case in Paris, where so-called Arabic culture was proscribed in 1210, though the influence of his psychology and theory of knowledge upon William of Auvergne and Albertus Magnus have been noted.[10]

The effects of Avicennism in were later submerged by the much more influential Averroism, the Aristotelianism of Averroes, one of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West.[11] Averroes disagreed with Avicenna's interpretations of Aristotle in areas such as the unity of the intellect, and it was his interpretation of Aristotle which had the most influence in medieval Europe. Dante Aligheri argues along Averroist lines for a secularist theory of the state in De Monarchia.[8] Averroes also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence".[12]

Imaginary debate between Averroes and Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century.[13]
Imaginary debate between Averroes and Porphyry. Monfredo de Monte Imperiali Liber de herbis, 14th century.[13]

Al-Ghazali also had an important influence on medieval Christian philosopher along with Jewish thinkers like Maimonides.[14]

George Makdisi (1989) has suggested that two particular aspects of Renaissance humanism have their roots in the medieval Islamic world, the "art of dictation, called in Latin, ars dictaminis," and "the humanist attitude toward classical language". He notes that dictation was a necessary part of Arabic scholarship (where the vowel sounds need to be added correctly based on the spoken word), and argues that the medieval Italian use of the term "ars dictaminis" makes best sense in this context. He also believes that the medieval humanist favouring of classical Latin over medieval Latin makes most sense in the context of a reaction to Arabic scholarship, with its study of the classical Arabic of the Koran in preference to medieval Arabic.[15]

Sciences

A page from Frederick Rosen's 1831 edition of Al-Khwarizmi's Algebra alongside the corresponding English translation.

During the Islamic Golden Age, certain advances were made in scientific fields, notably in mathematics and astronomy (algebra, spherical trigonometry), and in chemistry, etc. which were later also transmitted to the West.[1][16]

Stefan of Pise translated into Latin around 1127 an Arab manual of medical theory. The method of algorism for performing arithmetic with the Hindu-Arabic numeral system was developed by the Persian al-Khwarizmi in the 9th century, and introduced in Europe by Leonardo Fibonacci (1170–1250).[17] A translation by Robert of Chester of the Algebra by al-Kharizmi is known as early as 1145. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 980–1037) compiled treatises on optical sciences, which were used as references by Newton and Descartes. Medical sciences were also highly developed in Islam as testified by the Crusaders, who relied on Arab doctors on numerous occasions. Joinville reports he was saved in 1250 by a “Saracen” doctor.[18]

Surgical operation, 15th-century Turkish manuscript
Surgical operation, 15th-century Turkish manuscript

Contributing to the growth of European science was the major search by European scholars such as Gerard of Cremona for new learning. These scholars were interested in ancient Greek philosophical and scientific texts (notably the Almagest) which were not obtainable in Latin in Western Europe, but which had survived and been translated into Arabic in the Muslim world. Gerard was said to have made his way to Toledo in Spain and learnt Arabic specifically because of his "love of the Almagest". While there he took advantage of the "abundance of books in Arabic on every subject".[19] Islamic Spain and Sicily were particularly productive areas because of the proximity of multi-lingual scholars. These scholars translated many scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin.[20][21] Gerard personally translated 87 books from Arabic into Latin, including the Almagest, and also Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī's On Algebra and Almucabala, Jabir ibn Aflah's Elementa astronomica,[22] al-Kindi's On Optics, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī's On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions, al-Farabi's On the Classification of the Sciences,[23] the chemical and medical works of Rhazes,[24] the works of Thabit ibn Qurra and Hunayn ibn Ishaq,[25] and the works of Arzachel, Jabir ibn Aflah, the Banū Mūsā, Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), and Ibn al-Haytham (including the Book of Optics).

Alchemy

Geber depicted in Liebig's Extract of Meat Company trading card "Chimistes Celebres", 1929.

Western alchemy was directly dependent upon Arabic sources.[26] The Latin alchemical works of "Geber" (Jābir ibn Hayyān) were standard texts for European alchemists. The exact attribution of these works remains a matter of some controversy. Some are undoubtedly translations from Arabic from works attributed to Jābir ibn Hayyān, including the Kitab al-Kimya (titled Book of the Composition of Alchemy in Europe), translated by Robert of Chester (1144);[27] and the Book of Seventy, translated by Gerard of Cremona (before 1187).[28] Whether these were actually written by one man (or whether indeed Jābir was a real historical figure) is disputed, but there is no doubting the influence on medieval European alchemy of the translated Arabic works.[a] The alchemical works of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) were translated into Latin around the 12th century.[24] Several technical Arabic words from Arabic alchemical works, such as alkali,[30] found their way into European languages and became part of scientific vocabulary.

Astronomy, mathematics, physics

A German manuscript page teaching use of Arabic numerals (Hans Talhoffer, 1459)
A German manuscript page teaching use of Arabic numerals (Hans Talhoffer, 1459)

The translation of Al-Khwarizmi's work greatly influenced mathematics in Europe. As Professor Victor J. Katz writes: "Most early algebra works in Europe in fact recognized that the first algebra works in that continent were translations of the work of al-Khwärizmï and other Islamic authors. There was also some awareness that much of plane and spherical trigonometry could be attributed to Islamic authors".[31] The words algorithm, deriving from Al-Khwarizmi's Latinized name Algorismi, and algebra, deriving from the title of his AD 820 book Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala, Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala are themselves Arabic loanwords. This and other Arabic astronomical and mathematical works, such as those by al-Battani[22] and Muhammad al-Fazari's Great Sindhind (based on the Surya Siddhanta and the works of Brahmagupta).[32] were translated into Latin during the 12th century.[33]

A European and an Arab practicing geometry together. 15th-century manuscript
A European and an Arab practicing geometry together. 15th-century manuscript
Astrolabe quadrant, England, 1388
Astrolabe quadrant, England, 1388

Al-Khazini's Zij as-Sanjari (1115–1116) was translated into Greek by Gregory Choniades in the 13th century and was studied in the Byzantine Empire.[34] The astronomical modifications to the Ptolemaic model made by al-Battani and Averroes led to non-Ptolemaic models produced by Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi (Urdi lemma), Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (Tusi-couple) and Ibn al-Shatir, which were later adapted into the Copernican heliocentric model. Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī's Ta'rikh al-Hind and Kitab al-qanun al-Mas’udi were translated into Latin as Indica and Canon Mas’udicus respectively.

Fibonacci presented the first complete European account of Arabic numerals and the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in his Liber Abaci (1202).[24]

Al-Jayyani's The book of unknown arcs of a sphere (a treatise on spherical trigonometry) had a "strong influence on European mathematics".[35] Regiomantus' On Triangles (c. 1463) certainly took his material on spherical trigonometry (without acknowledgement) from Arab sources. Much of the material was taken from the 12th-century work of Jabir ibn Aflah, as noted in the 16th century by Gerolamo Cardano.[31]

A short verse used by Fulbert of Chartres (952-970 –1028) to help remember some of the brightest stars in the sky gives us the earliest known use of Arabic loanwords in a Latin text:[36] "Aldebaran stands out in Taurus, Menke and Rigel in Gemini, and Frons and bright Calbalazet in Leo. Scorpio, you have Galbalagrab; and you, Capricorn, Deneb. You, Batanalhaut, are alone enough for Pisces."[37]

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) wrote the Book of Optics (1021), in which he developed a theory of vision and light which built on the work of the Roman writer Ptolemy (but which rejected Ptolemy's theory that light was emitted by the eye, insisting instead that light rays entered the eye), and was the most significant advance in this field until Kepler.[38] The Book of Optics was an important stepping stone in the history of the scientific method and history of optics.[39] The Latin translation of the Book of Optics influenced the works of many later European scientists, including Roger Bacon and Johannes Kepler.[40][41] The book also influenced other aspects of European culture. In religion, for example, John Wycliffe, the intellectual progenitor of the Protestant Reformation, referred to Alhazen in discussing the seven deadly sins in terms of the distortions in the seven types of mirrors analyzed in De aspectibus. In literature, Alhazen's Book of Optics is praised in Guillaume de Lorris' Roman de la Rose.[42] In art, the Book of Optics laid the foundations for the linear perspective technique and may have influenced the use of optical aids in Renaissance art (see Hockney-Falco thesis).[42] These same techniques were later employed in the maps made by European cartographers such as Paolo Toscanelli during the Age of Exploration.[41]

The theory of motion developed by Avicenna from Aristotelian physics may have influenced Jean Buridan's theory of impetus (the ancestor of the inertia and momentum concepts).[43] The work of Galileo Galilei on classical mechanics (superseding Aristotelian physics) was also influenced by earlier medieval physics writers, including Avempace.[44]

The magnetic compass, a Chinese invention, is first mentioned in Arabic sources of c. 1300, by the Yemeni Sultan al-Ashraf and by Egyptian astronomer Ibn Simʿun.[45]

Other notable works include those of Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi, notably On the Motions of the Heavens,[24][46] Abu Mashar's Introduction to Astrology,[47] Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam's Algebra,[22] and De Proprietatibus Elementorum, an Arabic work on geology written by a pseudo-Aristotle.[24] B

Medicine

European depiction of the Persian doctor al-Razi, in Gerard of Cremona's Receuil des traités de médecine (1250–1260). Gerard de Cremona translated numerous works by Muslim scholars, such as al-Razi and Ibn Sina.[48]
European depiction of the Persian doctor al-Razi, in Gerard of Cremona's Receuil des traités de médecine (1250–1260). Gerard de Cremona translated numerous works by Muslim scholars, such as al-Razi and Ibn Sina.[48]
Syrian medicinal jars c. 1300, excavated in Fenchurch Street, London. London Museum
Syrian medicinal jars c. 1300, excavated in Fenchurch Street, London. London Museum

One of the most important medical works to be translated was Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025), which was translated into Latin and then disseminated in manuscript and printed form throughout Europe. It remained a standard medical textbook in Europe until the early modern period, and during the 15th and 16th centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times.[49] Avicenna noted the contagious nature of some infectious diseases (which he attributed to "traces" left in the air by a sick person), and discussed how to effectively test new medicines.[50] He also wrote The Book of Healing, a more general encyclopedia of science and philosophy, which became another popular textbook in Europe. Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi wrote the Comprehensive Book of Medicine, with its careful description of and distinction between measles and smallpox, which was also influential in Europe. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi wrote Kitab al-Tasrif, an encyclopedia of medicine which was particularly famed for its section on surgery. It included descriptions and diagrams of over 200 surgical instruments, many of which he developed. The surgery section was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, and used in European medical schools for centuries, still being reprinted in the 1770s.[51][52]

Facade of a meeting between a Muslim scholar and a Frankish lord
Facade of a meeting between a Muslim scholar and a Frankish lord

Other medical Arabic works translated into Latin during the medieval period include the works of Razi and Avicenna (including The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine),[53] and Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi's medical encyclopedia, The Complete Book of the Medical Art.[24] Mark of Toledo in the early 13th century translated the Qur'an as well as various medical works.[54]

Technology and culture

19th-century depiction of La Zisa, Palermo, showing Arab-Norman art and architecture combining Occidental features (such as the Classical pillars and friezes) with Islamic decorations and calligraphy.[55]
19th-century depiction of La Zisa, Palermo, showing Arab-Norman art and architecture combining Occidental features (such as the Classical pillars and friezes) with Islamic decorations and calligraphy.[55]

Agriculture and textiles

Various fruits and vegetables were introduced to Europe in this period via the Middle East and North Africa, some from as far as China and India, including the artichoke, spinach, and aubergine.[56]

Arts

Islamic decorative arts were highly valued imports to Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Largely because of accidents of survival, most surviving examples are those that were in the possession of the church. In the early period textiles were especially important, used for church vestments, shrouds, hangings and clothing for the elite. Islamic pottery of everyday quality was still preferred to European wares. Because decoration was mostly ornamental, or small hunting scenes and the like, and inscriptions were not understood, Islamic objects did not offend Christian sensibilities.[57] Medieval art in Sicily is interesting stylistically because of the mixture of Norman, Arab and Byzantine influences in areas such as mosaics and metal inlays, sculpture, and bronze-working.[58]

Writing

Pseudo-Kufic script in the Virgin Mary's halo, detail of Adoration of the Magi (1423) by Gentile da Fabriano. The script is further divided by rosettes like those on Mamluk dishes.[59]
Pseudo-Kufic script in the Virgin Mary's halo, detail of Adoration of the Magi (1423) by Gentile da Fabriano. The script is further divided by rosettes like those on Mamluk dishes.[59]

The Arabic Kufic script was often imitated for decorative effect in the West during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, to produce what is known as pseudo-Kufic: "Imitations of Arabic in European art are often described as pseudo-Kufic, borrowing the term for an Arabic script that emphasizes straight and angular strokes, and is most commonly used in Islamic architectural decoration".[60] Numerous cases of pseudo-Kufic are known from European art from around the 10th to the 15th century; usually the characters are meaningless, though sometimes a text has been copied. Pseudo-Kufic would be used as writing or as decorative elements in textiles, religious halos or frames. Many are visible in the paintings of Giotto.[60] The exact reason for the incorporation of pseudo-Kufic in early Renaissance painting is unclear. It seems that Westerners mistakenly associated 13th- and 14th-century Middle-Eastern scripts as being identical with the scripts current during Jesus's time, and thus found natural to represent early Christians in association with them:[61] "In Renaissance art, pseudo-Kufic script was used to decorate the costumes of Old Testament heroes like David".[62] Another reason might be that artist wished to express a cultural universality for the Christian faith, by blending together various written languages, at a time when the church had strong international ambitions.[63]

Carpets

The Somerset House Conference (1604) artist unknown, shows English and Spanish diplomats gathered around a table covered by an Oriental carpet.
The Somerset House Conference (1604) artist unknown, shows English and Spanish diplomats gathered around a table covered by an Oriental carpet.

Carpets of Middle-Eastern origin, either from the Ottoman Empire, the Levant or the Mamluk state of Egypt or Northern Africa, were a significant sign of wealth and luxury in Europe, as demonstrated by their frequent occurrence as important decorative features in paintings from the 13th century and continuing into the Baroque period. Such carpets, together with Pseudo-Kufic script offer an interesting example of the integration of Eastern elements into European painting, most particularly those depicting religious subjects.[64]

Music

A number of musical instruments used in European music were influenced by Arabic musical instruments, including the rebec (an ancestor of the violin) from the rebab and the naker from naqareh[65] The oud is cited as one of several precursors to the modern guitar.[66]

Muslim and Christian playing lutes. Miniature from Cantigas de Santa Maria by King Alfonso X
Muslim and Christian playing lutes. Miniature from Cantigas de Santa Maria by King Alfonso X

Some scholars believe that the troubadors may have had Arabian origins, with Magda Bogin stating that the Arab poetic and musical tradition was one of several influences on European "courtly love poetry".[67] Évariste Lévi-Provençal and other scholars stated that three lines of a poem by William IX of Aquitaine were in some form of Arabic, indicating a potential Andalusian origin for his works. The scholars attempted to translate the lines in question and produced various different translations; the medievalist Istvan Frank contended that the lines were not Arabic at all, but instead the result of the rewriting of the original by a later scribe.[68]

The theory that the troubadour tradition was created by William after his experiences with Moorish arts while fighting with the Reconquista in Spain has been championed by Ramón Menéndez Pidal and Idries Shah, though George T. Beech states that there is only one documented battle that William fought in Spain, and it occurred towards the end of his life. However, Beech adds that William and his father did have Spanish individuals within their extended family, and that while there is no evidence he himself knew Arabic, he may have been friendly with some European Christians who could speak the language.[68] Others state that the notion that William created the concept of troubadours is itself incorrect, and that his "songs represent not the beginnings of a tradition but summits of achievement in that tradition."[69]

Technology

Syrian or Egyptian pieces of glass with Arabic inscriptions, excavated in London. London Museum.
Syrian or Egyptian pieces of glass with Arabic inscriptions, excavated in London. London Museum.
Early-16th century Andalusian dish with pseudo-Arabic script around the edge, excavated in London. London Museum.
Early-16th century Andalusian dish with pseudo-Arabic script around the edge, excavated in London. London Museum.

A number of technologies in the Islamic world were adopted in European medieval technology. These included various crops;[70] various astronomical instruments, including the Greek astrolabe which Arab astronomers developed and refined into such instruments as the Quadrans Vetus, a universal horary quadrant which could be used for any latitude,[71] and the Saphaea, a universal astrolabe invented by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī;[72] the astronomical sextant; various surgical instruments, including refinements on older forms and completely new inventions;[52] and advanced gearing in waterclocks and automata.[73] Distillation was known to the Greeks and Romans, but was rediscovered in medieval Europe through the Arabs.[74] The word alcohol (to describe the liquid produced by distillation) comes from Arabic al-kuhl.[75] The word alembic (via the Greek Ambix) comes from Arabic al-anbiq.[76] Islamic examples of complex water clocks and automata are believed to have strongly influenced the European craftsmen who produced the first mechanical clocks in the 13th century.[77]

The importation of both the ancient and new technology from the Middle East and the Orient to Renaissance Europe represented “one of the largest technology transfers in world history.”[78]

The Aldrevandini Beaker, Venetian glass with enamel decoration derived from Islamic technique and style. c. 1330.[79]
The Aldrevandini Beaker, Venetian glass with enamel decoration derived from Islamic technique and style. c. 1330.[79]

In an influential 1974 paper, historian Andrew Watson suggested that there had been an Arab Agricultural Revolution between 700 and 1100, which had diffused a large number of crops and technologies from Spain into medieval Europe, where farming was mostly restricted to wheat strains obtained much earlier via central Asia. Watson listed eighteen crops, including sorghum from Africa, citrus fruits from China, and numerous crops from India such as mangos, rice, cotton and sugar cane, which were distributed throughout Islamic lands that, according to Watson, had previously not grown them. Watson argued that these introductions, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking, diet and clothing in the Islamic world. Also transmitted via Muslim influence, a silk industry flourished, flax was cultivated and linen exported, and esparto grass, which grew wild in the more arid parts, was collected and turned into various articles.[70] However Michael Decker has challenged significant parts of Watson's thesis, including whether all these crops were introduced to Europe during this period. Decker used literary and archaeological evidence to suggest that four of the listed crops (i.e. durum wheat, Asiatic rice, sorghum and cotton) were common centuries before the Islamic period, that the crops which were new were not as important as Watson had suggested, and generally arguing that Islamic agricultural practices in areas such as irrigation were more of an evolution from those of the ancient world than the revolution suggested by Watson.[80]

The production of sugar from sugar cane,[81] water clocks, pulp and paper, silk, and various advances in making perfume, were transferred from the Islamic world to medieval Europe.[82] Fulling mills and advances in mill technology may have also been transmitted from the Islamic world to medieval Europe,[83] along with the large-scale use of inventions like the suction pump,[84] noria and chain pumps for irrigation purposes. According to Watson, "The Islamic contribution was less in the invention of new devices than in the application on a much wider scale of devices which in pre-Islamic times had been used only over limited areas and to a limited extent."[85] These innovations made it possible for some industrial operations that were previously served by manual labour or draught animals to be driven by machinery in medieval Europe.[86]

The spinning wheel was invented in the Islamic world by 1030. It later spread to China by 1090, and then spread from the Islamic world to Europe and India by the 13th century.[87] The spinning wheel was fundamental to the cotton textile industry prior to the Industrial Revolution. It was a precursor to the spinning jenny, which was widely used during the Industrial Revolution. The spinning jenny was essentially an adaptation of the spinning wheel.[88]

Coinage

Tarì gold coin of Roger II of Sicily, with Arabic inscriptions, minted in Palermo. British Museum.
Tarì gold coin of Roger II of Sicily, with Arabic inscriptions, minted in Palermo. British Museum.

While the earliest coins were minted and widely circulated in Europe, and Ancient Rome, Islamic coinage had some influence on Medieval European minting. The 8th-century English king Offa of Mercia minted a near-copy of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse.[89] The moneyer visibly had little understanding of Arabic, as the Arabic text contains a number of errors.

A gold dinar of the English king Offa of Mercia, a copy of the dinars of the Abbasid Caliphate (774). It combines the Latin legend OFFA REX with Arabic legends. British Museum.[90]
A gold dinar of the English king Offa of Mercia, a copy of the dinars of the Abbasid Caliphate (774). It combines the Latin legend OFFA REX with Arabic legends. British Museum.[90]
Crusader coins of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Left: Denier in European style with Holy Sepulchre. Middle: One of the first Kingdom of Jerusalem gold coins, copying Islamic dinars. Right: Gold coin after 1250, with Christian symbols following Papal complaints. British Museum.
Crusader coins of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Left: Denier in European style with Holy Sepulchre. Middle: One of the first Kingdom of Jerusalem gold coins, copying Islamic dinars. Right: Gold coin after 1250, with Christian symbols following Papal complaints. British Museum.

In Sicily, Malta and Southern Italy from about 913 tarì gold coins of Islamic origin were minted in great number by the Normans, Hohenstaufens and the early Angevins rulers.[91] When the Normans invaded Sicily in the 12th century, they issued tarì coins bearing legends in Arabic and Latin.[92] The tarìs were so widespread that imitations were made in southern Italy (Amalfi and Salerno) which only used illegible "pseudo-Kufic" imitations of Arabic.[93][94]

According to Janet Abu-Lughod:

The preferred specie for international transactions before the 13th century, in Europe as well as the Middle East and even India, were the gold coins struck by Byzantium and then Egypt. It was not until after the 13th century that some Italian cities (Florence and Genoa) began to mint their own gold coins, but these were used to supplement rather than supplant the Middle Eastern coins already in circulation.[95]

Literature

It was first suggested by Miguel Asín Palacios in 1919 that Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, considered the greatest epic of Italian literature, derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter directly or indirectly from Arabic works on Islamic eschatology, such as the Hadith and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi. The Kitab al-Miraj, concerning Muhammad's ascension to Heaven, was translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before[96] as Liber Scale Machometi, "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder". Dante was certainly aware of Muslim philosophy, naming Avicenna and Averroes last in his list of non-Christian philosophers in Limbo, alongside the great Greek and Latin philosophers.[97][98] How strong the similarities are to Kitab al-Miraj remains a matter of scholarly debate however, with no clear evidence that Dante was in fact influenced.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A few of the Latin works are now attributed to a Pseudo-Geber, as although attributed to "Geber", they have no identified Arabic source and appear to have been composed in Latin in the 13th century.[29]

References

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External links

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