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International Baccalaureate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

International Baccalaureate
International Baccalaureate Logo.svg
International Baccalaureate logo
Formation1968; 51 years ago (1968)
HeadquartersGeneva, Switzerland
Websitewww.ibo.org
Formerly called
International Baccalaureate Organization

The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and founded in 1968.[1][2] It offers four educational programmes: the IB Diploma Programme and the IB Career-related Programme for students aged 16 to 19, the IB Middle Years Programme for students aged 11 to 16, and the IB Primary Years Programme for children aged 3 to 12.[3] To teach these programmes, schools must be authorized by the International Baccalaureate.

The organisation's name and logo were changed in 2007 to reflect a reorganisation. Consequently, "IB" may now refer to the organisation itself, any of the four programmes, or the diploma or certificates awarded at the end of a programme.[4]

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Transcription

hello and welcome back to Ivy Lilia. If you're new, make sure to subscribe. IAs, EEs, TOK, CAS what does it all mean? The International Baccalaureate diploma program can be a little overwhelming at times, especially with so many acronyms flying around. Today I'm going to explain everything you need to know about the IB in order to succeed. The IB curriculum is based off of the IB learner profile. 10 traits that you will develop throughout your coursework. Different assessments aim to develop these traits, for example, a requirement of your science class will be the group 4 project, a group project aimed towards analyzing the nature of science and scientific inquiry. This project exemplifies traits of inquirers, communicators, and open-mindedness. For other assignments, you are asked to complete a reflection document throughout your process. These tasks will help you develop traits of a reflective student. The six IB classes that you will take fall into six different categories: Group 1: studies in language and literature such as studying literature in your native language which is known as your language a group 2 language acquisition classes where you will learn a new language which is known as your language B group 3 individuals and societies including classes like economics or history group 4 experimental Sciences classes like biology chemistry and physics group 5 of mathematics which is your math class group 6 electives or the arts this can be any IB class from any other group I took psychology you will take three higher level or HL classes and three standard level or SL classes. SL classes are taught with a similar difficulty of AP or other rigorous high school classes they focus on a greater breadth of the subject area rather than deeper critical analysis into the subject HL classes are taught like college level courses they focus on more analytical and critical thought about the subject and go into much greater depth about a few selected topics because it's a more demanding difficult course in HL student will have to work much harder than an SL student to get the same number of marks. So what's a mark? A mark is a point towards your overall score for an assignment or the subject every assignment assessment or exam will have a mark scheme which gives detailed descriptors for how well your work compares to the IB standards a mark band is a range of points that correlates to a score on a scale from one to seven one being the farthest from the I B's standards and the seven being the closest to their idea of excellence each class will have at least one internal assignment or IA the IAS have different requirements and formats for each class it might be an essay a presentation or a group conversation your teacher for each subject will grade your ia hence the name internal assessment then a few selected IAS from your class will be sent out to a trained the IB grader who will assess how well your teacher grades to the IB standards if your teacher grades too harshly the IB will raise you and your classmates scores if your teacher grades too easily they will lower your scores this process is called moderation for each class you will also have externally assessed exams these exams are called papers and each class has a different number of papers referred to as paper one or paper two or paper three and each one has a different format it's important to find out early what you will be tested on in each paper your exams will be sent somewhere in the world to an IB examiner also referred to as a reader who will use a mark scheme to assess your exam for each class how well you did on your internally assess assignments your ia and your externally assessed exams is totalled for your total score for subject on the 1 through 7 scale in addition to your 6 IB classes you will also take theory of knowledge complete creativity action and service requirements and write an extended essay theory of knowledge or Tok is a class that you will take that asks you to examine how we know what we know how we perceive the world around us and question what is truth you will study ways of knowing how we take in information and process it into knowledge you will also study areas of knowledge the way that we have categorized knowledge into subject CLK is different from your other classes because you do not have an exam at the end of a course instead you'll give a presentation your tlk presentation will be graded by your Tok teacher you will also write an essay your Tok essay will be sent out of your school to be graded by an IP examiner Cass stands for creativity like your artistic skills action as in exercise and service like volunteering it's an extra requirement beyond your IB academics to ensure that you are a well-rounded student don't worry too much about Cass because many of the extracurriculars hobbies and activities that you already do will help you complete this requirement the extended essay or EE is a 4,000 word research paper much like a senior thesis you can write your e e on the topic of your choosing in any subject that you have studied a teacher at your school will help you with your EE they will be your extended essay supervisor then your ie will be sent out to be graded by to IB examiner's outside your school the people that read your essay may be from a country on the other side of the planet the extended essay and Tok are graded on an A through e scale with a being the best score and E being a failure then the two scores are averaged and you get a maximum score of 3 points towards your diploma even if you get perfect scores in all your subjects you will not be awarded your IB Diploma if you get an e in either tlk or on your ee so how do you earn your diploma all your points from all your subjects and the three possible points from Tok and your extended essay are totaled up you must have at least 24 points to earn the Diploma the highest possible score is a 45 but there are also a few rules you can't fail EE or Tok you can't get any scores of a1 you can't have any twos in your HL classes you can't have more than one - in your SL classes you can't get more than three threes overall you must have at least 12 points in your HL classes and at least 9 points in your SL classes to earn the IB Diploma if you liked this video then you should check out some of my other ones you'll probably like them too don't forget to subscribe and I will see you later

Contents

History

Inception

When Marie-Thérèse Maurette wrote "Educational Techniques for Peace. Do They Exist?" in 1948,[5] she created the framework for what would eventually become the IB Diploma Programme (IBDP).[6] In the mid-1960s, a group of teachers from the International School of Geneva (Ecolint) created the International Schools Examinations Syndicate (ISES), which would later become the International Baccalaureate Office (IBO), followed by the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) and then the International Baccalaureate (IB).[7]

First programme

The IB headquarters were officially established in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1968 for the development and maintenance of the IB Diploma Programme. The objective of this programme was to "provide an internationally acceptable university admissions qualification suitable for the growing mobile population of young people whose parents were part of the world of diplomacy, international and multi-national organizations" by offering standardized courses and assessments for students aged 16 to 19.[8][9]

International Baccalaureate North America (IBNA) was established in 1975[10] by Peter Nehr, International Baccalaureate Africa, Europe and Middle-East (IBAEM) in 1986,[11] and International Baccalaureate Asia Pacific (IBAP) during the same period.[12]

Other programmes

The IB Middle Years Programme (MYP) was first offered in 1994. Within five years, 51 countries had MYP schools.[13] A revised MYP programme was introduced in September 2014.[14]

The IB Primary Years Programme (PYP) was piloted in 1996 in 30 primary schools on different continents, and the first PYP school was authorised in 1997,[15] with 87 authorised schools in 43 countries within five years.[16]

The IB Career-related Programme (formerly IB Career-related Certificate[17]) was first offered in 2012.

Directors

Alec Peterson was IB's first director general (1968–1977), followed by Gérard Renaud (1977–1983), Roger Peel (1983–1998), Derek Blackman (1998–1999), George Walker (1999–2005), Jeffrey Beard (2006–2013) and Dr. Siva Kumari (appointed 2013, incumbent from 2014).[18]

The IB learner profile

As the IB's mission in action, the learner profile concisely describes the aspirations of a global community that shares the values underlying the IB's educational philosophy. The IB learner profile describes the attributes and outcomes of education for international-mindedness. IB learners strive to be:[19]

  • Thinkers
  • Communicators
  • Principled
  • Reflective
  • Open minded
  • Balanced
  • Risk-takers
  • Inquirers
  • Caring
  • Knowledgeable

The learner profile is the basis for all four programmes.

Diploma Programme (DP) curriculum outline and classes

Age Range: 15–19

DP Core[20]

  • Theory of Knowledge (TOK)
  • The Extended Essay (EE)
  • Creativity Activity and Service (CAS)

Subject areas[20]

  • Studies in Language and Literature
    • IB Language A: Literature <3
    • IB Language A: Language and Literature
    • IB Literature and Performance
  • Language Acquisition
    • IB Language B
    • IB Language B ab initio SL
    • IB Classical Languages
  • Individuals and Societies
    • IB Business Management
    • IB Economics
    • IB Geography
    • IB Global Politics
    • IB History
    • IB Information Technology in a Global Society
    • IB Philosophy
    • IB Psychology
    • IB Social and Cultural Anthropology
    • IB World Religions SL
  • Sciences
    • IB Biology
    • IB Computer Science
    • IB Chemistry
    • IB Design Technology
    • IB Physics
    • IB Sports, Exercise, and Health Science
  • Mathematics
    • IB Math Studies SL
    • IB Math
    • IB Further Mathematics HL
  • The Arts
    • IB Dance
    • IB Film
    • IB Music
    • IB Theater
    • IB Visual Arts

Career-related Programme (CP) curriculum outline

Age Range: 16–19

Three-part framework[21]

  • Study of at least two Diploma Programme courses
  • Career-related studies (terminology differs across the world – vocational, professional, technical qualifications and other definitions).
  • CP core

CP Core

  • Personal and professional skills course
  • Service learning
  • Reflective project
  • Language development

Middle Years Programme (MYP) curriculum outline

Age range: 11–16

Six global contexts

  • Identities and relationships
  • Personal and cultural identity
  • Orientations in space and time
  • Scientific and technical innovation
  • Fairness and development
  • Globalization and sustainability

Eight subject areas

  • Language Acquisition
  • Language and Literature
  • Individuals and Societies
  • Mathematics
  • Design
  • Arts
  • Sciences
  • Physical and Health Education

Culminating activity for schools offering a 3- to 5-year program[22]

  • Personal project: MYP 5
  • Community Project: MYP 3–4

Primary Years Programme (PYP) curriculum outline

Age range: 3–12

Six transdisciplinary themes

  • Who we are
  • Where we are in place and time
  • How we express ourselves
  • How the world works
  • How we organize ourselves
  • Sharing the planet

Six subject areas

  • Language
  • Social studies
  • Mathematics
  • Arts
  • Science
  • Personal, social and physical education

Five essential elements

  • Concepts
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Attitudes
  • Action

Source:[23]

Organization

The International Baccalaureate (IB) aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. To this end the organisation works with schools, governments and international organisations to develop challenging programmes of international education and rigorous assessment. These programmes encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right.—International Baccalaureate Mission Statement[24]

The IB is a not-for-profit educational foundation. The IB maintains its Foundation Office in Geneva, Switzerland. The Assessment Centre is located in Cardiff, Wales and the curriculum centre moved in 2011 to The Hague, Netherlands. Three Global Centres have been opened: Bethesda, Maryland (within the metropolitan area of Washington, DC) in the United States, Singapore and The Hague.

The organisation is divided into three regional centres: IB Africa, Europe and Middle East (IBAEM), administered from The Hague; IB Americas (IBA), administered from Bethesda; and IB Asia-Pacific (IBAP), administered from Singapore.[25]

Sub-regional associations "are groups formed by and for IB school practitioners to assist IB schools, teachers and students in their communities—from implementing IB programmes to providing a forum for dialogue."[26] There are currently fifty-six (56) sub-regional associations, including:

  • fifteen (15) in the IB Africa, Europe and Middle East (IBAEM) region;[27]
  • thirty-six (36) in the IB Americas (IBA) region;[28] and
  • five in the IB Asia Pacific (IBAP) region.[29]

In 2003, the IB established the IB Fund, incorporated in the United States, for the purpose of enhancing fundraising and keeping funds raised separate from operational funds.[30] In 2004, the IB approved a strategic plan to "ensure that programmes and services are of the highest quality" and "to provide access to people who are socio-economically disadvantaged."[31] In 2010 and 2015 the strategic plans were updated after substantial consultation. The vision for the next 5 years was to more consciously establish the IB as a leader in international education and the Board outlined a vision and four strategic goals with key strategic objectives.[32]

Access remains fundamental to the mission of the IB and a variety of initiatives and projects are helping to take it forward in Ecuador, Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Spain, Malaysia, and Japan[33]

The United States has the largest number of IB programmes (2,010 out of 5,586) offered in both private and public schools.[34]

The IB works with governments and non-governmental organizations across the world and has consultative status as a non-governmental organisation (NGO) at United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and has collaborative relationships with the Council of Europe and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).[35]

Governance

The IB governance is composed of an IB Board of Governors and six committees (access and advancement, audit, education, finance, human resources and governance). The Board of Governors appoints the Director General, sets the strategic direction of the organisation, adopts a mission statement, makes policy, oversees the IB's financial management, and ensures autonomy and integrity of the IB Diploma Programme examinations and other student assessment. The structure of its different committees are based on respect, representation and collaboration.[36]

The Board of Governors can comprise between 15 and 25 members. Members are elected by the Board on the recommendation of the governance committee, and from nominations presented from the Heads Council, Regional Councils and the Board. To encourage diversity of gender, culture and geography, there are only three ex officio positions: Director General (non-voting), the chair of the Examining Board and the chair of the Heads Council.[37]

Advisory bodies include the Heads Council and Regional Councils[38]

Reception

Countries with 40+ schools teaching IB programmes & Global Totals (as of 12 May 2016)[39]
Country Primary Middle Diploma Career-related Schools
United States 500 618 893 77 1,725
Canada 82 169 171 2 366
Australia 119 45 67 1 176
Ecuador 9 9 253 0 253
United Kingdom 14 13 125 13 132
India 63 21 108 0 128
Mexico 55 35 66 1 106
China 37 27 83 1 101
Spain 11 14 93 0 95
Germany 23 11 67 2 71
Hong Kong 32 9 29 1 56
Turkey 25 10 43 0 60
Argentina 7 3 56 0 57
Switzerland 18 11 42 1 49
Indonesia 32 14 29 0 48
Poland 6 8 40 0 45
Primary Middle Diploma Career-related Schools
Total Schools Globally 1,375 1,264 2,997 118 4,460
Countries & Territories 104 97 140 18 151

The IB Diploma Programme was described as "a rigorous, off-the-shelf curriculum recognized by universities around the world" when it was featured in the December 18, 2006, edition of Time titled "How to bring our schools out of the 20th Century".[40] The IBDP was also featured in the summer 2002 edition of American Educator, where Robert Rothman described it as "a good example of an effective, instructionally sound, exam-based system."[41]

In the USA, in 2006, as part of the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI),[42] President George W. Bush and Education Secretary Margaret Spellings presented a plan for the expansion of Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate mathematics and science courses, with the goal of increasing the number of AP and IB teachers and the number of students taking AP and IB exams, as well as tripling the number of students passing those exams.[42] Howard Gardner, a professor of educational psychology at Harvard University, said that the IBDP curriculum is "less parochial than most American efforts" and helps students "think critically, synthesize knowledge, reflect on their own thought processes and get their feet wet in interdisciplinary thinking."[43]

In 2006, government ministers in the United Kingdom provided funding so that "every local authority in England could have at least one centre offering sixth-formers the chance to do the IB."[44] In 2008, due to the devaluing of the A-Levels and an increase in the number of students taking the IB exams, then-Children's Secretary Ed Balls abandoned a "flagship Tony Blair pledge to allow children in all areas to study IB." Fears of a "two-tier" education system further dividing education between the rich and the poor emerged as the growth in IB is driven by private schools and sixth-form colleges.[45] While the number of Diploma Programme state schools has dropped under budget constraints, the new Career-related Programme has seen solid uptake in the UK with 27 schools in Kent alone.[46]

In 2006, an attempt was made to eliminate it from a public school in Pittsburgh, PA.[47][48] Some schools in the United States have eliminated the IBDP due to budgetary reasons and low student participation.[49][50] In Utah in 2008, funding for the IBDP was reduced from $300,000 to $100,000 after State Senator Margaret Dayton objected to the program, stating, "First, I have never espoused eliminating IB ... I don't want to create 'world citizens' nearly as much as I want to help cultivate American citizens who function well in the world."[51][52] Mayor Rahm Emanuel of Chicago, meanwhile, believes that IB should be an option for students in Chicago Public Schools.[53] Elizabeth Brackett reports on the IB in Chicago.[54] A report[55] by the University of Chicago concluded that Chicago Public School students who completed the IB programme were 40% more likely to attend a four-year college, 50% more likely to attend a selective four-year college, and significantly more likely to persist in college than their matched peers outside the program." The City of Miami Beach Commission entered into an education compact with Miami-Dade County Public Schools with one of the initiatives of the compact to implement the IB program throughout Miami Beach feeder schools.[56]

In other parts of the world, IB programs have been well received, too. In 2013, The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan and the IB announced a plan that will expand the opportunities for Japanese students to complete the IB curriculum in Japanese.[57] In Malaysia a project has been developed in response to interest expressed by the Malaysia Ministry of Education (MoE) in working with the IB to implement the IB Middle Years Programme (MYP) in select secondary state schools.[58] The Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) signed an agreement with the IB in efforts to widen the options offered for parents and to meet the different needs of students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).[59] In April 2014 The King Faisal Foundation in Saudi Arabia and the IB signed a memorandum of understanding to develop IB programs, including the IBDP, in up to 40 primary and secondary schools, with the goal of developing these schools as centres of excellence as IB World Schools.[60] In Peru President Ollanta Humala has committed to building a high performing schools network (COAR) made up of IB World Schools. In early 2016 13 new schools were authorized by the IB as part of this programme.[61] In Ecuador, President Rafael Correa has also committed to improving education in state schools by implementing IB programmes and by January 2016 there were over 200 state schools.[62] With support from local organisations,[63] there are 13 state IB schools in Russia. In Spain, various models have been implemented (3 types of schools in Spain: public schools, private schools and state funded-private or ‘concerted’ schools) and led to extensive growth with 140 schools.[64]

Internationally the IB continues to be recognised as innovative, and in 2014 The World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) announced the IB Career-related Certificate as a finalist for their annual WISE Awards.[65]

Schools offering International Baccalaureate

According to The IB's "Find a World School" list, as of July 2017 there are over 4900 schools offering one or more IB programmes. [66]
Notable schools include:

Africa


Asia

Bahrain

Bangladesh

Brunei

Cambodia

China

Hong Kong

India

Indonesia

Iran

Japan

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Malaysia

Myanmar

Nepal

Oman

Palestine

Pakistan

Philippines

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Singapore

South Korea

Syria

Taiwan

Thailand

United Arab Emirates

Uzbekistan

Vietnam


Australasia

Australia

New Zealand


Europe

Austria

Belgium

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Czech Republic

Denmark

France

Germany

Greece

Iceland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Russia

Slovakia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Ukraine

United Kingdom


North America

Bahamas

Barbados

Canada

Jamaica

Mexico

United States


Central/South America

Research

The IB conducts its own research or commissions research from renowned universities or research institutions around the globe. Research is used to understand and track the implementation and impact of the IB's programmes or to support development of the programmes. There is also a wealth of third party research available:

  • The International Education Research Database is a source for references concerning research publications related to ‘international education’, ‘international schools’ and ‘International Baccalaureate’. It provides links to the original sources.
  • The Journal of Research in International Education often contains articles related to research on the IB or International Education.
  • Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) in the UK examined the characteristics and trends of IB students compared to A-level and other student groups at universities and documented the results in a comprehensive report.[80]

Allegations of plagiarism

Jeffrey Beard, a past director-general of International Baccalaureate, gave a talk on "Education for a Better World" on 5 August 2010 at the Chautauqua Institution in New York State. The institution issued a statement the next day in which it expressed "genuine disappointment" with the talk, noting that it "drew heavily upon and quoted extensively from a speech given earlier in the year by Sir Ken Robinson", while adding that he "neglected to cite his source or reveal the quotations for what they were".[81] Ken Robinson is a renowned British educationist who lives in the United States. Through an IB spokesperson, Beard admitted that "he could have been more explicit about the sources and authors that inspired him for the content of this speech".[81] In a letter sent to heads of schools that offer the IB curricula, he described this as an "unfortunate incident" due to an "oversight".[82]

In an apparently unrelated development, the Times Educational Supplement revealed on 8 October 2010, that significant portions of one of IB's marking guides for the IB Diploma Programme was lifted wholesale from unattributed websites, including Wikipedia.[83] In a letter to schools, IB director-general Beard wrote: "We have and always will take immediate and appropriate action when we discover any violation of our policies or standards." The examiner responsible for the plagiarism resigned from the examination board five weeks after the issue came to light.[84]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "IB headquarters Archived 19 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine." International Baccalaureate. Retrieved on 25 September 2009.
  2. ^ "Overview of the International Baccalaureate Organization". Archived from the original on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2006.
  3. ^ "Programmes". Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  4. ^ "IB Identity Announcement". Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  5. ^ "George Walker". ecolint.net.
  6. ^ "UNESCO Resources Publications" (PDF). Retrieved 8 Jan 2015.
  7. ^ Elisabeth Fox (2001). "The Emergence of the International Baccalaureate as an Impetus to Curriculum Reform". In Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson. International Education: Principles and Practice (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 9780749436162.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  8. ^ "International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme". Retrieved 2007-05-08.
  9. ^ Mary Hayden (2001). "Global Issues: A Necessary Component of a Balanced Curriculum for the Twenty-First Century". In Mary Ray Hayden and Jeff William Thompson. International Education: Principles and Practice (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 94. ISBN 9780749436162.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  10. ^ Peterson, Alexander Duncan Campbell (2003). Schools Across Frontiers: The Story of the International Baccalaureate and the United World Colleges. Open Court Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-8126-9505-2.
  11. ^ Peterson, p. 267
  12. ^ Peterson, p. 265
  13. ^ Peterson, p. 243
  14. ^ "IB Middle Years Programme at a glance". ibo.org.
  15. ^ "International Baccalaureate". ibo.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  16. ^ Peterson, p. 246
  17. ^ http://www.ibo.org/announcements/2014/ibcp.cfm[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ "IBO History". ibo.org. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
  19. ^ "Learner Profile" (PDF).
  20. ^ a b "DP curriculum – International Baccalaureate®". International Baccalaureate®.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ "IB Middle Years Programme curriculum". ibo.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  23. ^ "International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme". International Baccalaureate Organization 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  24. ^ "IB Learner Profile" (PDF). IB Learner Profile Booklet. ibo.org. November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  25. ^ "IB Global Centres". Ibo.org. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  26. ^ "Associations of IB World Schools". Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  27. ^ "world school associations". Ibo.org. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  28. ^ "Associations". Ibo.org. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  29. ^ "IB Asia Pacific region". Ibo.org. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  30. ^ "The president's view on Fundraising and the strategic plan" (PDF). IB World. International Baccalaureate Organization. 40: 8. August 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
  31. ^ "IBO strategic plan approved" (PDF). IB World. International Baccalaureate Organization. 40: 2. August 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
  32. ^ Strategic plan Archived 3 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Ibo.org. Retrieved on 17 August 2013.
  33. ^ "IB Annual Review" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Find an IB World School". Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  35. ^ "Governments". Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  36. ^ "Governance and leadership". Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  37. ^ "The IB Board of Governors". Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  38. ^ "Advisory Bodies". Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  39. ^ "International Baccalaureate". ibo.org. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  40. ^ Wallis, Claudia (10 December 2006). "How to bring our schools out of the 20th Century". Time. Retrieved 16 July 2009.
  41. ^ Rothman, Robert (Summer 2002). "A test worth teaching to". American Educator. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  42. ^ a b "Expanding the Advanced Placement Initiative Program" (PDF). US Department of Education. February 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  43. ^ Gross, Jane (21 June 2003). "Diploma for the 'Top of the Top'; International Baccalaureate Gains Favor in Region". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
  44. ^ Shepard, Jessica (10 February 2009). "Leap from Cardiff to Amsterdam for Baccalaureate". Guardian.co.uk. London. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  45. ^ Clark, Laura (19 May 2009). "Fears of 'two-tier' education system as pupils taking rival exam to A-levels rise by 40%". Daily MailOnline. London. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  46. ^ "12 April 2016 weekly update".
  47. ^ Ward, Paula Reed (16 February 2006). "Cutting international program embroils Upper St. Clair board in controversy". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
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