To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Interkosmos (Russian: Интеркосмос) was a Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.

Interkosmos, a Soviet space program was created in 1968. ALL members from USSR were given the Hero of the Soviet Union medal or the order of Lenin. The program included the allied east-European states of the Warsaw Pact, CoMEcon, and other socialist states like Afghanistan, Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. In addition, pro-Soviet non-aligned states such as India and Syria participated, and even states such as the United Kingdom, France and Austria, despite them being capitalist states.[1][2]

Following the Apollo–Soyuz, there were talks between NASA and Interkosmos in the 1970s about a "Shuttle-Salyut" program to fly Space Shuttle missions to a Salyut space station, with later talks in the 1980s even considering flights of the future Buran-class orbiter to a future US space station.[3] Whilst the Shuttle-Salyut program never materialized during the existence of the Soviet Interkosmos program, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Shuttle–Mir Program would follow in these footsteps in the mid-1990s and eventually pave the way to the International Space Station.

Beginning in April 1967 with unmanned research satellite missions, the first manned Interkosmos mission occurred in February 1978.[2] So called joint manned spaceflights enabled 14 non-Soviet cosmonauts to participate in Soyuz space flights between 1978 and 1988. The program was responsible for sending into space the first citizen of a country other than the USA or USSR: Vladimír Remek of Czechoslovakia.[1] Interkosmos also resulted in the first black and Hispanic person in space, Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez of Cuba, and the first Southeast Asian person in space, Phạm Tuân of Vietnam. Of the countries involved, only Bulgaria sent two cosmonauts in space, although the second one did not fly under the Interkosmos program, and the French spationaut, Jean-Loup Chrétien, flew on two separate flights.

The Soviet Union also made offers of joint human spaceflight on a commercial basis to the United Kingdom and Japan resulting in the first British and Japanese cosmonauts. In the early 1980s an offer was made to Finland as well, with test pilot Jyrki Laukkanen mentioned as one of potential Finnish cosmonauts. The pilots of the Test Flight (Koelentue) refused on the grounds that participation would not benefit the Flight or test pilot activity in any way. No further offers were made to Finland regarding the matter.[4][5]

Crewed missions

.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Human spaceflight provider   participants   refused offer
  Human spaceflight provider
  participants
  refused offer
Date Prime Backup Country Mission Space station
2 March 1978
VladimirRemek.jpg
Vladimír Remek[6] Oldřich Pelčák

Czechoslovakia

Soyuz 28
Soyuz-28 Pin.jpg
Salyut 6
27 June 1978
Miroslaw H.jpg
Mirosław Hermaszewski Zenon Jankowski

Poland

Soyuz 30
Soyuz-30 Intercosmos pin.jpg
Salyut 6
26 August 1978
Sigmund Jahn cropped.jpg
Sigmund Jähn Eberhard Köllner

GDR

Soyuz 31
Soyuz-31 Intercosmos.jpg
Salyut 6
10 April 1979
Georgi Ivanov detail.png
Georgi Ivanov Aleksandr Aleksandrov

Bulgaria

Soyuz 33
Soyuz-33 Intercosmos.jpg
Salyut 6
(Docking failed)
26 May 1980
Bertalan Farkas (Author - Rudolf Csiba).jpg
Bertalan Farkas Béla Magyari

Hungary

Soyuz 36
Soyuz-36 Intercosmos pin depicting the flown crew.jpg
Salyut 6
23 July 1980
TUÂN PHAM.JPG
Phạm Tuân Bùi Thanh Liêm

Vietnam

Soyuz 37
Soyuz-37 Intercosmos pin.jpg
Salyut 6
18 September 1980
Arnaldo Tamayo Berlin 2018 - 2.jpg
Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez José López Falcón

Cuba

Soyuz 38
Soyuz-38 Intercoms pin.jpg
Salyut 6
23 March 1981
Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa.jpeg
Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa Maidarjavyn Ganzorig

Mongolia

Soyuz 39
Soyuz-39 Intercosmos pin.jpg
Salyut 6
14 May 1981
Stamp of Moldova md389.jpg
Dumitru Prunariu Dumitru Dediu

Romania

Soyuz 40
Soyuz-40 Intercosmos pin depicting the flown crew.jpg
Salyut 6
24 June 1982
Chretien.jpg
Jean-Loup Chrétien Patrick Baudry

France

Soyuz T-6
Soyuz T-6 mission patch.png
Salyut 7
2 April 1984
Rakesh sharma.jpg
Rakesh Sharma Ravish Malhotra

India

Soyuz T-11
Soyuz-T11 Intercosmos pin depicting the flown crew.jpg
Salyut 7
22 July 1987
Muhammed Ahmed Faris.jpg
Muhammed Ahmed Faris Munir Habib Habib

Syria

Soyuz TM-3
Soyuz TM-3 mission patch.svg
Mir
7 June 1988
Александр Александров Панайотов.JPG
Aleksandr Aleksandrov Krasimir Stoyanov

Bulgaria

Soyuz TM-5
Soyuz TM-5 mission patch.svg
Mir
29 August 1988 Abdul Ahad Mohmand[7] Mohammad Dauran Ghulam Masum

Afghanistan

Soyuz TM-6
Soyuz TM-6 patch.svg
Mir
26 November 1988
Chretien.jpg
Jean-Loup Chrétien Michel Tognini

France

Soyuz TM-7
Soyuz TM-7 patch.png
Mir
2 December 1990
Toyohiro-Akiyama-First-Japanese-Person-in-Space-1990.png
Toyohiro Akiyama Ryoko Kikuchi

Japan

Soyuz TM-11
Soyuz TM-11 patch.png
Mir
18 May 1991
Dr. Helen Sharman (cropped).jpg
Helen Sharman Timothy Mace

United Kingdom

Soyuz TM-12
Soyuz TM-12 patch.png
Mir
2 October 1991 Franz Viehböck Clemens Lothaller

Austria

Soyuz TM-13
Soyuz TM-13 patch.png
Mir

Uncrewed missions

East German postage stamp
East German postage stamp
  • 1970 November 28 - Vertikal-1 Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Solar mission.
  • 1971 August 20 - Vertikal-2 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission.
  • 1972 April 7 - Interkosmos 6 - Investigation of primary cosmic radiation and meteoritic particles in near-earth outer space.
  • 1973 April 4 - Interkosmos 9 "Copernicus-500" - satellite of cooperation of the Polish People's Republic and Soviet Union to study the Sun and ionosphere. Orbit around 200–1550 km.
  • 1975 June 3 - Interkosmos 14
  • 1975 September 2 - Vertikal-3 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission.
  • 1976 - Re-entry Vehicle Test mission.
  • 1976 June 19 - Interkosmos 15. Testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions.
  • 1977 March 29 - Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.
  • 1977 June 17 - Signe 3 - Twenty French specialists worked on the satellite.
  • 1977 August 30 - Vertikal-5 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission.
  • 1977 September 24 - Interkosmos 17 - Investigation of energetic charged and neutral particles and micrometeorite fluxes in circumterrestrial space.
  • 1977 October 25 - Vertikal-6 Ionosphere/Solar mission?.
  • 1978 October 24 - Interkosmos 18 - Conduct of complex investigations on the interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Cooperation with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic, the Polish People's Republic, and the Socialist Republic of Romania.
  • 1978 October 24 - Magion 1 - The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION was launched into orbit by the Soviet spacecraft Interkosmos 18
  • 1978 November 3 - Vertikal-7 Ionosphere/Solar mission
  • 1979 February 27 - Interkosmos 19 - Cooperation with the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic, and the Polish People's Republic.
  • 1979 September 26 - Vertikal-8 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission.
  • 1979 November 1 - Interkosmos 20. (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic, and the Socialist Republic of Romania).
  • 1981 - Re-entry Vehicle Test mission.
A commemorative coin issued in Mongolia
A commemorative coin issued in Mongolia
  • 1981 February 6 - Interkosmos 21 - (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic, and the Socialist Republic of Romania)
  • 1981 August 7 - Interkosmos 22 "Bulgaria-1300" (People's Republic of Bulgaria).
  • 1981 August 28 - Vertikal-9 Solar Ultraviolet/Solar X-ray mission.
  • 1981 September 21 - Oreol 3 - Developed by Soviet and French specialists under the joint Soviet-French project 'Arkad-3'.
  • 1985 April 26 - Interkosmos 23 - Developed by scientists and specialists of the USSR and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
  • 1986 December 18 - Kosmos 1809
  • 1989 September 28 - Magion 2 - Magion 2 forms a part of the scientific programme of Interkosmos 24 (project Aktivnyj) Execution of the scientific programme of the 'Aktivny' project in conjunction with Interkosmos-24, permitting simultaneous spatially separating investigations of plasma processes in circumterrestrial space.
  • 1989 September 28 - Interkosmos 24 - US participation, in cooperation with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Romania (the international scientific project entitled 'Aktivny'). Carrying the Czechoslovak Magion-2 satellite.
  • 1991 December 18 - Interkosmos 25 - experiments from Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary. Comprehensive study of the effects of artificial impact of modulated electron flows and plasma beams on the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (forming part of the Apex international scientific project, conducted jointly with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.)
  • 1991 December 28 - Magion 3 [1]
  • 1994 March 2 - Interkosmos 26 - Conduct of comprehensive investigations of the sun under the Coronas-I international project developed by Russian and Ukrainian experiments in cooperation with specialists from Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom.

Films

In general, most of the films associated with programs are propaganda short TV documents and relations from that era. The two exceptions include (largely fictionalised) Interkosmos from 2006, and cooperation document from 2009 (in Polish) titled "Lotnicy Kosmonauci"("Aviators-Cosmonauts").[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Sheehan, Michael (2007). The international politics of space. London: Routledge. pp. 59–61. ISBN 0-415-39917-3.
  2. ^ a b Burgess, Colin; Hall, Rex (2008). The first Soviet cosmonaut team: their lives, legacy, and historical impact. Berlin: Springer. p. 331. ISBN 0-387-84823-1.
  3. ^ Wikisource:Mir Hardware Heritage/Part 2 - Almaz, Salyut, and Mir#2.1.6 Shuttle-Salyut .281973-1978.3B 1980s.29
  4. ^ "Jyrki Laukkasesta piti tulla Suomen ensimmäinen kosmonautti – kieltäytyi kutsusta, kun siitä ei olisi ollut mitään hyötyä" (in Finnish). Yle.fi. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  5. ^ "Jyrki Laukkanen" (in Finnish). Suomen Tietokirjailijat ry. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  6. ^ Roberts, Andrew Lawrence (2005). From Good King Wenceslas to the Good Soldier Švejk: a dictionary of Czech popular culture. Budapest: Central European University Press. p. 141. ISBN 963-7326-26-X.
  7. ^ Bunch, Bryan; Hellemans, Alexander (2004). The history of science and technology: a browser's guide to the great discoveries, inventions, and the people who made them, from the dawn of time to today. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 679. ISBN 0-618-22123-9.
  8. ^ "FilmPolski". Filmpolski.pl. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
This page was last edited on 30 April 2021, at 23:26
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.