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Ishmael in Islam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


ʾIsmāʿīl
إسماعيل
Ishmael
Timurid Anthology Zhertva.jpg
Abraham sacrificing Ishmael
Illuminated collection of Stories of the Prophets
Born2424 BH
(c. 1800 BCE)[citation needed]
Died
ChildrenChildren of Isma'il
Parent(s)Ibrahim
Hajar
RelativesIshaq (brother)

Ishmael (Arabic: إسماعيل‎, Ismā‘īl) is the figure known in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as Abraham's (Ibrahim) son, born to Hagar (Hajar). In Islam, Ishmael is regarded as a prophet (nabi) and an ancestor to Muhammad. He also became associated with Mecca and the construction of the Kaaba. Stories of Ishmael are not only big and large texts, such as the Bible and rabbinic Midrash, but also Islamic sources. These sources include the Quran, Quranic commentary (tafsir), hadith, historiographic collections like that of Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, and Isra'iliyat (Islamic texts about Biblical or ancient Israelite figures that originate from Jewish or Christian sources).[1][2]:13

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Transcription

Assalamu Alaikum! Walaikum Assalam! Didn’t you say that you will tell me the story of Prophet Ishmael (as) today? Yes my son, Insha Allah! I will tell you his story now. Shall I start? Yes Baba Bismillah! The story of Prophet Ishmael (as) A long long time ago, Prophet Ibrahim (as) and his wife Sarah were travelling through a desert. They had been travelling for many days, and one day, they happened to enter the territory of an evil king. The evil king came to know about the beautiful wife of the prophet, and he wanted to take her. So he send one of his soldiers to bring the prophet to him. The soldier brought the prophet before the king. “Who is the lady accompanying you?” asked the evil king The prophet replied that she was his sister. The evil king then asked the prophet to bring Sarah to his court. He said that he wanted to meet this beautiful woman that everyone in his kingdom was talking about. The prophet went to his wife and said “The king wants to meet you” “Do not ever tell him that you are my wife, because I’ve told him that you are my sister” the prophet told his wife. When Sarah went to the King’s palace, the king was struck by her beauty, and he tried to take hold of her with his hands! But the moment his hand got near Sarah, it became stiff, and he could not move it!! The evil king was scared, and he requested Sarah “Please pray to Allah(swt) for me, and I will never harm you” When Sarah prayed to Allah(swt), his hands got cured miraculously!! But the moment he realized that his hands were cured, the foolish king tried to take hold of Sarah again!! And for the second time, his hands got stiff. The king couldn’t move his hands at all!! “Please pray to Allah(swt) for me.. I shall never harm you again!” said the King Sarah prayed to Allah again, and his hands got cured for the second time. This time the King realized that Sarah was no ordinary woman! So he gave Sarah a gift! He gave her one of his Egyptian maid servant, and her name was Hajar! She was then sent home. When Sarah returned home, the prophet asked her what happened? “Allah(swt) taught that evil king a lesson, and he gave me maid- Hajar” replied Sarah Years passed and the prophet grew old. His hair grayed, but he continued to call people back to Allah (swt). Sarah too had grown old and she realized that she would no longer be able to give birth to a child. So she asked the prophet to marry their servant Hajar. She then prayed to Allah(swt) to bless them with a child! After a few months, Hajar gave birth to a child, and they named him Ishmael(as)! By now, the prophet had grown very old! One day the prophet woke up, he felt like Allah(swt) wanted him to do something. So he went to Hajar. “Get Ishmael” He said “Get ready for a long journey” Ibrahim (as) and his wife with the baby in her arms kept travelling for a long long time. They walked for many days till they reached a dry valley of the desert near the Al-Marwah mountain. There were no fruits, no trees, no food, and no water either No signs of any life could be found in the valley. The Prophet then left his wife and son with a small amount of food and water, This was hardly enough for both of them to last for two days. The Prophet then turned around and started walked away His wife hurried after him Where are you going leaving us in this barren valley? She cried to him But the prophet didn't answer her and kept walking away. She called him again But the prophet remained silent and walked away Finally she understood that the prophet was not acting on his own. She realized that Allah (swt) had commanded him to do this. Did Allah (swt) command to do so? She asked him The prophet shook his head and continued walking Then his great wife said, "We are not going to be lost" Since Allah(swt) who commanded you is with us The prophet was very sad, as he had left his wife and his son in a barrren desert, where there were no other people He prayed to Allah(swt) to give his wife and son enough food and he asked Allah(swt) to send people with good hearts to them Hajar (ra) drank the water that the prophet had left, so that she could feed her son. The water got over very soon, and both of them started getting very thirsty. After sometime, the baby started getting thirsty, and started to cry! She ran to a hill closeby called Al Marwah hoping that she might find somebody. She stood there hoping to find somebody, but she did not!! Then she ran to the next mountain called Al Safa, hoping to find someone from there! But she couldn’t find anyone from there either! She kept running between these mountains seven times! When she climbed Al Marwah for the last time, she was very tired. She got so tired that she sat next to her baby. It was then that she heard a voice She kept quiet,and waited to hear the voice again When she heard the voice for the second time, she said “O, whoever you might be, you have made me hear your voice! Have you got something to help me?” That was when she saw an angel digging the earth! The angel kept digging till the water flowed from it! It was a miracle! When she saw the water, she ran toward it, and started to build a basin around it. She scooped the water with her hands and drank from it. Then she filled the water bag and ran towards her child. This place where the water rose is called Zam Zam. After a few days, some people were travelling through Mecca. They saw the birds flying around Al Marwah, and they thought the birds might be flying around the water. They started walking towards Al Marwah When they arrived, they were surprised to find the woman with a baby sitting near the water! “Shall we stay here and use this water please?” They asked her. Hajar(ra) said yes, and they drank water from the Zam Zam Like that many others came to Al Marwah, and eventually settled down there. The whole valley became alive now, and she and her child were not alone anymore! Ismail (as) grew up and learned Arabic from the people who had settled downat Al Marwah. He was a good boy, and his virtues and qualities made the people admire him. He kept thinking about his father, and knew that his father will come back someday! Ismail (as) then married a local woman, and lived his life in peace. In the meantime, Prophet Ibrahim (as) was very sad because he had not seen his son for a very long time. One day, he decided to go to Mecca to meet his wife and his son. He travelled for many days, and finally arrived at Al Marwah But it was very late. When he arrived, people told him that Hajar(ra) had died sometime ago. The prophet was very sad to hear this and then the local people told the prophet that his son, Ismail (as) was still alive! The prophet was very happy to hear this, and thanked Allah(swt)! When Ismail(as) saw his father, he ran to him and hugged him very tightly. He could not believe his eyes!! He was very happy to see his father after a long long time. It was a very happy time for both of them But one day, Allah decided to test Ibrahim(as) One night when the prophet was sleeping, he saw a dream! In his dream the prophet saw himself killing his son as a sacrifice to Allah (swt). The prophet woke up, and ignored it as it was just a dream But the next night, he saw the same dream again!. This time he realized that this was not just a dream, and that Allah(swt) was asking him to sacrifice his own son! The prophet went to his son, and told him about the dream. Ismail (as) realized that it was an order from Allah(swt) "Do what Allah(swt) has asked you to” He told his father. The next day, the prophet took a rope and a knife, and set out for mount Arafat, along with his son. Upon reaching the top of the mountain, Ismail (as) asked his father to tie his hand and legs, so that he may not struggle during the sacrifice. The prophet obliged, and tied his hands and legs. Then he blindofolded himself so that he wont have to watch his son suffer. The prophet raised his knife, but then suddenly, he heard the voice from the sky. He took off his blindfold, and saw a sheep being sent from heaven. Allah(swt) had sent the sheep to be sacrified instead of Ismail(as) The prophet was really happy, because his son was going to be alive! The prophet and his son had just passed a difficult test from Allah (swt) Ibrahim (as) slaughtered the sheep, and they had a big celebration. The prophet and his son kept calling people to worship Allah(swt) They didn’t have any place to worship Allah(swt) so one day Allah(swt) ordered the prophet to build a house!! “Allah(swt) has ordered me to build a Kabbah” the prophet said to his son. And Ismail(as) replied “Do what your God has ordered you to do”. The prophet then asked his son if he help him build the kabbah, and Ismail (as) agreed. They started building the foundation of the kabbah. Ismail (as) brought the stones, while Ibrahim (as) built the house. When the walls got tall, Ismail(as) brought a large stone for the prophet to work by standing on it This stone was called Maqam-e-Ibrahim. When they completed the foundation, and built the corners, Ibrahim(as) asked Ismail(as) to find the stone to fill the corner. “I feel tired” Ismail (as) said to his father. But when the Ibrahim(as) insisted, Ismail(as) went searching for the stone. While he was gone, an angel got the prophet a stone. The angel told him that this stone was brought to earth by Adam (as) from Paradise! The stone was originally white, however its color gradually turned into black because of the sins committed by people on earth. Ismail(as) returned after sometime, and when he saw the stone he was surprised and asked his father where it came from. “It was brought by someone who never gets tired” replied Ibrahim(as) And they finally completed building the Kabbah They prayed to Allah (swt) to accept their work Allah(swt) was very happy with the prophet and his son for spreading his message. And proclaimed the pilgrimage among men, they will come to thee on foot, and on every kind of camel, lean an account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways. The prophet grew old, and so did his wife Sarah. One day when he was sitting outside his house, he saw three men coming towards his house. The three men were actually angels sent by Allah (swt). The prophet welcome them inside to have food. The strangers went in and sat down for food. The Prophet served them a roasted calf! But the strangers did not touch the food at all. The prophet started to fear. Then the angels comforted the prophet and asked him not to fear at all. They told him that they were actually the angels sent by Allah (swt). They informed him that they came to his house to deliver a good news. They said that Allah (swt) was going to give them a son, and that he should name him Ishaaq. They also told him that his son would be a prophet. Sarah could not believe her ears! How could that be true” she wondered. “I am so old” Then the angels said, all these things are possible with Allah (swt). After a few months, Sarah got pregnant and gave birth to a child! The prophet named him Ishaaq(as), as the angels told him. After a few years, Prophet Ibrahim missed his son Ismail (as) badly, so he went to see him. But when the prophet reached the house of Ismail (as), he was not at home. His wife came out, and when the prophet asked her about Ismail(as), she replied “He has gone in search of livelihood”. He then asked her how was their living conditions, to which she started complaining about everything! She complained that they were living in misery and hardship, and many other things. She was not at all grateful to the blessings of Allah (swt) The prophet realized that she was not at all a suitable wife for his son, so left her a message that his son would understand. “When your husband returns convey my salutations to him” he said “and also tell him to change the threshold of the gate”. The prophet then went back to his home. When Ismail(as) returned home in the evening, he felt something unusual “Did anyone visit us today?” he asked her. She replied, yes, and passed on the message. When Ismail(as) heard the message, he realized that it was his father who visited him that day, and he understood the message that he gave her. “It was my father, and he has advised me to divorce you. You can go back to your family” He told her. His wife went back to her house, and Ismail (as) married another woman. After a long time, Prophet Ibrahim (as) again missed his son badly, so he visited his new house once again. When he arrived, it was his new wife who answered the door. The prophet asked the same questions he had asked his former wife. But this time when she answered, the prophet realized that she was a very grateful and kind woman. She kept thanking Allah(swt) for the wonderful things going on around, and the prophet was very happy. “When your husband comes home, give him my regards” The prophet told Ismail’s wife. He also added “And also tell him that he should keep the threshold of this gate firm”. He left after asking her to deliver this secret message In the evening, when Ismail (as)came back, he asked his wife if anyone had come to visit him. When his wife told him about the prophet and the message, Ismail (as) was very happy. “it was my father” said Ismail “and you are the threshold of the gate. He asked me to keep you with me forever” said the prophet happily!! Prophet Ibrahim (as) lived for One hundred and seventy five years! He lived a life full of trials but he had a strong faith in Allah (swt)!! The life of Prophet Ibrahim (as) teaches us to love Allah (swt) unconditionally. Even though there are more than 25 prophets mentioned in the Quran Allah mentions only two prophets ideal for whole humanity, and they were: Prophet Muhammed (as), and Prophet Ibrahim (as) Masha Allah! That was such an amazing story! Hmm.. So you liked the story of Ibrahim(as)? I loved it Baba! Ha haa.. Alright, now let me ask you a few questions from the story. Shall I? Go ahead Tell me the names of the mountains that Hajar (ra) ran across? Hmmm.. They were Al Safa and Al Marwah That’s the right answer. Now tell me how the travelers found the prophet's wife. I’ll give you three options. Option A) They saw animals running towards the mountain. Option B) They saw water flowing down the mountain. Option C) They saw birds flying above the mountain It was option C! Hmm..! The travelers saw the birds flying above the mountain! Haha..That’s right again! The next question. How did God test Ibrahim (as)? I know that one. God asked Ibrahim (as) to sacrifice his only son Ismail (as) And did he sacrifice his son? No! Just before the sacrifice, God told the prophet that he was testing him, and God send a sheep instead for the sacrifice Masha Allah, that’s the right answer. You are doing great my son. Thank you baba Why did the color of the stone that the angels brought turn from white to black? Hmm.. It was because of the sins commited by the people on earth. Excellent! And now for the last question, what was the name of the second son of the prophet? It was Ishaaq (as)! Isn't that right baba? Yes my son, that’s the right answer. That’s all for today. Insha Allah! I will tell you the story of another prophet tomorrow Which story are you going to tell me tomorrow? Insha Allah!I will tell you the story of Prophet Ismail (as) tomorrow Thanks Baba! Good night! Good night!

Contents

Historical narrative in Islam

Birth

Ishmael was the first son of Abraham; his mother was Hagar. The story of the birth of Ishmael is rarely assigned special significance in Islamic sources. There are many versions of the story, some of which include a prophecy about Ishmael's birth. One such example is from Ibn Kathir whose account states that an angel tells the pregnant Hagar to name her child Ishmael and prophesies, "His hand would be over everyone, and the hand of everyone would be against him. His brethren would rule over all the lands." Ibn Kathir comments that this foretells of Muhammad's leadership.[2]:42

Ishmael and Hagar taken to Mecca by Abraham

Ishmael and Hagar being taken to Mecca by Abraham in Islamic texts[3] is an important part in the story of Ishmael, as it brings the focus to Mecca and is the beginning of Mecca's sanctification as a holy area.[2]:61 Islamic tradition says Abraham was ordered by God to take Hagar and Ishmael to Mecca, and later Abraham returned to Mecca to build the Kaaba.[4] In many of these accounts, the Sakina (something like a wind or spirit sent by God), or the angel Gabriel (Jibral) guides them to the location of the Kaaba, at which point Abraham builds it and afterwards, leaves the other two there (other versions discussed below say the construction of the Kaaba occurred later and that Ishmael took part in it). Generally, it is said that Hagar asks Abraham who he is entrusting herself and Ishmael to as he leaves them. He answers that he is entrusting them to God, to which Hagar then makes a reply that shows her faith, stating that she believes God will guide them. Hagar and Ishmael then run out of water and Ishmael becomes extremely thirsty. Hagar is distressed and searches for water, running back and forth seven times between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah. Hagar is later remembered by Muslims for this act during the Hajj, or pilgrimage, in which Muslims run between these same hills as part of the Sa'yee.[5] When she returns to Ishmael, she finds either him or an angel scratching the ground with their heel or finger, whereupon water begins flowing and Hagar collects some or dams it up. This spring or well is known as Zamzam. At some point, a passing tribe known as the Jurhum sees birds circling the water and investigates. They ask Hagar if they can settle there, which she allows, and many versions say as Ishmael grew up he learned various things from the tribe. There are numerous versions of this story, each differing in various ways. The versions used in this summary, as well as others, can be found in al-Tabari's history[6] and are recounted in Reuven Firestone's Journeys in Holy Lands.[2]

The sacrifice

Most Muslims believe that Abraham was told to sacrifice his son, Ishmael, though the Qur'an does not mention the name of the son. The multiple versions suggest that the dhabih was originally an oral story that had been circulating before being written as it is in the Qur'an and in additional commentaries.[7]:92–95 Norman Calder explains, "oral narrative is marked by instability of form and detail from version to version, and by an appropriate creative flexibility which makes of every rendering a unique work of art."[7]:92–93 Each version is indeed a "unique work of art," differing from another in various ways to present certain ideas, such as the importance of Ishmael over Isaac because he was the first child.

Abraham sacrificing his son, Ishmael; Abraham cast into fire by Nimrod
Abraham sacrificing his son, Ishmael; Abraham cast into fire by Nimrod

The general narrative pertaining to Ishmael in Islamic literature describes the sacrifice either as a test or as part of a vow. Some versions tell of the devil trying to stop God's command from being obeyed by visiting Hagar, Ishmael, and Abraham. Every time the devil says Abraham is going to sacrifice Ishmael, each person answers that if God commanded it, they should obey. Eventually, Abraham tells Ishmael about the order and Ishmael is willing to be sacrificed and encourages Abraham to listen to God. Often, Ishmael is portrayed as telling Abraham some combination of instructions to bring his shirt back to Hagar, bind him tightly, sharpen the knife, and place him face down, all so that there will be no wavering in the resolve to obey God.

As Abraham attempts to slay Ishmael, either the knife is turned over in his hand or copper appears on Ishmael to prevent the death and God tells Abraham that he has fulfilled the command. Unlike in the Bible, there is no mention in the Qur'an of an animal (ram) replacing the boy; rather he is replaced with a 'great sacrifice' (Zibhin azeem).[8] Since the sacrifice of a ram cannot be greater than that of Abraham's son (and a prophet in Islam at that), this replacement seems to point to either the religious institutionalisation of sacrifice itself, or to the future self-sacrifices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions (who were destined to emerge from the progeny of Ishmael) in the cause of their faith. Every Eid al-Adha once a year Muslims around the world slaughter an animal to commemorate Abraham's sacrifice and to remind themselves of self-abnegation in the way of Allah.[9] Later historiographic literature incorporates the Biblical narrative in which a ram is provided which is slaughtered instead of Ishmael.[2][6]

The actions of Ishmael in this narrative have led him to become a prominent model of hospitality and obedience. This story in the Quran is unique when compared to that in the Bible because Abraham talks with his son, whichever it is believed to be, and the son is thus aware of the plan to become a sacrifice and approves of it. As noted above, in some versions, Ishmael makes sure in different ways that neither he nor his father hesitate in their obedience to God. In this way, Ishmael is a model of surrendering one's will to God, an essential characteristic in Islam.[10]

Though it is generally believed by modern Muslims that Ishmael was the son who was almost sacrificed, among scholars and historiographers of early Islam, there is much debate. There are such persuasive arguments for both, in fact, it is estimated that 131 traditions say Isaac was the son, while 133 say Ishmael.[2]:135 Such dispute over which son suggests that the story, and where and to whom it happens, is extremely important.[2]:144 It is argued that the story originated from rabbinic texts and was adapted to Islam over time in order to give Mecca religious importance and connect the story with the pilgrimage.[7]:87Arguments by early Muslim scholars for Ishmael as the intended sacrifice include that Jews claim it is Isaac only because they are jealous that it was actually the ancestor of Arabs, Ishmael, and that the horns of the ram that was sacrificed instead hung in the Kaaba at one time.[6]:88–90 In looking solely at the text of the Quran to determine which son was to be sacrificed, there still are various views. The strongest case for Ishmael in the Quran is that directly after the sacrifice narrative, Abraham is told of the coming of Isaac's birth, therefore, it must be Ishmael who was about to be sacrificed.[6]:88 However Tabari argues that because it is only Isaac who is indicated by birth announcements that the announcement at the start of the sacrifice narrative, "So We gave him good tidings of a forbearing boy" refers to Isaac.[2]:135–136[6]:89 Authentic hadiths are said to not contradict each other because that negates the definition of the hadith.

Construction of the Kaaba

At some point, often believed to be after Hagar's death, Ishmael marries a woman from the Jurhum, the tribe who settled in the area around Zamzam. Abraham visits Ishmael in Mecca and when he arrives at his home, Ishmael is not there. Instead Ishmael's wife greets Abraham, but she is not welcoming or generous to him. Abraham instructs her to tell Ishmael some version of the statement that he is not pleased with or to change "the threshold of his door." When Ishmael returns home and his wife tells him this, he knows it is from his father and taking the advice, divorces the woman. He then marries another woman from Jurhum. Abraham once again visits and is met by Ishmael's second wife, as Ishmael is out. This wife is very kind and provides food for him. Abraham instructs her to tell Ishmael some version of the statement that he is pleased with "the threshold of his door." When Ishmael arrives and his wife repeats Abraham's statement, Ishmael knows it is from his father and keeps his wife.[2][6]

There are many versions of the construction of the Kaaba that differ in fairly significant ways, although all have Abraham build or cleanse the Kaaba and then immediately after, or at an unknown time, God calls Abraham to establish the Hajj, or pilgrimage. These narratives differ in when these events occurred, if and how there was supernatural involvement, the inclusion or omission of the Black Stone, and whether Ishmael assisted his father. Of those that say Ishmael took part in the construction, most describe Abraham visiting Ishmael a third time in Mecca, during which they raise the Kaaba. Some versions say Abraham has Ishmael look for a final stone, but Abraham does not accept the one he brings back. Instead an angel has brought the Black Stone, which Abraham puts into place. Ishmael is left at the Kaaba, in charge of its care and to teach others about the Hajj.[2][6] The starting of the Hajj has many versions, and scholars believe this reflects the late association of Abraham with the Hajj after Islam had developed to help remove its connection to early pagan rituals.[2]:101

In Islamic thought

Prophetic career

Ishmael is considered a prophet in Islam and is listed in the Quran with other prophets in many instances.[11][12][13][14] In other verses, such as 21:85[15] and 38:48,[16] Ishmael is praised for being patient, good, and righteous.[17] A particular example which describes Ishmael individually is 19:54-55[18] – "And call to mind, through this divine writ, Ishmael. Behold, he was always true to his promise, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet, who used to enjoin upon his people prayer and charity, and found favour in his Sustainer's sight."[19] As a descendant of Ishmael, Muhammad is justified as the Prophet and continues the line of prophets from pre-Islamic times.

Genealogy and association with Arabs

As Islam became established, the figure Ishmael and those descended from him, the Ishmaelites, became connected, and often equated, with the term Arab in early Jewish and Christian literature.[20] Before Islam developed as a religion, Ishmael was depicted in many ways, but after its establishment, Ishmael was almost always seen in a negative light in Jewish and Christian texts, as he becomes the symbol for the "other" in these religions.[21]:2–3 As the Islamic community became more powerful, some Jewish midrash about Ishmael was modified so that he was portrayed more negatively in order to challenge the Islamic view that Ishmael, and thus the Muslims, were the favored descendants of Abraham.[21]:130 This became the genealogy according to Jewish sources and the Bible, in contrast with the genealogy of Arabs according to Muslims.[20] The development of Islam created pressure for Islam to be somehow different from Judaism and Christianity, and accordingly, Ishmael's lineage to Arabs was stressed.[21]:117

Today, some Christians believe that God fulfills his promises to Ishmael today by blessing the Arab nations with oil[22] and political strength.[23] In pre-Islamic times, there were three distinct groups of Arabs- the Ba'ida, Ariba, and Musta'riba. The Ba'ida were the "legendary Arabs of the past," while the Ariba were the "Southern Arabs." Ishmael's descendants became the Northern Arabs known as the Musta'riba or the "Arabized Arabs." The Musta'riba were described as Arabized since it is believed Ishmael learned Arabic when he moved to Mecca and married into the Arabic tribe of Jurhum. Ishmael's line is then traced from his son Kedar, then down through to Adnan, then to the Musta'riba, to the Quraysh.[21]:118 In this manner, Muhammad's ancestry leads back to Ishmael, joining "original biblical ancestry of Abraham with a distinctively Arab afinal stock,"[24]:147 and connecting Muhammad with Mecca and the Kaaba.[24]:152

See also

References

  1. ^ Vajda, G. "Isrāʾīliyyāt". Missing or empty |url= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Firestone, Reuven (1990). Journeys in Holy Lands: The Evolution of the Abraham-Ishmael Legends in Islamic Exegesis. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0331-0.
  3. ^ Hadith 4:583
  4. ^ Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) 
  5. ^ Paret, Rudi. "Ismāʿīl". Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g al-Tabari (1987). Brinner, William M. (ed.). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 2: Prophets and Patriarchs. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-921-6.
  7. ^ a b c Calder, Norman (2000). "4". In Andrew Rippin (ed.). The Qur'an : formative interpretation. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 0-86078-701-X.
  8. ^ Quran 37:100–111
  9. ^ Deeper Meaning of Sacrifice in Islam
  10. ^ Akpinar, Snjezana (2007). "I. Hospitality in Islam". Religion East & West. 7: 23–27.
  11. ^ Quran 2:136
  12. ^ Quran 3:84
  13. ^ Quran 4:163
  14. ^ Quran 6:84–86
  15. ^ Quran 21:85
  16. ^ Quran 38:48
  17. ^ Asad, Muhammad (2003). The Message of the Qur'an. Bristol, England: The Book Foundation.
  18. ^ Quran 19:54–55
  19. ^ Asad, Muhammad (2003). The Message of the Qur'an. Bristol, England: The Book Foundation. p. 517.
  20. ^ a b Ephʿal, I. (1976). ""Ishmael" and "Arab(s)": A Transformation of Ethnological Terms". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 35 (4): 225–235. doi:10.1086/372504.
  21. ^ a b c d Bakhos, Carol (2006). Ishmael on the Border: Rabbinic Portrayals of the First Arab. Albany, NY: State University of NY Press. ISBN 9780791467602.
  22. ^ An invitation to Ishmael by C. George Fry.
  23. ^ The Ishmael Promise and Contextualization Among Muslims by Jonathan Culver
  24. ^ a b Varisco, Daniel Martin (1995). "Metaphors and Sacred History: The Genealogy of Muhammad and the Arab "Tribe"". Anthropological Quarterly. 68 (3). doi:10.2307/3318071.


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