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Industrial Light & Magic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Industrial Light & Magic
FoundedMay 26, 1975; 46 years ago (1975-05-26)
FounderGeorge Lucas
Headquarters1110 Gorgas Ave. Letterman Digital Arts Center,
Presidio of San Francisco, California, 94129 United States
Key people
Rob Bredow (CCO, ILM)
Janet Lewin (General Manager, ILM)
Dennis Muren
ParentLucasfilm Ltd.
(Walt Disney Studios)
SubsidiariesILM London
ILM Singapore
ILM Vancouver
ILM San Francisco
ILM Sydney

Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas.[4] It is a division of the film production company Lucasfilm, which Lucas founded, and was created when Lucas began production of the film Star Wars.[5]

ILM originated in Van Nuys, California, then later moved to San Rafael in 1978, and since 2005 it has been based at the Letterman Digital Arts Center in the Presidio of San Francisco. In 2012, The Walt Disney Company acquired ILM as part of its purchase of Lucasfilm.[6]


Lucas wanted his 1977 film Star Wars to include visual effects that had never been seen on film before.[7] After discovering that the in-house effects department at 20th Century Fox was no longer operational, Lucas approached Douglas Trumbull, best known for the effects on 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Silent Running (1972). Trumbull declined as he was already committed to working on Steven Spielberg's film Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), but suggested his assistant John Dykstra to Lucas. Dykstra brought together a small team of college students, artists, and engineers, and set them up in a warehouse in Van Nuys, California. After seeing the map for the location was zoned as light industrial, Lucas named the group Industrial Light and Magic,[8] which became the Special Visual Effects department on Star Wars. Alongside Dykstra, other leading members of the original ILM team were Ken Ralston, Richard Edlund, Dennis Muren, Joe Johnston, Phil Tippett, Steve Gawley, Lorne Peterson, and Paul Huston.[citation needed]

Parking lot and building of the first company headquarters of ILM in Van Nuys, where the special effects of the first Star Wars movie were produced
Parking lot and building of the first company headquarters of ILM in Van Nuys, where the special effects of the first Star Wars movie were produced

In late 1978, when in pre-production for The Empire Strikes Back, Lucas reformed most of the team into Industrial Light & Magic in Marin County, California. From here on, the company expanded and has since gone on to produce special effects for nearly three hundred films, including the entire Star Wars saga, the Indiana Jones series, the Harry Potter series, the Jurassic Park series, the Back to the Future trilogy, many of the Star Trek films, Ghostbusters II, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, the Pirates of the Caribbean series, the Terminator sequels, the Transformers films, the Men in Black series, the Marvel Cinematic Universe films, Wild Wild West, most of the Mission: Impossible films, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Batteries Not Included, The Abyss, and Flubber, and also provided work for Avatar, alongside Weta Digital.[citation needed]

In addition to their work for George Lucas, ILM also collaborates with Steven Spielberg on many films that he directs and produces. Dennis Muren has acted as Computer Animation Supervisor on many of these films. Apart from flashy special effects, the company also works on more subtle effects—such as widening streets, digitally adding more extras to a shot, and inserting the film's actors into preexisting footage—in films including Schindler's List, Forrest Gump, Snow Falling on Cedars, Magnolia, and several films directed by Woody Allen.[citation needed]

After the success of the first Star Wars movie, Lucas became interested in using computer graphics on the sequel. He contacted Triple-I, known for their early computer effects in movies like Westworld (1973), Futureworld (1976), Tron (1982), and The Last Starfighter which ended up making a computer-generated test of five X-wing fighters flying in formation. He found it to be too expensive and returned to handmade models. Nevertheless, the test had showed him it was possible, and he decided he would create his own computer graphics department instead. As a result, they started investing in Apple and SGI computers. One of Lucas' employees was given the task to find the right people to hire. His search would lead him to NYIT, where he found Edwin Catmull and his colleagues. Catmull and others accepted Lucas' job offer, and a new computer division at ILM was created in 1979 with the hiring of Ed Catmull as the first NYIT employee who joined Lucasfilm.[9] John Lasseter, who was hired a few years later, worked on computer-animation as part of ILM's contribution to Young Sherlock Holmes. The Graphics Group was later sold to Steve Jobs, named Pixar Animation Studios, and created the first CGI-animated feature, Toy Story.[10]

In 2000, ILM created the OpenEXR format for high-dynamic-range imaging.[11]

ILM operated from an inconspicuous property in San Rafael, California until 2005. The company was known to locals as The Kerner Company, a name that did not draw any attention, allowing the company to operate in secret, thus preventing the compromise of sensitive information on its productions to the media or fans.[12][13] In 2005, when Lucas decided to move locations to the Presidio of San Francisco and focus on digital effects, a management-led team bought the five physical and practical effects divisions and formed a new company that included the George Lucas Theater, retained the "Kerner" name as Kerner Technologies, Inc. and provided physical effects for major motion pictures, often working with ILM, until its Chapter 7 bankruptcy in 2011.[citation needed]

In 2005, ILM extended its operations to Lucasfilm Singapore, which also includes the Singapore arm of Lucasfilm Animation. In 2011, it was announced the company was considering a project-based facility in Vancouver.[14] Vancouver's first location opened in 2013 and ILM opened a second location in Vancouver in 2017.[citation needed]

In 2006, ILM invented IMoCap (Image Based Motion Capture Technology).[citation needed]

In 2012, Disney bought ILM's parent company, Lucasfilm, and acquired ILM in the process. Disney stated that it had no immediate plans to change ILM's operations,[6] but began to lay off employees by April of the next year.[15] Following the restructuring of LucasArts in April 2013, ILM was left overstaffed and the faculty was reduced to serve only ILM's visual effects department.[16][17] ILM opened a London studio headquartered in the city's Soho district on October 15, 2014.[18]

As of 2016, ILM has received 16 Best Visual Effects Oscars and 40 additional nominations. It has also received 24 Scientific and Technical Awards from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[citation needed]

On November 7, 2018, ILM opened a new division targeted at television series called ILM TV. It will be based in ILM's new 47,000-square-foot London studio with support from the company's locations in San Francisco, Vancouver and Singapore.[19] In July 2019, ILM announced the opening of a new facility in Sydney, Australia.[citation needed]

ILM is one of the largest visual effects vendors in the motion picture industry and has one of the largest render farms (named Death Star) currently available with more than 7500 nodes.[citation needed]


Notable employees and clients

Photoshop was first used at the Industrial Light & Magic as an image-processing program. Photoshop was created by ILM Visual Effects Supervisor John Knoll and his brother Thomas as a summer project. It was used on The Abyss. The Knoll brothers sold the program to Adobe shortly before the film's release.[citation needed]. Thomas Knoll continues to work on Photoshop at Adobe and is featured in the billing on the Photoshop splash screen. John Knoll continues to be ILM's top visual effects supervisor.[20]

Adam Savage, Grant Imahara and Tory Belleci of MythBusters fame have all worked at Industrial Light & Magic.[21]

Industrial Light & Magic is also famous for their commercial work. Their clients include Energizer, Benson & Hedges, Apple, Nike, Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Budweiser, McDonald's, Nickelodeon and other companies.[citation needed]

Actor Masi Oka worked on several major ILM productions as a programmer, including Revenge of the Sith, before joining the cast of the NBC show Heroes as Hiro Nakamura.[22]

American film director David Fincher worked at ILM for four years in the early 1980s.[23]

Film director Joe Johnston was a Visual effects artist and an Art Director.[24]

Film Director Mark A.Z. Dippé was a Visual Effects animator who directed Spawn which was released in 1997.[citation needed]



Year Film Director(s) Distributor(s) Budget Gross
1977 Star Wars George Lucas 20th Century Fox $11 million $775.5 million
1980 The Empire Strikes Back Irvin Kershner 20th Century Fox $33 million $547.9 million
1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures $18 million $389.9 million
Dragonslayer Matthew Robbins Paramount Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$18 million $14 million
1982 Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan Nicholas Meyer Paramount Pictures $11.2 million $97 million
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Steven Spielberg Universal Studios $10 million $792.9 million
The Dark Crystal Jim Henson and Frank Oz Universal Studios $15 million $40 million
Poltergeist Tobe Hooper Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $10.7 million $121.7 million
1983 Return of the Jedi Richard Marquand 20th Century Fox $42.7 million $475.3 million
Twice Upon a Time John Korty and Charles Swenson Warner Bros. TBA
1984 Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures $28.2 million $333.1 million
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock Leonard Nimoy $16 million $87 million
The NeverEnding Story Wolfgang Petersen Warner Bros. $27 million $100 million
Starman John Carpenter Columbia Pictures $24 million $28.7 million
1985 The Goonies Richard Donner Warner Bros. $19 million $61.5 million
Cocoon Ron Howard 20th Century Fox $17.5 million $85.3 million
Back to the Future Robert Zemeckis Universal Studios $19 million $389.1 million
Explorers Joe Dante Paramount Pictures $25 million $9.9 million
Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters Paul Schrader Warner Bros. $5 million $502,758
Young Sherlock Holmes Barry Levinson Paramount Pictures $18 million $19 million
Out of Africa Sydney Pollack Universal Studios $28 million $128.5 million
Enemy Mine Wolfgang Petersen 20th Century Fox $29 million $12 million
1986 The Money Pit Richard Benjamin Universal Studios $10 million $54 million
Labyrinth Jim Henson TriStar Pictures $27.68 million $11.6 million
Howard the Duck Willard Huyck Universal Studios $37 million $38 million
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home Leonard Nimoy Paramount Pictures $21 million $133 million
The Golden Child Michael Ritchie $25 million $79.8 million
1987 Harry and the Hendersons William Dear Universal Studios $16 million $49 million
The Witches of Eastwick George Miller Warner Bros. $22 million $63.8 million
Innerspace Joe Dante $27 million $25 million
Empire of the Sun Steven Spielberg $35 million $22.2 million
Batteries Not Included Matthew Robbins Universal Studios $25 million $65.1 million
Spaceballs Mel Brooks Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $22.7 million $38.1 million
1988 Willow Ron Howard Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $35 million $57.3 million
Who Framed Roger Rabbit Robert Zemeckis Buena Vista Pictures $58 million $329.8 million
Caddyshack II Allan Arkush Warner Bros. $20 million $11.8 million
The Last Temptation of Christ Martin Scorsese Universal Pictures $7 million $8.4 million
Tucker: The Man and His Dream Francis Ford Coppola Paramount Pictures
$24 million $19.7 million
Cocoon: The Return Daniel Petrie 20th Century Fox $17.5 million $25 million
1989 The 'Burbs Joe Dante Universal Studios $18 million $49 million
Skin Deep Blake Edwards 20th Century Fox $9 million $19 million
Field of Dreams Phil Alden Robinson Universal Studios
TriStar Pictures
$15 million $84.4 million
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures $48 million $474.2 million
Ghostbusters II Ivan Reitman Columbia Pictures $37 million $215.4 million
The Abyss James Cameron 20th Century Fox $70 million $90 million
Back to the Future Part II Robert Zemeckis Universal Studios $40 million $332 million
Always Steven Spielberg $31 million $74 million
1990 The Hunt for Red October John McTiernan Paramount Pictures $30 million $200.5 million
Joe Versus the Volcano John Patrick Shanley Warner Bros. $25 million $39 million
Back to the Future Part III Robert Zemeckis Universal Studios $40 million $244.5 million
Total Recall Paul Verhoeven TriStar Pictures $50 million $300 million
Die Hard 2 Renny Harlin 20th Century Fox $70 million $240 million
Ghost Jerry Zucker Paramount Pictures $22 million $505.7 million
Arachnophobia Frank Marshall Buena Vista Pictures $31 million $53.2 million
Dreams Akira Kurosawa and Ishirō Honda Warner Bros. $12 million $2 million
The Godfather Part III Francis Ford Coppola Paramount Pictures $54 million $136.8 million
1991 Flight of the Intruder John Milius $35 million $14 million
The Doors Oliver Stone TriStar Pictures $38 million $34.4 million
Switch Blake Edwards Warner Bros. $15 million $15.5 million
Backdraft Ron Howard Universal Studios $75 million $152.3 million
Hudson Hawk Renny Harlin TriStar Pictures $65 million $17.2 million
The Rocketeer Joe Johnston Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $46.7 million
Terminator 2: Judgment Day James Cameron TriStar Pictures $94 million $519.8 million
Hook Steven Spielberg $70 million $300.9 million
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country Nicholas Meyer Paramount Pictures $27 million $96.9 million
1992 Memoirs of an Invisible Man John Carpenter Warner Bros. $40 million $14.4 million
Death Becomes Her Robert Zemeckis Universal Studios $55 million $149 million
1993 Alive Frank Marshall Buena Vista Pictures
United International Pictures
$32 million $36.7 million
Fire in the Sky Robert Lieberman Paramount Pictures $15 million $19.9 million
Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg Universal Studios $63 million $1.030 billion
Last Action Hero John McTiernan Columbia Pictures $85 million $137.3 million
Rising Sun Philip Kaufman 20th Century Fox $35 million $107.2 million
The Meteor Man Robert Townsend Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer $30 million $8 million
Manhattan Murder Mystery Woody Allen TriStar Pictures $13.5 million $11 million
Malice Harold Becker Columbia Pictures $20 million $46 million
The Nutcracker Emile Ardolino Warner Bros. $19 million $2 million
Schindler's List Steven Spielberg Universal Studios $22 million $322.1 million
1994 The Hudsucker Proxy Joel and Ethan Coen Warner Bros.
Universal Studios
$25 million $2.8 million
Forrest Gump Robert Zemeckis Paramount Pictures $55 million $677.9 million
Maverick Richard Donner Warner Bros. $75 million $183 million
The Flintstones Brian Levant Universal Studios $46 million $341.6 million
Wolf Mike Nichols Columbia Pictures $70 million $131 million
Baby's Day Out Patrick Read Johnson 20th Century Fox $48 million $16.8 million
The Mask Chuck Russell New Line Cinema $23 million $351.6 million
Radioland Murders Mel Smith Universal Studios $15 million $1.3 million
Disclosure Barry Levinson Warner Bros. $55 million $214 million
Star Trek Generations David Carson Paramount Pictures $35 million $118 million
1995 In the Mouth of Madness John Carpenter New Line Cinema $8 million $8.9 million
Village of the Damned Universal Studios $22 million $9.4 million
Congo Frank Marshall Paramount Pictures $50 million $152 million
The Indian in the Cupboard Frank Oz Paramount Pictures
Columbia Pictures
$45 million $35 million
Casper Brad Silberling Universal Studios $55 million $287.9 million
Jumanji Joe Johnston TriStar Pictures $65 million $262.8 million
The American President Rob Reiner Columbia Pictures
Universal Studios
$62 million $107 million
Sabrina Sydney Pollack Paramount Pictures $50 million $53 million
1996 Twister Jan de Bont Warner Bros.
Universal Studios
$92 million $494.4 million
Mission: Impossible Brian De Palma Paramount Pictures $80 million $457.7 million
Dragonheart Rob Cohen Universal Studios $57 million $115 million
Eraser Chuck Russell Warner Bros. $100 million $242.3 million
The Trigger Effect David Koepp Gramercy Pictures
Universal Studios
$8 million $3 million
Sleepers Barry Levinson Warner Bros.
Buena Vista Pictures
$44 million $165.6 million
Star Trek: First Contact Jonathan Frakes Paramount Pictures $45 million $146 million
101 Dalmatians Stephen Herek Buena Vista Pictures $75 million $320.6 million
Daylight Rob Cohen Universal Studios $80 million $159.2 million
Mars Attacks! Tim Burton Warner Bros. $70 million $101.3 million
1997 The Lost World: Jurassic Park Steven Spielberg Universal Studios $75 million $618.6 million
Speed 2: Cruise Control Jan de Bont 20th Century Fox $110 million $164.5 million
Men in Black Barry Sonnenfeld Columbia Pictures $90 million $589.4 million
Contact Robert Zemeckis Warner Bros. $90 million $171.1 million
Spawn Mark A.Z. Dippé New Line Cinema $40 million $87.8 million
Starship Troopers Paul Verhoeven TriStar Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$105 million $121.2 million
Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil Clint Eastwood Warner Bros. $30 million $25.1 million
Flubber Les Mayfield Buena Vista Pictures $80 million $177.9 million
Amistad Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures $36 million $44.2 million
Deconstructing Harry Woody Allen Fine Line Features
Hollywood Pictures
$20 million $10 million
Titanic James Cameron Paramount Pictures
20th Century Fox
$200 million $2.187 billion
1998 Deep Rising Stephen Sommers Buena Vista Pictures
Cinergi Pictures
$45 million $11.2 million
Mercury Rising Harold Becker Universal Studios $60 million $93 million
Deep Impact Mimi Leder Paramount Pictures
DreamWorks Pictures
$80 million $349.4 million
Small Soldiers Joe Dante DreamWorks Pictures
Universal Studios
$40 million $54.7 million
Saving Private Ryan Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures
Paramount Pictures
$70 million $481.8 million
Snake Eyes Brian De Palma Paramount Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$73 million $103.8 million
Reach the Rock William Ryan Gramercy Pictures TBA $4,960
Meet Joe Black Martin Brest Universal Studios $90 million $142 million
Celebrity Woody Allen Miramax Films $12 million $5 million
Jack Frost Troy Miller Warner Bros. $85 million $34.6 million
Mighty Joe Young Ron Underwood Buena Vista Pictures $90 million $50 million
1999 October Sky Joe Johnston Universal Studios $25 million $34.7 million
The Mummy Stephen Sommers $80 million $415.9 million
Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace George Lucas 20th Century Fox $115 million $1.027 billion
Wild Wild West Barry Sonnenfeld Warner Bros. $170 million $222.1 million
The Haunting Jan de Bont DreamWorks Pictures $80 million $177.3 million
Deep Blue Sea Renny Harlin Warner Bros. $60 million $164.6 million
Bringing Out the Dead Martin Scorsese Paramount Pictures
Buena Vista Pictures
$55 million $16.8 million
Sleepy Hollow Tim Burton Paramount Pictures $100 million $206 million
The Green Mile Frank Darabont Warner Bros. $60 million $290.7 million
Magnolia Paul Thomas Anderson New Line Cinema $37 million $48.5 million
Snow Falling on Cedars Scott Hicks Universal Studios $35 million $23 million
Galaxy Quest Dean Parisot DreamWorks Pictures $45 million $90.7 million
2000 Sweet and Lowdown Woody Allen Sony Pictures Classics $29.7 million $4 million
Mission to Mars Brian De Palma Buena Vista Pictures $100 million $110.9 million
The Perfect Storm Wolfgang Petersen Warner Bros. $120 million $328.7 million
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle Des McAnuff Universal Studios $76 million $35 million
Space Cowboys Clint Eastwood Warner Bros. $60 million $128.9 million
Pollock Ed Harris Sony Pictures Classics $6 million $10 million
Pay It Forward Mimi Leder Warner Bros. $40 million $55 million
2001 The Pledge Sean Penn $35 million $29.4 million
Sweet November Pat O'Connor $40 million $65 million
The Mummy Returns Stephen Sommers Universal Studios $98 million $433 million
Pearl Harbor Michael Bay Buena Vista Pictures $140 million $449.2 million
A.I. Artificial Intelligence Steven Spielberg Warner Bros.
DreamWorks Pictures
$100 million $235.9 million
Jurassic Park III Joe Johnston Universal Studios $93 million $368.8 million
Planet of the Apes Tim Burton 20th Century Fox $100 million $362.2 million
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Chris Columbus Warner Bros. $125 million $974.8 million
The Majestic Frank Darabont $72 million $37.3 million
2002 Impostor Gary Fleder Dimension Films $40 million $8 million
The Time Machine Simon Wells DreamWorks Pictures
Warner Bros.
$80 million $123.7 million
Big Trouble Barry Sonnenfeld Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $8.5 million
Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones George Lucas 20th Century Fox $115 million $649.4 million
The Bourne Identity Doug Liman Universal Studios $60 million $214 million
Minority Report Steven Spielberg DreamWorks Pictures
20th Century Fox
$102 million $358.4 million
Men in Black II Barry Sonnenfeld Columbia Pictures $140 million $441.8 million
K-19: The Widowmaker Kathryn Bigelow Paramount Pictures $100 million $65.7 million
Signs M. Night Shyamalan Buena Vista Pictures $72 million $408.2 million
Blood Work Clint Eastwood $50 million $31 million
Punch-Drunk Love Paul Thomas Anderson Columbia Pictures $25 million $24.7 million
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Chris Columbus Warner Bros. $100 million $879 million
Gangs of New York Martin Scorsese Miramax Films $97 million $193.8 million
2003 Tears of the Sun Antoine Fuqua Columbia Pictures $100.5 million $86.5 million
The Hunted William Friedkin Paramount Pictures
Redbus Film Distribution
$55 million $45 million
Dreamcatcher Lawrence Kasdan Warner Bros. $68 million $75.7 million
Hulk Ang Lee Universal Studios $137 million $245.4 million
Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines Jonathan Mostow Warner Bros.
Columbia Pictures
$187 million $433.4 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Gore Verbinski Buena Vista Pictures $140 million $654.3 million
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen Stephen Norrington 20th Century Fox $78 million $179.3 million
Once Upon a Time in Mexico Robert Rodriguez Columbia Pictures
Dimension Films
$28 million $98.1 million
Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World Peter Weir 20th Century Fox
Universal Studios
$150 million $212 million
Timeline Richard Donner Paramount Pictures $80 million $34 million
Stuck on You Peter and Robert Farrelly 20th Century Fox $55 million $65 million
Peter Pan P. J. Hogan Universal Studios
Columbia Pictures
$130 million $122 million
2004 Along Came Polly John Hamburg Universal Studios $42 million $171 million
Twisted Philip Kaufman Paramount Pictures $50 million $41 million
Hidalgo Joe Johnston Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $108.1 million
Van Helsing Stephen Sommers Universal Studios $160 million $300.3 million
The Day After Tomorrow Roland Emmerich 20th Century Fox $125 million $544.3 million
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Alfonso Cuarón Warner Bros. $130 million $796.7 million
The Chronicles of Riddick David Twohy Universal Studios $105 million $115.8 million
The Bourne Supremacy Paul Greengrass $75 million $288.5 million
The Village M. Night Shyamalan Buena Vista Pictures $60 million $256.7 million
Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow Kerry Conran Paramount Pictures $70 million $58 million
Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events Brad Silberling Paramount Pictures
DreamWorks Pictures
$140 million $209.1 million
2005 Are We There Yet? Brian Levant Columbia Pictures $32 million $97 million
Son of the Mask Lawrence Guterman New Line Cinema $84 million $57.6 million
The Pacifier Adam Shankman Buena Vista Pictures $56 million $198.6 million
Eros Wong Kar-wai, Steven Soderbergh
and Michelangelo Antonioni
Warner Independent Pictures
Artificial Eye
TBA $1 million
The Amityville Horror Andrew Douglas Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Dimension Films
$19 million $108 million
XXX: State of the Union Lee Tamahori Columbia Pictures $87 million $71 million
Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith George Lucas 20th Century Fox $113 million $848.8 million
The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D Robert Rodriguez Dimension Films
Columbia Pictures
$50 million $69.4 million
Herbie: Fully Loaded Angela Robinson Buena Vista Pictures $50 million $144.1 million
War of the Worlds Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures
DreamWorks Pictures
$132 million $591.7 million
The Island Michael Bay DreamWorks Pictures
Warner Bros.
$126 million $162.9 million
Jarhead Sam Mendes Universal Studios $72 million $96.9 million
Chicken Little Mark Dindal Buena Vista Pictures $150 million $314.4 million
Rent Chris Columbus Columbia Pictures $40 million $31.6 million
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Mike Newell Warner Bros. $150 million $896.9 million
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Andrew Adamson Buena Vista Pictures $180 million $745 million
Munich Steven Spielberg Universal Studios
DreamWorks Pictures
$70 million $130.4 million
Cheaper by the Dozen 2 Adam Shankman 20th Century Fox $60 million $129.1 million
2006 Eight Below Frank Marshall Buena Vista Pictures $40 million $120.4 million
Mission: Impossible III J. J. Abrams Paramount Pictures $150 million $397.9 million
Poseidon Wolfgang Petersen Warner Bros. $160 million $181.7 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest Gore Verbinski Buena Vista Pictures $225 million $1.066 billion
Lady in the Water M. Night Shyamalan Warner Bros. $70 million $72.8 million
Eragon Stefen Fangmeier 20th Century Fox $100 million $249.5 million
2007 Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End Gore Verbinski Buena Vista Pictures $300 million $963.4 million
Evan Almighty Tom Shadyac Universal Studios $175 million $173.4 million
Transformers Michael Bay DreamWorks Pictures
Paramount Pictures
$150 million $709.7 million
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix David Yates Warner Bros. $150 million $939.9 million
Rush Hour 3 Brett Ratner New Line Cinema $140 million $258 million
Lions for Lambs Robert Redford Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
20th Century Fox
$35 million $63.2 million
National Treasure: Book of Secrets Jon Turteltaub Walt Disney Studios $130 million $457.4 million
There Will Be Blood Paul Thomas Anderson Paramount Vantage
Miramax Films
$25 million $76.2 million
2008 The Spiderwick Chronicles Mark Waters Paramount Pictures $90 million $162 million
Iron Man Jon Favreau $140 million $585.2 million
Speed Racer The Wachowskis[a] Warner Bros. $120 million $93.9 million
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Steven Spielberg Paramount Pictures $185 million $786.6 million
The Happening M. Night Shyamalan 20th Century Fox $48 million $163.4 million
WALL-E Andrew Stanton Walt Disney Studios $180 million $521.3 million
Miracle at St. Anna Spike Lee $45 million $9.3 million
The Tale of Despereaux Sam Fell and Robert Stevenhagen Universal Studios $60 million $86.9 million
2009 Confessions of a Shopaholic P. J. Hogan Walt Disney Studios $55 million $108.3 million
Star Trek J. J. Abrams Paramount Pictures $150 million $385.7 million
Terminator Salvation McG Warner Bros.
Columbia Pictures
$200 million $371.4 million
Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen Michael Bay DreamWorks Pictures
Paramount Pictures
$200 million $836.3 million
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince David Yates Warner Bros. $250 million $934.4 million
Avatar James Cameron 20th Century Fox $237 million $2.790 billion
2010 Iron Man 2 Jon Favreau Paramount Pictures $200 million $623.9 million
The Last Airbender M. Night Shyamalan $150 million $319.7 million
2011 I Am Number Four D. J. Caruso Walt Disney Studios $50 million $149.9 million
Rango Gore Verbinski Paramount Pictures $135 million $245.7 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Rob Marshall Walt Disney Studios $378.5 million $1.046 billion
Super 8 J. J. Abrams Paramount Pictures $50 million $260.1 million
Transformers: Dark of the Moon Michael Bay $195 million $1.124 billion
Cowboys & Aliens Jon Favreau Universal Studios
Paramount Pictures
$163 million $174 million
Hugo Martin Scorsese Paramount Pictures $150 million $185.8 million
Mission: Impossible – Ghost Protocol Brad Bird $145 million $694.7 million
2012 Red Tails Anthony Hemingway 20th Century Fox $58 million $50.4 million
The Avengers Joss Whedon Walt Disney Studios $220 million $1.519 billion
Battleship Peter Berg Universal Studios $220 million $303 million
Cloud Atlas The Wachowskis and Tom Tykwer Warner Bros. $128.5 million $130.5 million
2013 Identity Thief Seth Gordon Universal Studios $35 million $174 million
G.I. Joe: Retaliation Jon M. Chu Paramount Pictures $130 million $375.7 million
Pain & Gain Michael Bay $26 million $86.2 million
The Great Gatsby Baz Luhrmann Warner Bros. $105 million $351 million
Now You See Me Louis Leterrier Universal Studios $75 million $351.7 million
World War Z Marc Forster Paramount Pictures $190 million $540 million
Star Trek Into Darkness J. J. Abrams Paramount Pictures $185 million $467.4 million
The Lone Ranger Gore Verbinski Walt Disney Studios $225 million $260.5 million
Pacific Rim Guillermo del Toro Warner Bros. $190 million $411 million
RED 2 Dean Parisot Summit Entertainment $84 million $148.1 million
Elysium Neill Blomkamp TriStar Pictures $115 million $286.1 million
Lone Survivor Peter Berg Universal Studios $49 million $149.3 million
2014 Noah Darren Aronofsky Paramount Pictures $125 million $362.6 million
Captain America: The Winter Soldier Anthony and Joe Russo Walt Disney Studios $170 million $714.4 million
Transformers: Age of Extinction Michael Bay Paramount Pictures $210 million $1.104 billion
Lucy Luc Besson Universal Studios $40 million $463.4 million
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Jonathan Liebesman Paramount Pictures $125 million $493.3 million
Unbroken Angelina Jolie Universal Studios $65 million $163.3 million
2015 Strange Magic Gary Rydstrom Walt Disney Studios $70 million $13.6 million
Avengers: Age of Ultron Joss Whedon $279.9 million $1.405 billion
Tomorrowland Brad Bird $190 million $209.2 million
Jurassic World Colin Trevorrow Universal Studios $150 million $1.672 billion
Terminator Genisys Alan Taylor Paramount Pictures $155 million $440.6 million
Ant-Man Peyton Reed Walt Disney Studios $130 million $519.3 million
Hitman: Agent 47 Aleksander Bach 20th Century Fox $35 million $82.3 million
The Martian Ridley Scott $108 million $630.2 million
Paranormal Activity: The Ghost Dimension Gregory Plotkin Paramount Pictures $10 million $78.1 million
Spectre Sam Mendes Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Columbia Pictures
$250 million $880.7 million
Star Wars: The Force Awakens J. J. Abrams Walt Disney Studios $200 million $2.068 billion
The Revenant Alejandro G. Iñárritu 20th Century Fox $135 million $533 million
The Big Short Adam McKay Paramount Pictures $28 million $133.4 million
2016 13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi Michael Bay Paramount Studios $50 million $69.4 million
Captain America: Civil War Anthony and Joe Russo Walt Disney Studios $250 million $1.153 billion
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows Dave Green Paramount Pictures $135 million $245.6 million
Warcraft Duncan Jones Universal Studios $160 million $433.7 million
Deepwater Horizon Peter Berg Summit Entertainment $110 million $121.7 million
Doctor Strange Scott Derrickson Walt Disney Studios $165 million $677.6 million
Rogue One: A Star Wars Story Gareth Edwards $200 million $1.056 billion
Silence Martin Scorsese Paramount Pictures $40 million $23.7 million
2017 The Great Wall Zhang Yimou Universal Studios $150 million $334 million
Life Daniel Espinosa Columbia Pictures $58 million $100.5 million
Kong: Skull Island Jordan Vogt-Roberts Warner Bros. $185 million $566.7 million
The Mummy Alex Kurtzman Universal Studios $125 million $409 million
Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales Joachim Ronning and Espen Sandberg Walt Disney Studios $230 million $794.9 million
Transformers: The Last Knight Michael Bay Paramount Pictures $260 million $605 million
Spider-Man: Homecoming Jon Watts Columbia Pictures $175 million $880 million
Valerian and the City of a Thousand Planets Luc Besson STX Entertainment / EuropaCorp $209 million $225 million
Mother! Darren Aronofsky Paramount Pictures $33 million $44.5 million
Only The Brave Joseph Kosinski Columbia Pictures $38 million $25.6 million
Thor: Ragnarok Taika Waititi Walt Disney Studios $180 million $854.3 million
Star Wars: The Last Jedi Rian Johnson $200 million $1.333 billion
Downsizing Alexander Payne Paramount Pictures $76 million $55 million
2018 12 Strong Nicolai Fuglsig Warner Bros. $35 million $70.8 million
The Cloverfield Paradox Julius Onah Netflix $45 million N/A
Black Panther Ryan Coogler Walt Disney Studios $200 million $1.347 billion
Monster Hunt 2 Raman Hui Edko Film/Lionsgate $143 million $361.7 million
A Wrinkle in Time Ava DuVernay Walt Disney Studios $100 million $132.7 million
Ready Player One Steven Spielberg Warner Bros. $175 million $582.2 million
A Quiet Place John Krasinski Paramount Pictures $17 million $340.7 million
Avengers: Infinity War Anthony and Joe Russo Walt Disney Studios $300 million $2.048 billion
Solo: A Star Wars Story Ron Howard $275 million $392.9 million
Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom J.A. Bayona Universal Studios $170 million $1.309 billion
Ant-Man and the Wasp Peyton Reed Walt Disney Studios $162 million $622.7 million
Skyscraper Rawson M. Thurber Universal Studios $125 million $304.1 million
The Other Side of the Wind Orson Welles Netflix $6 million N/A
Overlord Julius Avery Paramount Pictures $38 million $41.2 million
Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald David Yates Warner Bros. $200 million $653.8 million
Aquaman James Wan $200 million $1.148 billion
Bumblebee Travis Knight Paramount Pictures $102 million $465.9 million
Bird Box Susanne Bier Netflix $19.8 million N/A
2019 Captain Marvel[25] Anna Boden and Ryan Fleck Walt Disney Studios $152 million $1.128 billion
Us Jordan Peele Universal Pictures $20 million $254.7 million
Avengers: Endgame Anthony and Joe Russo Walt Disney Studios $356 million $2.798 billion
Aladdin Guy Ritchie $183 million $1.051 billion
Spider-Man: Far From Home Jon Watts Sony Pictures Releasing $160 million $1.132 billion
The Irishman[26] Martin Scorsese Netflix $159 million $8 million[27]
Terminator: Dark Fate Tim Miller Paramount Pictures
Tencent Pictures
20th Century Fox
$186 million $261.1 million
Playing with Fire[28] Andy Fickman Paramount Pictures $29.9 million $64.4 million
6 Underground Michael Bay Netflix $150 million N/A
Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker J. J. Abrams Walt Disney Studios $275 million[29] $1.074 billion
2020 Artemis Fowl Kenneth Branagh $125 million[30] N/A
Mank David Fincher Netflix $20–30 million[31] $99,752[32]
We Can Be Heroes Robert Rodriguez N/A
The Midnight Sky[33] George Clooney $100 million[34] $62,557[35]
2021 Finding 'Ohana[36] Jude Weng Netflix TBA
Chaos Walking Doug Liman Lionsgate $100 million $21.9 million
Coming 2 America[37] Craig Brewer Amazon Studios $60 million N/A
A Quiet Place Part II[38] John Krasinski Paramount Pictures $61 million $279 million
Wish Dragon Chris Appelhans Netflix N/A $21.1 million
F9[39] Justin Lin Universal Pictures $200-225 million $541.8 million
Black Widow Cate Shortland Walt Disney Studios $200 million $159.2 million
Space Jam: A New Legacy Malcolm D. Lee Warner Bros. Pictures $183.7 million TBA
Jungle Cruise[40] Jaume Collet-Serra

Walt Disney Studios

$200 million TBA
2021 Free Guy[41] Shawn Levy 20th Century Studios TBA
No Time to Die Cary Joji Fukunaga Metro-Goldwyn Mayer

Universal Pictures

$250 million TBA
Eternals Chloé Zhao Walt Disney Studios $200 million TBA
2022 The Batman[42] Matt Reeves Warner Bros. Pictures $100 million
Thor: Love and Thunder[43] Taika Waititi Walt Disney Studios TBA
Mission: Impossible 7[44] Christopher McQuarrie Paramount Pictures
Jurassic World: Dominion[45] Colin Trevorrow Universal Studios $165 million TBA
2023 Mission: Impossible 8[44] Christopher McQuarrie Paramount Pictures TBA


Year Name of television show[46] Network
1985–87 Amazing Stories NBC
1987–94 Star Trek: The Next Generation Syndicated
1989–96 Tales from the Crypt ("You, Murderer") HBO
1992–96 The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles ABC
2007–19 The Big Bang Theory CBS
2014–15 Agent Carter[47] ABC
2019 Krypton (season 2) Syfy
2019–present The Mandalorian Disney+
2020 Brave New World Peacock
2020–present The Boys (season 2) Amazon Prime Video
2020–2021 The Stand CBS All Access
2021 WandaVision Disney+
The Falcon and the Winter Soldier
2021 The Witcher (season 2) Netflix
The Book of Boba Fett Disney+
Ms. Marvel
2022 Andor
Obi-Wan Kenobi
Moon Knight


See also


  1. ^ Credited as "The Wachowski Brothers"


  1. ^ a b "ILMxLAB".
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Global Locations".
  4. ^ Bertram, Colin (July 11, 2015). "'Star Wars' and Industrial Light & Magic: 40 Years of 'Magic' Moments". NBC Chicago. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  5. ^ Droidmaker: George Lucas and the Digital Revolution. Triad Publishing Company. 2005. ISBN 9789780937409. (2006 ISBN 9780937404676)
  6. ^ a b "Disney would acquire a visual effects firm with Lucasfilm deal". Los Angeles Times. Contributed to by Joe Flint. 31 October 2012. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2012.CS1 maint: others (link)
  7. ^ "Industrial Light & Magic: History". Lucasfilm. July 15, 1999. Archived from the original on February 16, 2011. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
  8. ^ Interviewing Return of the Jedi Lucasfilm VFX Editor Bill Kimberlin - Rule of Two, retrieved 2021-04-08
  9. ^ 1970's - School of Computer Science - Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science
  10. ^ Smith, Alvy Ray. "Pixar Founding Documents". Alvy Ray Smith Homepage. Archived from the original on April 27, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
  11. ^ a b "About OpenEXR". ILM. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  12. ^ Rubin (2006); p. 253
  13. ^ Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy (DVD). Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. 2004.
  14. ^ Lucasfilm's Industrial Light + Magic Exploring Opening New Facility in Vancouver, The Hollywood Reporter
  15. ^ "LucasArts Shut Down, Layoffs At ILM". Star Wars Prequel Appreciation Society. April 3, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013.
  16. ^ "Disney to Shut LucasArts Videogame Unit". The Wall Street Journal. April 3, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
  17. ^ Cohen, David S. (April 3, 2013). "LucasArts Shutdown Triggers Layoffs at ILM". Variety. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  18. ^ Ritman, Alex (October 16, 2014). "Lucasfilm's Industrial Light & Magic Opens London Studio". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Caranicas, Peter (November 7, 2018). "ILM Launches TV Unit to Serve Episodic and Streaming Content". Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  20. ^ "Startup Memories: The Beginning of Photoshop". Adobe Photoshop. March 7, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2020 – via YouTube.
  21. ^ Mythbusters. Season 16. Episode 10. March 2016.
  22. ^ Gaudiosi, John (25 October 2006). "Masi Oka: Coder, Actor, Hero". Wired.
  23. ^ Rinzler, J.W. (2013). The Making of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi. New York: Del Ray. pp. 240, 349. ISBN 978-0-345-51146-1.
  24. ^ Rinzler, J.W. (2013). The Making of Star Wars: Return of the Jedi. New York: Del Ray. pp. viii, 8, 42–44, 350. ISBN 978-0-345-51146-1.
  25. ^ "Captain Marvel". Industrial Light & Magic. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  26. ^ "Future VFX Movies : Sphere VFX – Visual Effects Training / Matt Leonard Resume and Photography". Retrieved 2018-11-10.
  27. ^ "The Irishman". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2021-02-15.
  28. ^
  29. ^ "China Box Office: 'Star Wars: Rise of Skywalker' Crashing, Beaten by Local Blockbusters". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2019-12-22.
  30. ^ Katz, Brandon (December 31, 2019). "Which Movies Are Most Likely to Bomb in 2020?". The New York Observer. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  31. ^ Moreau, Jordan (October 30, 2020). "'Mank' First Reactions: David Fincher Is a 'Technical Genius' With 'Exquisitely Crafted' Film". Variety. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  32. ^ "Mank (2020) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on December 8, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  33. ^ "The Midnight Sky". Industrial Light & Magic. Retrieved 2021-02-15.
  34. ^ Thompson, Anne (2020-12-07). "George Clooney's 'The Midnight Sky' Could Bring Netflix to the Oscars — Here's Why". IndieWire. Retrieved 2021-02-15.
  35. ^ "The Midnight Sky". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2021-02-15.
  36. ^ "Finding 'Ohana credits". Industrial Light and Magic website. Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  37. ^ "Coming 2 America Art of VFX". Retrieved March 14, 2021.
  38. ^ "A Quiet Place Part II ilm". Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  39. ^ "F9 | Industrial Light & Magic". Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  40. ^ "Jungle Cruise". Industrial Light & Magic. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  41. ^ "Free Guy | Industrial Light & Magic". Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  42. ^ "The Batman | Industrial Light & Magic". Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  43. ^ "Thor: Love and Thunder | Industrial Light & Magic". Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  44. ^ a b "Christopher McQuarrie on Instagram: "Alex Wuttke & Robin Saxen, VFX #MI7MI8"". Instagram. Retrieved 2021-06-05.
  45. ^ "Jurassic World: Dominion | Industrial Light & Magic". Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  46. ^ "Our Work". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  47. ^ "AGENT CARTER: Creating Movie Effects on a TV Schedule". WIRED's Design FX. Retrieved 18 February 2015.

External links

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