To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Inflammatory reflex

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The inflammatory reflex is a neural circuit that regulates the immune response to injury and invasion. All reflexes have an afferent and efferent arc. The Inflammatory reflex has a sensory, afferent arc, which is activated by cytokines, and a motor, or efferent arc, which transmits action potentials in the vagus nerve to suppress cytokine production. Increased signaling in the efferent arc inhibits inflammation and prevents organ damage.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
  • ✪ Bridging the CNS and Immune System via the Vagus Nerve
  • ✪ Sepsis: The Inflammatory Reflex
  • ✪ Cholinergic anti inflammatory pathway


Molecular mechanism

The molecular basis of cytokine-inhibiting signals requires the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and the Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor receptor expressed on cytokine-producing cells.[1] The release of acetylcholine in spleen suppresses the production of TNF and other cytokines which cause damaging inflammation.[2] Signaling in the efferent arc of the inflammatory reflex, termed the "Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway," provides a regulatory check on the innate immune system response to invasion and injury. The action potentials arising in the vagus nerve are transmitted to the spleen, where a subset of specialized T cells is activated to secrete acetylcholine. The net effect of the reflex is to prevent the damage caused by excessive cytokine production.[3]

Therapeutic potential

Evidence from experimental disease models of arthritis, colitis, sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, and congestive heart failure indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can prevent or reverse these diseases.[4] It may be possible to implant nerve stimulators to replace anti-inflammatory drugs that target cytokine activity (e.g. anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 antibodies).[5]


  1. ^ Tracey KJ (June 2009). "Reflex control of immunity". Nat Rev Immunol. 9 (6): 418–28. doi:10.1038/nri2566. PMC 4535331. PMID 19461672.
  2. ^ Rosas-Ballina M, Ochani M, Parrish WR, et al. (August 2008). "Splenic nerve is required for cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway control of TNF in endotoxemia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (31): 11008–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.0803237105. PMC 2504833. PMID 18669662.
  3. ^ Rosas-Ballina M, Olofsson PS, Ochani M, et al. (2011). "Acetylcholine-Synthesizing T Cells Relay Neural Signals in a Vagus Nerve Circuit". Science. 334 (6052): 98–101. doi:10.1126/science.1209985. PMC 4548937. PMID 21921156.
  4. ^ Tracey KJ (February 2007). "Physiology and immunology of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (2): 289–96. doi:10.1172/JCI30555. PMC 1783813. PMID 17273548.
  5. ^ "The shock tactics set to shake up immunology".
This page was last edited on 13 February 2019, at 04:06
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.