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List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Physicians employing a surgical method. From Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery (1465).
Physicians employing a surgical method. From Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's Imperial Surgery (1465).

The following is a list of inventions made in the medieval Islamic world, especially during the Islamic Golden Age,[1][2][3][4] as well as in later Islamic gunpowder empires such as the Ottoman and Mughal empires.

The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural, economic and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the eighth century to the fourteenth century, with several contemporary scholars[who?] dating the end of the era to the fifteenth or sixteenth century.[3][4][5] This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language and subsequently development in various fields of sciences began. Science and technology in the Islamic world adopted and preserved knowledge and technologies from contemporary and earlier civilizations, including Persia, Egypt, India, China, and Greco-Roman antiquity, while making numerous improvements, innovations and inventions.

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  • ✪ The Medieval Islamicate World: Crash Course History of Science #7
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  • ✪ The Weird Truth About Arabic Numerals

Transcription

The religion of Islam significantly influenced knowledge-making in the greater Mediterranean and western Asian world. Islamicate scholars—meaning people influenced by Islamic civilization, regardless of their religious views—gave us terms such as “algebra,” “azimuth,” “algorithm,” “alcohol,” “alkali,” and “alembic.” We’ll dive into Islamic medicine and philosophers such as the great Persian polymath Ibn Sina in future episodes. For now, let’s explore the beginnings of Islamicate natural philosophy. [Intro Music Plays] Islamicate power expanded rapidly after the Prophet Muhammad’s death in CE 632. What began as one vast Arab-governed state soon fractured into two spheres of political influence: a western one centered in southern Spain, with a capital at Córdoba, and an eastern one including the great cities of northern Africa as well as Arabia and Mesopotamia. This eastern empire, the highly urbanized Abbasid Caliphate, existed in some form, increasingly fragmented, from 750–1517. The Abbasid Caliphate was a crossroads or trading zone for Persian, Indian, and Byzantine cultures, as well as for the religions of Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism. Many languages flourished across the Abbasid Caliphate, as they did in the Emirate of Córdoba. This blend of cultures and belief systems made early Islamicate science cosmopolitan—that is, generally inclusive in character. A high literacy rate thanks to Islam’s focus on the Qur’an meant that many people—well, noble men, at least—could study natural philosophical texts. Further, Islam-the-religion called on its adherents to treat others as equals, helping make Islamicate knowledge production more egalitarian. And ongoing support by pious philanthropists including heads of states allowed Islamicate polymaths to study natural phenomena systematically. Baghdad, the first Abbasid capital, was founded by its second caliph, al-Mansur, in 754. A sprawling metropolis quickly grew up around the original, carefully planned city. And Baghdad became the largest urban area in the world by 930, with a population of one million. Key for our story today: Baghdad housed the Bayt al-Ḥikmah or House of Wisdom. This great library grew out of al-Mansur’s private collection, which he opened up to visiting scholars, including delegations from India. Al-Mansur’s successor, Caliph al-Rashid, carried on this tradition. Al-Rashid also supported the Translation Movement, which we’ll get to shortly. But first, let’s reflect on his rule as a great example of the cosmopolitan character of the early Abbasids. Charlemagne sent a mission from France to al-Rashid’s court in 799 with gifts. So in 802, al-Rashid sent Charlemagne an embassy including an elephant named Abul-Abbas and a water clock that featured clockwork knights who emerged once per hour. You could see the elephant’s journey as one origin of veterinary science: the Abbasid diplomats kept the elephant healthy walking from India to Baghdad to France, and it lived for years after in captivity. And, to the Franks, the water clock was simply mind-blowing, something they’d never even imagined! But it was al-Rashid’s successor, Caliph al-Maʾmūn, who in 832 refounded the House of Wisdom specifically as an international center for translation and research. Al-Maʾmūn was involved in the House’s daily operations, and he sponsored knowledge production programmatically, inspiring his successors to do the same. By 850, the House of Wisdom had become the largest library in the world. Al-Maʾmūn sponsored families of scholar–translators to bring useful texts into Arabic from Greek, Chinese, Sanskrit, Persian, and Syriac. This should be known as the “Useful Texts into Arabic Movement” but, for some reason, is called the Translation Movement instead. This movement began with Persian texts concerning astrology and astronomy. Remember that, across the ancient and medieval worlds, astronomy was the study of the heavens, and astrology the study of the influence of heavenly bodies on earthly matters. While both were studied, astrology was seen as more useful. After texts about the stars, the translators moved onto others. To feed this program, al-Maʾmūn sent emissaries to collect Greek scientific manuscripts from the Byzantines—and began demanding them as loot in war. The Translation Movement lasted from roughly 750–950. By 950, virtually every Greek scholarly text had been translated multiple times, and the libraries were brimming. Many translators of Baghdad particularly fell for the works of Aristotle. One of the greatest Islamicate philosophers, Ibn Rushd, is sometimes called “The Commentator,” meaning the number-one Aristotle fan. To this day, more classical Greek commentaries on Aristotle may be available in Arabic than English! Why was Caliph al-Maʾmūn so into the Persian and Greek science? For one, supporting translations was a sign of civic status, and a worthy cause. Al-Maʾmūn also saw scientific translation as highly practical. For example, a better understanding of astronomy led to more accurate official timekeeping for mosques. And improved geographical knowledge helped more accurately align prayers to Mecca. The Translation Movement also fostered a strong appreciation for reasoned thought, at least among the ruling and scholarly classes. This rubbed off on religious philosophy, giving rise to the school of mu‘tazilism. Mu‘tazila such as al-Maʾmūn believed that rationalism could be used to understand both the physical world and God. They brought the Greek tradition of reasoned debate about the nature of the cosmos into an Islamicate social context, looking beyond a literal reading of the Qur’an for sources of knowledge. In fact, places of learning under the Abbasid Caliphate included observatories, hospitals, and public libraries, as well as mosques and madrasas, or Islamic colleges. Madrasas were critical centers of knowledge transmission. There were thirty in Baghdad in the 1200s, and one hundred and fifty in Damascus by 1500. Each madrasa had its own library full of paper books. Paper had been introduced to western Asia from China, and paper factories appeared in Samarkand, Baghdad, Cairo, Morocco, and finally in Spain by 1150. While they were religious centers, madrasas were also places where students could learn law as well as Greek natural philosophy, including logic and arithmetic, astronomy, and astrology. Abbasid scholars didn’t merely translate foreign writers. In translating the texts, these polymaths wrote commentaries on them, comparing, summarizing, and analyzing them. Even when motivated by utilitarian concerns, the work of careful reading and comparison led many scholars to pursue new questions in natural philosophy. For example, observatories arose throughout the Islamicate world. Al-Maʾmūn built two observatories, one in Baghdad and another outside Damascus. At these sites, scholars refined astronomical handbooks, called zīj, that helped fix prayer times. In fact, by the late ninth century, Islamicate polymaths such as Abu Maʿshar, the famous Persian physician al-Razi —whom we’ll meet again soon—and the Indian-influenced al-Biruni were even proposing heliocentric models of the solar system. Their theories went against Aristotle but with observed data! In geography, Islamicate scholars extended Ptolemy’s system. Our scientific hero today, Caliph al-Maʾmūn, commissioned a measurement of earth’s circumference that was pretty amazing: two groups ventured into the desert, finding a specific location by following the stars. One group walked north and the other south, tracking the stars for one degree. They counted their paces. Then they walked back, remeasured, averaged the measurements… and multiplied by 360 to derive a circumference of 24,480 miles. The modern measurement? 24,901—less than 2% more accurate than the one made by al-Maʾmūn’s team. And don’t get me started on astrolabes! You know—mechanical devices used for measuring incline by astronomers and navigators? To determine the position of celestial bodies in the night sky? The ones Islamicate astronomers improved by adding the azimuth, or direction of compass bearing? And then merged with armillary spheres, or models of the entire cosmos constructed from rings and hoops that revolved on their axes, around 900? And then improved into geared mechanical astrolabes in 1235? I’m looking at you, Abi Bakr of Isfahan!? MEANWHILE—back at the House of Wisdom… In addition to translation and improvement on Greek natural philosophy, scholars were also innovating in new realms. In mathematics, medieval Islamicate scholars focused on arithmetic and algebra. They adopted the number zero and the “Arabic” decimal-style numerals from India, using them so much that they became known to us as, well, Arabic. They also developed trigonometry. One example of this work in particular jumps out: in 820, at the House, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi wrote Kitab al-Jabr, or The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, an original manual of practical math. Al-Khwarizmi wasn’t the first to work on algebra, but he set out the general rules for solving equations that was highly influential for centuries. Algebra introduced a theory that treated rational numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes—all numbers—as similar objects, ready to be manipulated. Or, as my dude himself says it: “When I consider what people generally want in calculating, I found that it always is a number.” Mic drop! This opened up the possibility of exploring new areas of mathematics such as algorithms, quadratic equations, and polynomial equations. Also at the House of Wisdom, thinkers such as Mohammad Mūsā worked on the basic laws of physics. Others focused on optics, performing many experiments. And doctors and philosophers trained and traded works. But what about the engineers—the scholars working on technē instead of epistēmē? The Abbasid state privileged public service and the interests of the state, focusing on improving useful arts such as hydraulic engineering and agricultural science. The Abbasids used the arch, rather than the Greek post and lintel system. And they constructed large dams, waterwheels, and qanats, or underground channels to tap groundwater. Abbasid technology thus resembled that of the Romans, with craftspeople, not scholars, typically building actual stuff. But a few stand-out engineers from this time period created wonders so—er—wondrous, that they deserve a little attention from ThoughtBubble: In 850, at the House of Wisdom, the Banū Mūsā brothers—Mohammad, just mentioned, and Ahmad and Hasan—wrote The Book of Ingenious Devices: a compendium of one hundred devices and how to use them. This included the earliest programmable machine, “The Instrument that Plays by Itself.” Medieval automation, whaaat!?h And it gets cooler. In 1206—far from Baghdad, in what is now Diyarbakır, Turkey—the polymath al-Jazarī wrote an even more amazing book on machines: The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices also covers one hundred machines, with instructions on how to build them. Most of these are trick vessels, but others include water wheels, watermills, a giant water clock, elephant- and castle-shaped clocks, fountains improving upon designs by the Banū Mūsās, a candle clock, and musical automata. Al-Jazarī even designed a water-powered, perpetually-playing flute! How did these devices work? Well, it helped that al-Jazarī invented the camshaft, which would make it into Europe by the 1300s, an early version of the crankshaft, and the segmental gear. You can look up how these work online, but the point is: our modern world runs on them, and this guy figured them out in medieval times. That is so. Dang. Cool. But the coolest of al-Jazarī’s inventions were his full-on automata—medieval robots. He made humanoid machines including one that could serve water or tea. He made a flushing toilet with a nearby servant, who refilled the basin when flushed. And the pièce de résistance: al-Jazarī constructed a four-piece robot band that floated on a lake, entertaining party guests. The music? Most likely programmable, using tiny pegs and levers. Thanks Thought Bubble! We could spend several more episodes on science in the early Islamicate world. And we will come back to some of the people and themes mentioned today. There’s a common understanding of the history of medieval Eurasia and North Africa long-held by many English speakers is just plain wrong: instead of a “dark age” defined by conflicts between Muslims and Christians who didn’t understand one another, we encounter urban centers of trade and knowledge exchange populated by natural philosophers with a keen desire to build upon earlier insights regardless of their origins. Next time—we’ll build many cities and one very long canal in the rich Middle Kingdom, China. Crash Course History of Science is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Scishow, Eons, and Sexplanations. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Contents

List of inventions

Early Caliphates

7th century
An illustrated headpiece from a mid-18th-century collection of ghazals and rubāʻīyāt, from the University of Pennsylvania library's Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection[6]
An illustrated headpiece from a mid-18th-century collection of ghazals and rubāʻīyāt, from the University of Pennsylvania library's Lawrence J. Schoenberg Collection[6]
8th century
9th century
10th century
11th-12th centuries
13th century

Al Andalus (Islamic Spain)

9th-12th centuries
  • Brass type movable printer press/first printing device in Europe: First invented in Muslim Spain 100 years prior to the invention of printing press, by Johannes Gutenburg of Germany, in 1454.
  • Inheritance of hemophilia: First proposed by Abu Al-Zahrawi was first to record and suggest that hemophilia was an inherited disease.[126]
  • Inhalation anesthesia: Invented by al-Zahrawi and Ibn Zuhr. Used a sponge soaked with narcotic drugs and placed it on patients face.[127] These Muslim physicians were the first to use an anaesthetic sponge.[128]
  • Ligatures: Described in the work of al-Zahrawi (936–1013), Kitab al-Tasrif, one of the most influential books in early modern medicine. Describes the process of performing a ligature on blood vessels.
  • Lithotrite: Invented by Al-Zahrawi.[129]
  • Metronome: Invented by Ibn Firnas (9th century)
  • Mercuric oxide: First synthesized by Abu al-Qasim al-Qurtubi al-Majriti (10th century).
  • Migraine surgery: First performed by al-Zahrawi (936–1013).
  • Kocher's method and Walter position: Al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif described both what would later become known as "Kocher's method" for treating a dislocated shoulder and the "Walcher position" in obstetrics.[126]
  • Pharmacopoeia: During the 14th century, the physician from Malaga, Ibn Baytar, wrote a pharmacopoeia (book of medicine) naming over 1400 different drugs and their uses in medicine. This book was written 200 years before the supposed first pharmacopoeia was written by German scholar in 1542.
  • Treatment of wart: al-Zahrawi first described it.[130]
  • Treatment of hydrocephalus: First done by Al-Zahrawi.[131]
  • Water and weight driven mechanical clocks: By Spanish Muslim engineers sometime between 900–1200. According to historian Will Durant, a watch-like device was invented by Ibn Firnas.
  • Andalusian Oud: Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘ (789–857),[132][133] a prominent musician who had trained under Ishaq al-Mawsili (d. 850) in Baghdad and was exiled to Andalusia before 833 AD. He has been credited with adding a fifth string to his oud[134] and with establishing one of the first schools of music in Córdoba.[135]
14th century
  • Hispano-Moresque ware: This was a style of Islamic pottery created in Arab Spain, after the Moors had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze, and painting in metallic lusters. Hispano-Moresque ware was distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of its decoration.[136]
  • Polar-axis sundial: Early sundials were nodus-based with straight hour-lines, indicating unequal hours (also called temporary hours) that varied with the seasons, since every day was divided into twelve equal segments; thus, hours were shorter in winter and longer in summer. The idea of using hours of equal time length throughout the year was the innovation of Abu'l-Hasan Ibn al-Shatir in 1371, based on earlier developments in trigonometry by Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albategni). Ibn al-Shatir was aware that "using a gnomon that is parallel to the Earth's axis will produce sundials whose hour lines indicate equal hours on any day of the year." His sundial is the oldest polar-axis sundial still in existence. The concept later appeared in Western sundials from at least 1446.[137][138]

Sultanates

12th century
  • Blood measurement device: Created by Al-Jazari[139]
  • Double-acting principle: The principle was used by al-Jazari in his water pumps.[140]
  • Tadelakt: The history of the material dates back to the 12th century, in the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties.[141]
13th century
  • Various automatons: Al-Jazari's inventions included automaton peacocks, a hand-washing automaton, and a musical band of automatons.[142][143][144]
  • Camshaft: The camshaft was described by Al-Jazari in 1206. He employed it as part of his automata, water-raising machines, and water clocks such as the castle clock.[145]
  • Candle clock with dial and fastening mechanism: The most sophisticated candle clocks known were those of Al-Jazari in 1206.[146] It included a dial to display the time.[147]
  • Crankshaft: Al-Jazari (1136–1206) is credited with the invention of the crankshaft.[34] He described a crank and connecting rod system in a rotating machine in two of his water-raising machines.[148] His twin-cylinder pump incorporated a crankshaft,[149] including both the crank and shaft mechanisms.[150]
  • Crank-slider: Ismail al-Jazari's water pump employed the first known crank-slider mechanism.[151]
  • Cotton gin with worm gear: The worm gear roller gin was invented in the Delhi Sultanate during the 13th to 14th centuries.[152]
  • Design and construction methods: English technology historian Donald Hill wrote, "We see for the first time in al-Jazari's work several concepts important for both design and construction: the lamination of timber to minimize warping, the static balancing of wheels, the use of wooden templates (a kind of pattern), the use of paper models to establish designs, the calibration of orifices, the grinding of the seats and plugs of valves together with emery powder to obtain a watertight fit, and the casting of metals in closed mold boxes with sand."[153]
  • Draw bar: The draw bar was applied to sugar-milling, with evidence of its use at Delhi in the Mughal Empire by 1540, but possibly dating back several centuries earlier to the Delhi Sultanate.[154]
  • Minimising intermittence: The concept of minimising the intermittence is first implied in one of Al-Jazari's saqiya devices, which was to maximise the efficiency of the saqiya.[155]
  • Programmable automaton and drum machine: The earliest programmable automata, and the first programmable drum machine, were invented by Al-Jazari, and described in The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, written in 1206. His programmable musical device featured four automaton musicians, including two drummers, that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. It was a programmable drum machine where pegs (cams) bump into little levers that operated the percussion. The drummers could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs were moved around.[156]
  • Tusi couple: The couple was first proposed by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in his 1247 Tahrir al-Majisti (Commentary on the Almagest) as a solution for the latitudinal motion of the inferior planets. The Tusi couple is explicitly two circles of radii x and 2x in which the circle with the smaller radii rotates inside the Bigger circle. The oscillatory motion be produced by the combined uniform circular motions of two identical circles, one riding on the circumference of the other.
  • Griot: The griot musical tradition originates from the Islamic Mali Empire, where the first professional griot was Balla Fasséké.[157]
  • Segmental gear: A segmental gear is "a piece for receiving or communicating reciprocating motion from or to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear, or ring, having cogs on the periphery, or face."[158] Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. wrote, "Segmental gears first clearly appear in al-Jazari".[159]
  • Sitar: According to various sources, the sitar was invented by Amir Khusrow, a famous Sufi inventor, poet, and pioneer of Khyal, Tarana and Qawwali, in the Delhi Sultanate.[160][161] Others say that the instrument was brought from Iran and modified for the tastes of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire.[161]
  • Torpedo: The concept of a torpedo existed many centuries before it was later successfully developed. In 1275, Hasan al-Rammah described "...an egg which moves itself and burns".[162]
14th century

Ottoman Empire

14th century
15th century
  • Coffee: Stories exist of coffee originating in Ethiopia, but the earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia.[166][167] It was in Yemen that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed as they are today. From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa,[168] and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.[169]
  • Dardanelles Gun: The Dardanelles Gun was designed and cast in bronze in 1434 by Munir Ali. The Dardanelles Gun was still present for duty more than 340 years later in 1807, when a Royal Navy force appeared and commenced the Dardanelles Operation. Turkish forces loaded the ancient relics with propellant and projectiles, then fired them at the British ships. The British squadron suffered 28 casualties from this bombardment.[170]
  • Iznik pottery: Produced in Ottoman Turkey as early as the 15th century AD.[171] It consists of a body, slip, and glaze, where the body and glaze are "quartz-frit."[172] The "frits" in both cases "are unusual in that they contain lead oxide as well as soda"; the lead oxide would help reduce the thermal expansion coefficient of the ceramic.[173] Microscopic analysis reveals that the material that has been labeled "frit" is "interstitial glass" which serves to connect the quartz particles.[174]
  • Standing army with firearms: The Ottoman military's regularized use of firearms proceeded ahead of the pace of their European counterparts. The Janissaries had been an infantry bodyguard using bows and arrows. During the rule of Sultan Mehmed II they were drilled with firearms and became "the first standing infantry force equipped with firearms in the world."[175]
16th century

Safavid Dynasty

The Rothschild Small Silk Medallion Carpet, mid-16th century, Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
The Rothschild Small Silk Medallion Carpet, mid-16th century, Museum of Islamic Art, Doha
15th century
  • Classical Oriental carpet: By the late fifteenth century, the design of Persian carpets changed considerably. Large-format medallions appeared, ornaments began to show elaborate curvilinear designs. Large spirals and tendrils, floral ornaments, depictions of flowers and animals, were often mirrored along the long or short axis of the carpet to obtain harmony and rhythm. The earlier "kufic" border design was replaced by tendrils and arabesques. All these patterns required a more elaborate system of weaving, as compared to weaving straight, rectilinear lines. Likewise, they require artists to create the design, weavers to execute them on the loom, and an efficient way to communicate the artist's ideas to the weaver. Today this is achieved by a template, termed cartoon (Ford, 1981, p. 170[183]). How Safavid manufacturers achieved this, technically, is currently unknown. The result of their work, however, was what Kurt Erdmann termed the "carpet design revolution".[184] Apparently, the new designs were developed first by miniature painters, as they started to appear in book illuminations and on book covers as early as in the fifteenth century. This marks the first time when the "classical" design of Islamic rugs was established.[185]

Mughal Empire

16th century
A detailed portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe probably made by Muhammad Saleh Thattvi
A detailed portrait of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir holding a globe probably made by Muhammad Saleh Thattvi
  • Hookah or water pipe: according to Cyril Elgood (PP.41, 110), the physician Irfan Shaikh, at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I (1542–1605) invented the Hookah or water pipe used most commonly for smoking tobacco.[186][187][188][189]
  • Metal cylinder rocket: In the 16th century, Akbar was the first to initiate and use metal cylinder rockets known as bans, particularly against war elephants, during the Battle of Sanbal.[190]
  • Multi-barrel matchlock volley gun: Fathullah Shirazi (c. 1582), a Persian polymath and mechanical engineer who worked for Akbar, developed an early multi-shot gun. Shirazi's rapid-firing gun had multiple gun barrels that fired hand cannons loaded with gunpowder. It may be considered a version of a volley gun.[191] One such gun he developed was a seventeen-barrelled cannon fired with a matchlock.[192]
  • Seamless celestial globe: It was invented in Kashmir by Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman in 998 AH (1589–1590), and twenty other such globes were later produced in Lahore and Kashmir during the Mughal Empire. Before they were rediscovered in the 1980s, it was believed by modern metallurgists to be technically impossible to produce metal globes without any seams.[193]
17th century

See also

Notes

  1. ^ p. 45, Islamic & European expansion: the forging of a global order, Michael Adas, ed., Temple University Press, 1993, ISBN 1-56639-068-0.
  2. ^ Max Weber & Islam, Toby E. Huff and Wolfgang Schluchter, eds., Transaction Publishers, 1999, ISBN 1-56000-400-2, p. 53
  3. ^ a b George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, pp. 245, 250, 256–57. New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-8023-7.
  4. ^ a b King, David A. (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Isis. 74 (4): 531–55. doi:10.1086/353360.
  5. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y (1996). "Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century". In Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas (ed.). Islam and the Challenge of Modernity, Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on Islam and the Challenge of Modernity: Historical and Contemporary Contexts, Kuala Lumpur, August 1–5, 1994. International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC). pp. 351–99. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  6. ^ UPenn LJS 44
  7. ^ "Ghazal | Islamic literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  8. ^ a b Michael Hamilton Morgan, [Lost History : The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Scientists, Thinkers and  Artists]  (Washington D.C.: National Geographic, June 2008) p: 164
  9. ^ Tabbaa, Yasser, The transformation of Islamic art during the Sunni revival, I.B.Tauris, 2002, ISBN 1-85043-392-5, ISBN 978-1-85043-392-7, pp. 75-88
  10. ^ Canby, Sheila, Islamic art in detail, US edn., Harvard University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-674-02390-0, ISBN 978-0-674-02390-1, p. 26
  11. ^ See p. 289 of Martin, L. C. (1923), "Surveying and navigational instruments from the historical standpoint", Transactions of the Optical Society, 24 (5): 289–303, Bibcode:1923TrOS...24..289M, doi:10.1088/1475-4878/24/5/302, ISSN 1475-4878.
  12. ^ Berggren, J. Lennart (2007), "Mathematics in Medieval Islam", in Katz, Victor J. (ed.), The Mathematics of Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, India, and Islam: a Sourcebook, Princeton University Press, p. 519, ISBN 978-0-691-11485-9
  13. ^ a b c d RASHED, ROSHDI; collaboration, in; MORELON, RÉGIS (1996). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. doi:10.4324/9780203329030. ISBN 978-0-203-32903-0.[dead link]
  14. ^ a b c d e 1001 Inventions. England: National Geographic. 2012. ISBN 978-1426209345.
  15. ^ Pacey, Arnold (1991). Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-year History. MIT Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-262-66072-3.
  16. ^ Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 781, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 751–95)
  17. ^ Science and Islam - A History. Icon Books. 2009. p. 158.
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