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Investigative journalism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing. An investigative journalist may spend months or years researching and preparing a report. Investigative journalism is a primary source of information. Most investigative journalism is conducted by newspapers, wire services, and freelance journalists. Practitioners sometimes use the terms "watchdog reporting" or "accountability reporting".

An investigative reporter may make use of one or more of these tools, among others, on a single story:

  • Analysis of documents, such as lawsuits and other legal documents, tax records, government reports, regulatory reports, and corporate financial filings
  • Databases of public records
  • Investigation of technical issues, including scrutiny of government and business practices and their effects
  • Research into social and legal issues
  • Subscription research sources such as LexisNexis
  • Numerous interviews with on-the-record sources as well as, in some instances, interviews with anonymous sources (for example whistleblowers)
  • Federal or state Freedom of Information Acts to obtain documents and data from government agencies

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
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  • Bob Woodward Teaches Investigative Journalism Trailer | Official Trailer
  • Does Investigative Journalism Still Exist? Seymour Hersh on Watchdog Reporting and Ethics (2013)
  • BBC Journalism Skills: Principles of good writing for news
  • Red Ice Radio - Daniel Estulin - The Octopus Deception, WikiLeaks & Bilderberg
  • How Neo4j was Used to Analyze the Panama Papers Dataset – Interview with Mar Cabra of the ICIJ


Go to the red hot center of what's important in somebody's life. Because that's where you get the truth. [MUSIC PLAYING] In this era, most people are skeptical, distrustful of the news media. Everyone is a journalist. You gather information, verify it, and communicate it. Everyone has their own version of the truth. But there are facts. [MUSIC PLAYING] What I'm going to teach in this class is the importance of human sources. No one ever gives you the full story. [MUSIC PLAYING] Often, it's a mix of truth and untruth. The job is to go verify. "I shall resign the presidency, effective at noon tomorrow." The President of the United States is not above the law. [MUSIC PLAYING] The human source is the savior of journalism. In this MasterClass, I'm going to teach you research, investigating, how to gather information, how to interview people, and how to find the story and build the story. [MUSIC PLAYING] The purpose of an interview is not gotcha, is not to catch. I have a little technique of sticking this finger over my little finger, jamming it down so it hurts, and it's a reminder to shut up. And just listen. Let the silence suck out the truth. [MUSIC PLAYING] This is a time we're being tested. Let's tell the truth. Let's not be chickens**** about this. Break the rules- not the law, but the rules. This is the final exam for democracy. I'm Bob Woodward, and this is my MasterClass.


Professional definitions

University of Missouri journalism professor Steve Weinberg defined investigative journalism as: "Reporting, through one's own initiative and work product, matters of importance to readers, viewers, or listeners."[1] In many cases, the subjects of the reporting wish the matters under scrutiny to remain undisclosed. There are currently university departments for teaching investigative journalism. Conferences are conducted presenting peer reviewed research into investigative journalism.

British media theorist Hugo de Burgh (2000) states that: "An investigative journalist is a man or woman whose profession is to discover the truth and to identify lapses from it in whatever media may be available. The act of doing this generally is called investigative journalism and is distinct from apparently similar work done by police, lawyers, auditors, and regulatory bodies in that it is not limited as to target, not legally founded and closely connected to publicity."[2]


American journalism textbooks point out that muckraking standards promoted by McClure's Magazine around 1902, "Have become integral to the character of modern investigative journalism."[3] Furthermore, the successes of the early muckrakers continued to inspire journalists.[4][5]


Notable investigative reporters


Bureaus, centers, and institutes for investigations

Television programs

See also


  1. ^ Steve Weinberg, The Reporter's Handbook: An Investigator's Guide to Documents and Techniques, St. Martin's Press, 1996
  2. ^ Investigative Journalism: Context and Practice, Hugo de Burgh (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2000
  3. ^ W. David Sloan; Lisa Mullikin Parcell (2002). American Journalism: History, Principles, Practices. McFarland. pp. 211–213. .
  4. ^ Cecelia Tichi. Exposés and Excess: Muckraking in America, 1900/2000 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013).
  5. ^ Stephen Hess (2012). Whatever Happened to the Washington Reporters, 1978-2012.
  6. ^ "A New Hospital for the Insane" (Dec., 1876). Brooklyn Daily Eagle.
  7. ^ "The Color of Money". Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H (2011). "Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". BMJ. 342: c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452. PMID 21209060. 
  9. ^ Ziv, Stav (10 February 2015). "Andrew Wakefield, Father of the Anti-Vaccine Movement, Responds to the Current Measles Outbreak for the First Time". Newsweek. New York. Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  10. ^ Boseley, Sarah (2 February 2010). "Lancet retracts 'utterly false' MMR paper". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  11. ^ Crewdson, John (1996-06-30). "Cardiac Arrest at 37,000 Feet". 
  12. ^ Kovach, Bill, and Tom Rosenstiel. Blur: How to Know What's True in the Age of Information Overload. New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2010. p. 58-60. Print.
  13. ^ Vasilyeva, Natalya; Anderson, Mae (3 April 2016). "News Group Claims Huge Trove of Data on Offshore Accounts". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April 2016. 
  14. ^ "About the ICIJ". The Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  15. ^ a b "About". ICIJ. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016. 
  16. ^ a b ICIJ, About the ICIJ
  17. ^ "Gerard Ryle". Center for Public Integrity. 
  18. ^ Fitzgibbon, Will; et al. (5 November 2017). "The 1 Percent- Offshore Trove Exposes Trump-Russia Links And Piggy Banks Of The Wealthiest 1 Percent - A new leak of confidential records reveals the financial hideaways of iconic brands and power brokers across the political spectrum". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  19. ^ Grandoni, Dino (2017-11-06). "Analysis | The Energy 202: What you need to know about Wilbur Ross and the Paradise Papers". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-11-06. 
  20. ^ Disis, Jackie Wattles and Jill. "Paradise Papers: What you need to know". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2017-11-06. 
  21. ^ "". 
  22. ^ McChesney, Robert W. (2004). The Problem of the Media: U.S. Communication Politics in the 21st century. Monthly Review Press. p. 81. ISBN 1-58367-105-6. , citing Just, Marion; Levine, Rosalind; Regan, Kathleen (Nov–Dec 2002), "Investigative Journalism Despite the Odds", Columbia Journalism Review: 103ff 

Further reading

  • Typewriter Guerillas: Closeups of 20 Top Investigative Reporters, by J.C. Behrens (paperback) 1977.
  • Raising Hell: Straight Talk with Investigative Journalists, by Ron Chepesiuk, Haney Howell, and Edward Lee (paperback) 1997
  • Investigative Reporting: A Study in Technique (Journalism Media Manual), by David Spark, (paperback) 1999.
  • Tell Me No Lies: Investigative Journalism That Changed the World, John Pilger, ed. (paperback) 2005.
  • Harber, Anton; Renn, Margaret, eds. (2010). Troublemakers: The Best of South Africa’s Investigative Journalism. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana Media. ISBN 9781770098930. OCLC 794905854. 

External links

This page was last edited on 12 April 2018, at 15:15.
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