To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding textual computer information
The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding textual computer information

Information is the resolution of uncertainty; it is that which answers the question of "what an entity is" and is thus that which specifies the nature of that entity, as well as the essentiality of its properties. Information is associated with data and knowledge, as data is meaningful information and represents the values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of an abstract or concrete concept.[1] The existence of information is uncoupled with an observer, which refers to that which accesses information to discern that which it specifies; information exists beyond an event horizon for example, and in the case of knowledge, the information itself requires a cognitive observer to be accessed.

In terms of communication, information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message.

Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a signal). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication.

Information reduces uncertainty. The uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that. The more uncertain an event, the more information is required to resolve uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information, but other units such as the nat may be used. For example, the information encoded in one "fair" coin flip is log2(2/1) = 1 bit, and in two fair coin flips is log2(4/1) = 2 bits.

The concept of information has different meanings in different contexts.[2] Thus the concept becomes related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    10 932 605
    37 709
    149 183
    1 112
  • ✪ Why Black Holes Could Delete The Universe – The Information Paradox
  • ✪ Introduction to Crash Course Navigating Digital Information #1
  • ✪ Earn Revenue From WeMedia Website, Full Earning Information
  • ✪ What is information theory? | Journey into information theory | Computer Science | Khan Academy
  • ✪ PIB News 8th January 2019 Press Information Bureau and AIR


Black holes are the most powerful things in the universe, strong enough to rip whole stars into atoms sized pieces While, this is scary enough. They have an even more powerful and dark property: they might delete the universe itself [music] Black holes in a nutshell A black hole appears when an extraordinary amount of matter is concentrated in a tiny space At their center gravity is almost infinitely strong and whatever gets too close is ripped into its elementary particles Not even light can escape black holes and so we perceive them as spheres of blackness If you were to fall into a black hole nothing bad would happen until well after you crossed its outer border: the event horizon You can imagine this as swimming in a river that ends in an enormous waterfall As you float along, imperceptibly the stream gets faster and faster, even if you can't see the waterfall yet You could swim to safety until, without even noticing it, you cross the point of no return No matter how fast you try to swim now, the stream will pull you towards certain death Nothing can escape a black hole waterfall once it gets too close This border completely separates black holes from the rest of the universe: we can't access them unless we're willing to never return So there's no way of telling what's really going on inside black holes But we have a few ideas about what's going on right at their very edges Black holes radiate their mass away like a hot pot on a stove losing its water as steam This is called hawking radiation Black holes constantly lose an extremely tiny amount of their mass a process that's unbelievably slow it will take a black hole with a mass of our sun 10,000 billion billion billion billion billion billion years to lose 0.0000001% of its mass This is happening constantly and unstoppably and as it goes on it speeds up more and more In the far far future when the last star in the universe has been dead for trillions of years Black holes will become tinier and tinier until they evaporate and disappear leaving behind just a bit of radiation But this is a problem because in the process of disappearing black holes might delete something fundamental: information 2 - what is information? Information is nothing tangible. It's typically understood as a property of the arrangement of particles. What does this mean? Imagine a bunch of carbon atoms. Arrange them in a certain way and you get coal Arrange them in a different way, and you get a diamond The atoms are the same what changes is the information. If we make this more complex and add in a few more atoms We get a banana Change the arrangement of the atoms and we get a squirrel the basic building blocks of everything in the universe Are the same and don't care if they're part of a bird or a rock or a cup of coffee Without information everything in the universe would be the same According to the theory of quantum mechanics information is indestructible It might change shape But it can never be lost: for example if you burn a piece of paper you get ash That ash will never become paper again But if you were able to carefully collect every single carbon atom in the ash and measured the exact properties of the smoke and heat Radiating from the fire you could in theory reconstruct the paper The information of the paper is still in the universe. It's not lost It's just hard to read If you could somehow measure Every single atom and particle and wave of radiation in the universe you could see and track every bit of information there is hypothetically you could see the entire history of the universe right back to the Big Bang And here black holes trip us up Information tells us how things are different from each other and what used to be what Black holes do the opposite: they take different things and make them the same. They destroy information This creates the information paradox, and this is a serious problem The information paradox It's fundamental for all our laws of physics that information can never be lost Existing not existing without information Everything is relative When it comes to our understanding of reality we need absolute How could we solve this paradox? There are a few possibilities 1) Information is lost Irretrievably and forever This means we have to nix all our laws of physics throwing out a lot of stuff That's worked very well so far and to start from scratch What those new laws of physics would look like or what that means for us nobody knows This is a little frightening, but also kind of exciting 2) Information is hidden Maybe a little part of the black hole splits off and forms a baby universe The information would be transferred into this new weird place where we could never observe or interact with it But technically it would not be lost It's like having a broken hard drive with all your family photos that you could never access Sure, it's nice that they've not been deleted, but also not very helpful Or maybe black holes don't disappear completely after the end of their life cycles, but a little piece is left an information diamond like a clown car filled with an infinite amount of information clowns But there's a third option Information is safe after all, not lost or hidden Perhaps we've just been looking at this whole thing the wrong way We know that black holes trap information and might delete it later, but we never thought about what they do with it in the meantime Where do black holes store their information? Cosmic housekeeping Let's create a black hole with dirty laundry First, we fill up a room with laundry baskets: the more laundry you want to store, the more baskets you put in the room But at some point every single basket is full and the room is completely stacked, not a single extra sock fits in The room is at maximum capacity but if we still squeeze the sock in with a lot of energy and violence the room collapses in on itself and forms a black hole But the capacity of the room itself has not changed fitting in more stuff for information is still impossible So what happens if we throw more laundry into it? The room itself gets a little bit bigger to make space for the new information It turns out a black hole grows its surface by a tiny pixel for each bit of information we throw into it In a nutshell, more information means more surface area The information gets painted on the surface similar to what happens when we throw a stone into a pond After the stone sinks to the bottom we can't see it anymore But we can tell that something went in from the ripples on the surface of the pond Even the smallest black hole can store more information on its surface than all the data ever produced in human history They do this by storing information in a type of pixel that is unbelievably tiny Black Holes are the ultimate hard drive This is a bit like taking a paper bag and turning it into an e-book, two things that look completely different But their content is the same, it's just encoded and memorized in another way Black holes swallowing stars and planets is a bit like transferring a whole library onto an e-reader This solution is called the holographic principle, but if it's correct then everything we thought we knew about the universe is wrong The universe is a hologram if Information is actually stored on the boundary of a black hole the Hawking radiation has a chance of learning about the information Encoded there and can carry it away So information is not lost when black holes fade away And we do not need to redo physics: the information paradox is resolved but we still have to change our understanding of reality in a fundamental way If everything that falls into the black hole is stored on its event horizon that basically means that three-dimensional stuff is encoded on a flat surface We have a name for this: a hologram A hologram is like a 3D photo, a flat piece of plastic that encodes a three-dimensional image A black hole is like a hologram because everything inside it is encoded on its event horizon A person inside a black hole will experience their usual three-dimensional life but for us on the outside they are flattened images on the surface of the black hole The consequence of this is counterintuitive, but stay with us for a moment Black holes are very extreme objects, but they're still bound to the same rules as everything else so if this crazy duality between 2D and 3D works for black holes then it might work for the whole universe and you in it Since a person inside a black hole would not realize that they're encoded on a flat surface We might share the same fate: you really might be stretched over a flat screen at the end of the universe The science behind this is complicated and really weird, with toy universes to play with, string theory and a lot of mass We'll talk about this more in another video Regardless of what the true nature of the universe really is we just know that it's strange and Complicated and we have to do a lot more physics to understand it But black holes might be key to understanding the nature of reality itself This video was supported by the swiss national science foundation and realized with the scientific advice of Alessandro Sfondrini



The English word apparently derives from the Latin stem (information-) of the nominative (informatio): this noun derives from the verb informare (to inform) in the sense of "to give form to the mind", "to discipline", "instruct", "teach". Inform itself comes (via French informer) from the Latin verb informare, which means to give form, or to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin itself already contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, but the extent to which this may have influenced the development of the word information in English is not clear.

The ancient Greek word for form was μορφή (morphe; cf. morph) and also εἶδος (eidos) "kind, idea, shape, set", the latter word was famously used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato (and later Aristotle) to denote the ideal identity or essence of something (see Theory of Forms). 'Eidos' can also be associated with thought, proposition, or even concept.

The ancient Greek word for information is πληροφορία, which transliterates (plērophoria) from πλήρης (plērēs) "fully" and φέρω (phorein) frequentative of (pherein) to carry through. It literally means "bears fully" or "conveys fully". In modern Greek the word Πληροφορία is still in daily use and has the same meaning as the word information in English. In addition to its primary meaning, the word Πληροφορία as a symbol has deep roots in Aristotle's semiotic triangle. In this regard it can be interpreted to communicate information to the one decoding that specific type of sign. This is something that occurs frequently with the etymology of many words in ancient and modern Greek where there is a very strong denotative relationship between the signifier, e.g. the word symbol that conveys a specific encoded interpretation, and the signified, e.g. a concept whose meaning the interpreter attempts to decode.

In English, “information” is an uncountable mass noun.

Information theory approach

In information theory, information is taken as an ordered sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, and an output alphabet ϒ. Information processing consists of an input-output function that maps any input sequence from χ into an output sequence from ϒ. The mapping may be probabilistic or deterministic. It may have memory or be memoryless.[3]

As sensory input

Often information can be viewed as a type of input to an organism or system. Inputs are of two kinds; some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or system (energy) by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology[4] Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs (information) are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time (and perhaps another place). Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or system. For example, light is mainly (but not only, e.g. plants can grow in the direction of the lightsource) a causal input to plants but for animals it only provides information. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak to do much photosynthetic work but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee's nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.

As representation and complexity

The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense. These are, any dimensionally defined category of objects S, and any of its subsets R. R, in essence, is a representation of S, or, in other words, conveys representational (and hence, conceptual) information about S. Vigo then defines the amount of information that R conveys about S as the rate of change in the complexity of S whenever the objects in R are removed from S. Under "Vigo information", pattern, invariance, complexity, representation, and information—five fundamental constructs of universal science—are unified under a novel mathematical framework.[5][6][7] Among other things, the framework aims to overcome the limitations of Shannon-Weaver information when attempting to characterize and measure subjective information.

As an influence that leads to transformation

Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns.[8][9] In this sense, there is no need for a conscious mind to perceive, much less appreciate, the pattern.[citation needed] Consider, for example, DNA. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. One might argue though that for a human to consciously define a pattern, for example a nucleotide, naturally involves conscious information processing.

Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating (due to feedback) in the system can be called information. In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose. For example, Gregory Bateson defines "information" as a "difference that makes a difference".[10]

If, however, the premise of "influence" implies that information has been perceived by a conscious mind and also interpreted by it, the specific context associated with this interpretation may cause the transformation of the information into knowledge. Complex definitions of both "information" and "knowledge" make such semantic and logical analysis difficult, but the condition of "transformation" is an important point in the study of information as it relates to knowledge, especially in the business discipline of knowledge management. In this practice, tools and processes are used to assist a knowledge worker in performing research and making decisions, including steps such as:

  • Review information to effectively derive value and meaning
  • Reference metadata if available
  • Establish relevant context, often from many possible contexts
  • Derive new knowledge from the information
  • Make decisions or recommendations from the resulting knowledge

Stewart (2001) argues that transformation of information into knowledge is critical, lying at the core of value creation and competitive advantage for the modern enterprise.

The Danish Dictionary of Information Terms[11] argues that information only provides an answer to a posed question. Whether the answer provides knowledge depends on the informed person. So a generalized definition of the concept should be: "Information" = An answer to a specific question".

When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense.

As a property in physics

Information has a well-defined meaning in physics. In 2003 J. D. Bekenstein claimed that a growing trend in physics was to define the physical world as being made up of information itself (and thus information is defined in this way) (see Digital physics). Examples of this include the phenomenon of quantum entanglement, where particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light. Material information itself cannot travel faster than light even if that information is transmitted indirectly. This could lead to all attempts at physically observing a particle with an "entangled" relationship to another being slowed down, even though the particles are not connected in any other way other than by the information they carry.

The mathematical universe hypothesis suggests a new paradigm, in which virtually everything, from particles and fields, through biological entities and consciousness, to the multiverse itself, could be described by mathematical patterns of information. By the same token, the cosmic void can be conceived of as the absence of material information in space (setting aside the virtual particles that pop in and out of existence due to quantum fluctuations, as well as the gravitational field and the dark energy). Nothingness can be understood then as that within which no matter, energy, space, time, or any other type of information could exist, which would be possible if symmetry and structure break within the manifold of the multiverse (i.e. the manifold would have tears or holes).

Another link is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy, is demonstrated. A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; in practical terms this often means generating heat. Another more philosophical outcome is that information could be thought of as interchangeable with energy. Toyabe et al. experimentally showed in nature that information can be converted into work.[12] Thus, in the study of logic gates, the theoretical lower bound of thermal energy released by an AND gate is higher than for the NOT gate (because information is destroyed in an AND gate and simply converted in a NOT gate). Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers.

In thermodynamics, information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system that can interpret the information.

The application of information study

The information cycle (addressed as a whole or in its distinct components) is of great concern to information technology, information systems, as well as information science. These fields deal with those processes and techniques pertaining to information capture (through sensors) and generation (through computation, formulation or composition), processing (including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (including all telecommunication methods), presentation (including visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, including holographic methods), etc. Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory, see lossy compression; in physics, the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle).

Information visualization (shortened as InfoVis) depends on the computation and digital representation of data, and assists users in pattern recognition and anomaly detection.

Information security (shortened as InfoSec) is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures focused on monitoring and detection, as well as incident response and repair.

Information analysis is the process of inspecting, transforming, and modelling information, by converting raw data into actionable knowledge, in support of the decision-making process.

Information quality (shortened as InfoQ) is the potential of a dataset to achieve a specific (scientific or practical) goal using a given empirical analysis method.

Information communication represents the convergence of informatics, telecommunication and audio-visual media & content.

Technologically mediated information

It is estimated that the world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 – which is the informational equivalent to less than one 730-MB CD-ROM per person (539 MB per person) – to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007.[13] This is the informational equivalent of almost 61 CD-ROM per person in 2007.[14]

The world’s combined technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was the informational equivalent of 174 newspapers per person per day in 2007.[13]

The world's combined effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was the informational equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day in 2007.[14]

As of 2007, an estimated 90% of all new information is digital, mostly stored on hard drives.[15]

As records

Records are specialized forms of information. Essentially, records are information produced consciously or as by-products of business activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily, their value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.

The international standard on records management, ISO 15489, defines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business".[16] The International Committee on Archives (ICA) Committee on electronic records defined a record as, "recorded information produced or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an institutional or individual activity and that comprises content, context and structure sufficient to provide evidence of the activity".[17]

Records may be maintained to retain corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization. Willis expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered "...six key requirements for good corporate governance...transparency; accountability; due process; compliance; meeting statutory and common law requirements; and security of personal and corporate information."[18][citation not found]


Michael Buckland has classified "information" in terms of its uses: "information as process", "information as knowledge", and "information as thing".[19]

Beynon-Davies[20][21] explains the multi-faceted concept of information in terms of signs and signal-sign systems. Signs themselves can be considered in terms of four inter-dependent levels, layers or branches of semiotics: pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and empirics. These four layers serve to connect the social world on the one hand with the physical or technical world on the other.

Pragmatics is concerned with the purpose of communication. Pragmatics links the issue of signs with the context within which signs are used. The focus of pragmatics is on the intentions of living agents underlying communicative behaviour. In other words, pragmatics link language to action.

Semantics is concerned with the meaning of a message conveyed in a communicative act. Semantics considers the content of communication. Semantics is the study of the meaning of signs - the association between signs and behaviour. Semantics can be considered as the study of the link between symbols and their referents or concepts – particularly the way that signs relate to human behavior.

Syntax is concerned with the formalism used to represent a message. Syntax as an area studies the form of communication in terms of the logic and grammar of sign systems. Syntax is devoted to the study of the form rather than the content of signs and sign-systems.

Nielsen (2008) discusses the relationship between semiotics and information in relation to dictionaries. He introduces the concept of lexicographic information costs and refers to the effort a user of a dictionary must make to first find, and then understand data so that they can generate information.

Communication normally exists within the context of some social situation. The social situation sets the context for the intentions conveyed (pragmatics) and the form of communication. In a communicative situation intentions are expressed through messages that comprise collections of inter-related signs taken from a language mutually understood by the agents involved in the communication. Mutual understanding implies that agents involved understand the chosen language in terms of its agreed syntax (syntactics) and semantics. The sender codes the message in the language and sends the message as signals along some communication channel (empirics). The chosen communication channel has inherent properties that determine outcomes such as the speed at which communication can take place, and over what distance.

See also


  1. ^ "Information p Definition of Information by Merriam-Webster". Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  2. ^ A short overview is found in: Luciano Floridi (2010). Information - A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-160954-1. The goal of this volume is to provide an outline of what information is...
  3. ^ Stephen B. Wicker, Saejoon Kim (2003). Fundamentals of Codes, Graphs, and Iterative Decoding. Springer. pp. 1 ff. ISBN 978-1-4020-7264-2.
  4. ^ Dusenbery, David B. (1992). Sensory Ecology. New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-2333-2.
  5. ^ Vigo, R. (2011). "Representational information: a new general notion and measure of information". Information Sciences. 181 (21): 4847–59. doi:10.1016/j.ins.2011.05.020.
  6. ^ Vigo, R. (2013). "Complexity over Uncertainty in Generalized Representational Information Theory (GRIT): A Structure-Sensitive General Theory of Information". Information. 4 (1): 1–30. doi:10.3390/info4010001.
  7. ^ Vigo, R. (2014). Mathematical Principles of Human Conceptual Behavior: The Structural Nature of Conceptual Representation and Processing. New York and London: Scientific Psychology Series, Routledge. ISBN 978-0415714365.
  8. ^ Shannon, Claude E. (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication.
  9. ^ Casagrande, David (1999). "Information as verb: Re-conceptualizing information for cognitive and ecological models" (PDF). Journal of Ecological Anthropology. 3 (1): 4–13. doi:10.5038/2162-4593.3.1.1.
  10. ^ Bateson, Gregory (1972). Form, Substance, and Difference, in Steps to an Ecology of Mind. University of Chicago Press. pp. 448–66.
  11. ^ Simonsen, Bo Krantz. "Informationsordbogen - vis begreb". Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  12. ^ Merali, Zeeya. "Demonic device converts information to energy : Nature News". Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  13. ^ a b Hilbert, Martin; López, Priscila (2011). "The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information". Science. 332 (6025): 60–65. doi:10.1126/science.1200970. PMID 21310967. Free access to the article at
  14. ^ a b "World_info_capacity_animation". YouTube. 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
  15. ^ Failure Trends in a Large Disk Drive Population. Eduardo Pinheiro, Wolf-Dietrich Weber and Luiz Andre Barroso
  16. ^ ISO 15489
  17. ^ Committee on Electronic Records (February 1997). "Guide For Managing Electronic Records From An Archival Perspective" (PDF). International Committee on Archives. p. 22. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  18. ^ Willis 2005.
  19. ^ Buckland, Michael K. (June 1991). "Information as thing". Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 42 (5): 351–360. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(199106)42:5<351::AID-ASI5>3.0.CO;2-3.
  20. ^ Beynon-Davies, P. (2002). Information Systems: an introduction to informatics in Organisations. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-333-96390-6.
  21. ^ Beynon-Davies, P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Basingstoke: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-230-20368-6.

Kenett, R.S. and Shmueli, G. (2016) Information Quality: The Potential of Data and Analytics to Generate Knowledge, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 16 March 2019, at 21:27
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.