To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Irula language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Native toIndia
RegionNilgiri Mountains
Native speakers
11,870 (2011 census)[1]
Census conflates some speakers with Tamil
Tamil script
Language codes
ISO 639-3iru
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Irula is a Dravidian language spoken by the Irulas who inhabit the area of the Nilgiri mountains, in the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, India.[3] It is written in the Tamil script.


The language was first described and classified by indologist Kamil Zvelebil, who in 1955 showed that the Irula language is an independent Southern Dravidian language that is akin to Tamil, particularly Old Tamil, with some Kannada-like features. Before that, it was traditionally denied or put to doubt, and Irula was described as a crude or corrupt mixture of Tamil and Kannada.

According to a tentative hypothesis by Kamil Zvelebil, a pre-Dravidian Melanid population that forms the bulk of the Irulas anthropologically began to speak an ancient pre- or proto-Tamil dialect, which was superimposed almost totally on their native (pre-Dravidian) speech. That then became the basis of the language, which must have subsequently been in close contact with the other tribal languages of the Nilgiri area as well as with the large surrounding languages such as Kannada, Tamil, and Malayalam.


The tables present the vowel[4] and the consonant[5][6] phonemes of Irula.


Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

All vowels are centralized by certain neighbouring consonants.[clarification needed] They are then transcribed [ï ë ä ö ü], etc., but they may be closer to [ɨ ɘ æ ɵ ʉ].


Phonemes marked with an asterisk appear only in Zvelebil (2001, p. 157).

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ
Stop/Affricate p b t* d* ʈ ɖ k g
Fricative v s
ʝ* j
l ɭ
Rhotic r


  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Irula of the Nilgiri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Perialwar (1979), p. 1.
  4. ^ Perialwar (1979), p. 55.
  5. ^ Perialwar (1979), p. 57.
  6. ^ Zvelebil (2001), p. 157.


Further reading

This page was last edited on 17 October 2019, at 06:02
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.