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Indigenous Philippine folk religions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mount Pulag is one of the many sacred grounds of adherents of the Indigenous Philippine folk religions. Ancestral spirits who guide their descendants are believed to reside throughout the mountain.

Indigenous Philippine folk religions are the distinct native religions of various ethnic groups in the Philippines, where most follow belief systems in line with animism. Generally, these Indigenous folk religions are referred to as Anito or Anitism or the more modern and less ethnocentric Dayawism, where a set of local worship traditions are devoted to the anito or diwata (and their variables), terms which translate to gods, spirits, and ancestors.[1][2][3][4] 0.23% of the population of the Philippines are affiliated with the Indigenous Philippine folk religions according to the 2020 national census,[5] an increase from the previous 0.19% from the 2010 census.[6]

The profusion of different terms arises from the fact that these Indigenous religions mostly flourished in the pre-colonial period before the Philippines had become a single nation.[7] The various peoples of the Philippines spoke different languages and thus used different terms to describe their religious beliefs. While these beliefs can be treated as separate religions, scholars have noted that they follow a "common structural framework of ideas" which can be studied together.[3] The various Indigenous Philippine religious beliefs are related to the various religions of Oceania and the maritime Southeast Asia, which draw their roots from Austronesian beliefs as those in the Philippines.[4][8]

The folklore narratives associated with these religious beliefs constitute what is now called Philippine mythology, and is an important aspect of the study of Philippine culture and Filipino psychology.

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Religious worldview

The rotation of the god Bakunawa in a calendar year, as explained in Signosan (1919). The depictions narrate the ancestral understanding towards proper creation of the physical home for a proper spiritual home. It is one of the thousands of Indigenous concepts regarding good luck, similar to some mainland Asian concepts such as feng shui.

Historian T. Valentino Sitoy, in his review of documents concerning pre-Spanish religious beliefs, notes three core characteristics which shaped the religious worldview of Filipinos throughout the archipelago before the arrival of Spanish colonizers. First, Filipinos believed in the existence of parallel spirit world, which was invisible but had an influence on the visible world. Second, Filipinos believed that there were spirits (anito) everywhere - ranging from the high creator gods to minor spirits that lived in the environment such as trees or rocks or creeks. Third, Filipinos believed that events in the human world were influenced by the actions and interventions of these spirit beings.[3]

Anito were the ancestor spirits (umalagad), or nature spirits and deities (diwata) in the Indigenous animistic religions of precolonial Philippines. Pag-anito (also mag-anito or anitohan) refers to a séance, often accompanied by other rituals or celebrations, in which a shaman (Visayan: babaylan, Tagalog: katalonan) acts as a medium to communicate directly with the spirits. When a nature spirit or deity is specifically involved, the ritual is called pagdiwata (also magdiwata or diwatahan). Anito can also refer to the act of worship or a religious sacrifice to a spirit.[4][7][9]

When Spanish missionaries arrived in the Philippines, the word "anito" came to be associated with the physical representations of spirits that featured prominently in paganito rituals. During the American rule of the Philippines (1898–1946), the meaning of the Spanish word idolo ("a thing worshiped") has been further conflated with the English word "idol", and thus anito has come to refer almost exclusively to the carved figures or statues (taotao) of ancestral and nature spirits.[7][10]

The belief in anito is sometimes referred to as anitism in scholarly literature (Spanish: anitismo or anitería).[11]

Deities and spirits

The Agusan image statue (900–950 CE) discovered in 1917 on the banks of the Wawa River near Esperanza, Agusan del Sur, Mindanao in the Philippines. Although having Hindu and Buddhist elements, locals worship it instead as a vessel for the animist gods. It is currently under the colonial possession of the American Field Museum, despite countless requests by locals to return the Image back home.
15th century Ifugao bulul with a pamahan (ceremonial bowl). Adherents of the folk religions believe that gods presiding over crops reside within their bululs. The sacred bulul in the photo is currently under the colonial possession of France's Louvre Museum.

Creator gods in Filipino religions

Many Indigenous Filipino cultures assert the existence of a high god, creator god, or sky god.[4] Among the Tagalogs, the supreme god was known as Bathala, who was additionally described as Maykapal (the all-powerful) or Lumikha (the creator). Among the Visayan peoples the creator God is referred to as Laon, meaning "the ancient one." Among the Manuvu, the highest god was called Manama. Among most of the Cordilleran peoples (with the Apayao region as an exception), the creator and supreme teacher is known as Kabuniyan.[4]

In most cases, however, these gods were considered such great beings that they were too distant for ordinary people to approach.[2] People thus tended to pay more attention to "lesser gods" or "assistant deities" who could more easily approached, and whose wills could more easily be influenced.[2][4]

"Lower gods" in Filipino religions

Lesser deities in Filipino religions generally fit into three broad categories: nature spirits residing in the environment, such as a mountain or a tree; guardian spirits in charge of specific aspects of daily life such as hunting or fishing; and deified ancestors or tribal heroes. These categories frequently overlap, with individual deities falling into two or more categories, and in some instances, deities evolve from one role to another, as when a tribal hero known for fishing becomes a guardian spirit associated with hunting.[4]

Concept of the soul

One of the many Limestone tombs of Kamhantik (890–1030 AD), where ancestors were buried and sealed by sarcophagi. Locals believe that the tombs were also created by forest deities, as per tradition. In the early 20th century, the sacred site was looted and defiled by American colonizers. All of the sarcophagi seals were stolen in the process.

Each ethnic group has their own concept and number of the soul of a being, notably humans. In most cases, a person has two or more souls while he or she is alive. The origin of a person's soul have been told through narratives concerning the Indigenous Philippine folk religions, where each ethnic religion has its unique concept on soul origin, soul composition, retaining and caring for the soul, and other matters, such as the eventual passage of the soul after the person's life is relinquished. In some cases, the souls are provided by certain deities such as the case among the Tagbanwa, while in others, the soul comes from certain special regions such as the case among the Bisaya. Some people have two souls such as the Ifugao, while others have five souls such as the Hanunoo Mangyan. In general, a person's physical and mental health contribute to the overall health of the person's souls. In some instances, if a soul is lost, a person will become sick, and if all living souls are gone, then the body eventually dies. However, there are also instances in which the body can still live despite the loss of all of its souls, such as the phenomenon called mekararuanan among the Ibanag. Overall, caring for one's self is essential to long life for the souls, which in turn provide a long life to the body.[4][12][13][14][15]

Ghosts or ancestral spirits, in a general Philippine concept, are the spirits of those who have already died. In other words, they are the souls of the dead. They are different from the souls of the living, in which, in many instances, a person has two or more living souls, depending on the ethnic group.[15] Each ethnic group in the Philippine islands has their own terms for ghosts and other types of souls.[15] Due to the sheer diversity of Indigenous words for ghosts, terms like espirito[15] and multo, both adopted from Spanish words such as muerto, have been used as all-encompassing terms for the souls or spirits of the dead in mainstream Filipino culture.[16] While ghosts in Western beliefs are generally known for their sometimes horrific nature, ghosts of the dead for the various ethnic groups in the Philippines are traditionally regarded in high esteem. These ghosts are usually referred to as ancestral spirits who can guide and protect their relatives and community,[11] though ancestral spirits can also cast harm if they are disrespected.[15] In many cases among various Filipino ethnic groups, spirits of the dead are traditionally venerated and deified in accordance to ancient belief systems originating from the Indigenous Philippine folk religions.[17]

Important symbols

Some tattoo symbols recorded in the Boxer Codex (1590). Due to Spanish colonization, racism, and the stigma it brought against tattooed indigenous peoples, the art of tattoo gradually faded in the archipelago' cultures.

Throughout various cultural phases in the archipelago, specific communities of people gradually developed or absorbed notable symbols in their belief systems. Many of these symbols or emblems are deeply rooted in indigenous epics, poems, and pre-colonial beliefs of the natives. Each ethnic group has their own set of culturally important symbols, but there are also "shared symbols" which has influenced many ethnic peoples in a particular area. Some examples of important Anitist symbols are as follow:

  • okir – a distinct mark of cultural heritage of the now-Muslim peoples in specific portions of Mindanao; the motif is notable for using only botanical symbols which enhance a variety of works of art made of wood, metal, and even stone[18]
  • vulva – an important symbol of fertility, health, and abundance of natural resources; most myths also associate the vulva as the source of life, prosperity, and power[19]
  • lingling-o – special fertility ornaments which specific symbols and shapes; notably used by the Ifugao people today, but has been historically used by various people as far as the people of southern Palawan[20]
  • moon and sun – highly worshiped symbols which are present as deities in almost all mythologies in the Philippines; portrayals of the sun and moon are notable in the indigenous tattoos of the natives, as well as their fine ornaments and garments[21]
  • human statues – there are a variety of human statues made by the natives such as bulul, taotao, and manang; all of which symbolize the deities of specific pantheons[20]
  • serpent and bird – two notable symbols of strength, power, creation, death, and life in various mythologies; for serpents, the most notable depictions include dragons, eels, and snakes, while for birds, the most notable depictions are fairy blue-birds, flowerpeckers, eagles, kingfishers, and woodpeckers[21][22]
  • phallus – a symbol associated with creation for various ethnic groups; in some accounts, the phallus was also a source of both healing and sickness, but most myths associate the phallus with fertility[23]
  • flower – many tattoos and textile motifs revolve around flower symbols; each ethnic group has their own set of preferred flowers, many of which are stated in their epics and poems[22]
  • crocodile – a symbol of strength and life after death; crocodile symbols are also used as deflectors against bad omens and evil spirits[21]
  • mountain and forest – many mountains and forests are considered as deities by some ethnic groups, while others consider them as home of the deities such as the case in Aklanon, Bicolano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, and Bagobo beliefs[24]
  • bamboo and coconut – symbols of creation, defense, sustenance, and resilience; many creation myths depict the bamboo as the source of mankind, while in others, it was utilized by mankind along with the coconut[25]
  • rice and root crop – various mythologies magnify the rice stalk, rice grains, and root crops as the primary cultural associations with agriculture; many stories have stated that such crops are gifts from the divine and have nourished the people since ancient times[26]
  • betel nut and wine – betel nuts and wines serve important ritual and camaraderie functions among many ethnic groups; these two items are notably consumed by both mortals and deities, and in some myths, they also lead to peace pacts[27][28][29][30]
  • tattoo – tattoos are important status, achievement, and beautification symbols in many ethnic beliefs in the country; designs range from crocodiles, snakes, raptors, suns, moons, flowers, rivers, and mountains, among many others[21]
  • aspin – dogs are depicted in a variety of means by many mythologies, with many being companions (not servants) of the deities, while others are independent guardians; like other beings, myths on dogs range from good to bad, but most associate them with the divinities[12][31]
  • sea, river, and boat – symbols on seas, rivers, and other water bodies are notable depictions in various mythologies in the Philippines; a stark commonality between various ethnic groups is the presence of unique boat-like technologies, ranging from huge balangays to fast karakoas.[29][32][33][34]


A Hiligaynon woman depicting a babaylan (Visayan shaman) during a festival. According to Spanish records, majority of pre-colonial shamans were women, while the other portion was composed of feminized men. Both of which were treated by the natives with high respect, equal to the datu (domain ruler). Due to Spanish colonization, many of the islands' shamans were brutalized in the name of Christianity, misogyny, and racism.[35][failed verification]

Indigenous shamans are the spiritual leaders of various ethnic peoples of the Philippine islands from the pre-colonial era to the present era. These shamans, many of whom are still extant, are almost always women or effeminate men (asog or bayok). They are believed to have spirit guides, by which they could contact and interact with the spirits and deities (anito or diwata) and the spirit world. Their primary role are as mediums during pag-anito séance rituals. There are also various subtypes of shamans specializing in the arts of healing and herbalism, divination, and sorcery. Numerous types of shamans use different kinds of items in their work, such as talismans or charms known as agimat or anting-anting, curse deflectors such as buntot pagi, and sacred oil concoctions, among many other objects. All social classes, including the shamans, respect and revere their deity statues (called larauan, bulul, manang, etc.), which represent one or more specific deities within their ethnic pantheon, which includes non-ancestor deities and deified ancestors.[36] More general terms used by Spanish sources for native shamans throughout the archipelago were derived from Tagalog and Visayan anito ("spirit"); these include terms like maganito and anitera.[37][38][39]

The "negative" counterparts of Philippine shamans are the Philippine witches, which include different kinds of people with differing occupations and cultural connotations depending on the ethnic group they are associated with. They are completely different from the Western notion of what a witch is. Examples of witches in a Philippine concept are the mannamay, mangkukulam, and mambabarang.[40] As spiritual mediums and divinators, shamans are notable for countering and preventing the curses and powers of witches, notably through the usage of special items and chants. Aside from the shamans, there are also other types of people who can counter specific magics of witches, such as the mananambal, which specializes in countering barang.[40] Shamans can also counter the curses of supernatural beings such as aswangs. However, because they are mortal humans, the physical strength of shamans are limited compared to the strength of an aswang being. This gap in physical strength is usually bridged by a dynamics of knowledge and wit.[12][41][42] Philippine witches are not necessarily evil, as they can also serve for the good of society. In cases where a crime was met by injustice as the instigator wasn't persecuted properly or was acquitted despite mounting evidences, the victims or their family and friends can ask aid from witches to bring justice by way of black magic, which differs per ethnic association. In traditional beliefs outside of mainstream Filipino movie renditions, it is believed that black magic in cases of injustice does not affect the innocent.[43][44][45][46]

Sacred grounds

A Kankanaey burial cave in Sagada with coffins stacked-up to form a sky burial within a cave. The Spanish didn't conquer the area, and thus it was spared from destruction during the brutal Spanish regime. During American colonization, the locals hid the location of the sacred site.

Ancient Filipinos and Filipinos who continue to adhere to the indigenous Philippine folk religions generally do not have so-called "temples" of worship under the context known to foreign cultures.[7][11][47] However, they do have sacred shrines, which are also called as spirit houses.[7] They can range in size from small roofed platforms, to structures similar to a small house (but with no walls), to shrines that look similar to pagodas, especially in the south where early mosques were also modeled in the same way.[48] These shrines were known in various indigenous terms, which depend on the ethnic group association.[note 1] They can also be used as places to store taotao and caskets of ancestors. Among Bicolanos, taotao were also kept inside sacred caves called moog.[7][49][50][51]

During certain ceremonies, anito are venerated through temporary altars near sacred places. These were called latangan or lantayan in Visayan, and dambana or lambana in Tagalog.[note 2] These bamboo or rattan altars are identical in basic construction throughout most of the Philippines. They were either small roofless platforms or standing poles split at the tip (similar to a tiki torch). They held halved coconut shells, metal plates, or martaban jars as receptacles for offerings. Taotao may sometimes also be placed on these platforms.[7][49]

Other types of sacred places or objects of worship of diwata include the material manifestation of their realms. The most widely venerated were balete trees (also called nonok, nunuk, nonoc, etc.) and anthills or termite mounds (punso). Other examples include mountains, waterfalls, tree groves, reefs, and caves.[7][11][52][53][54]

Many ethnic peoples in the country have a shared "mountain worship culture", where specific mountains are believed to be the abodes of certain divinities or supernatural beings and aura. Mythical places of worship are also present in some mythologies. Unfortunately, a majority of these places of worship (which includes items associated with these sites such as idol statues and ancient documents written in suyat scripts) were brutalized and destroyed by the Spanish colonialists between the 15th to 19th centuries, and were continued to be looted by American imperialists in the early 20th century. Additionally, the lands used by the native people for worship were mockingly converted by the colonialists as foundation for their foreign churches and cemeteries. Examples of indigenous places of worship that have survived colonialism are mostly natural sites such as mountains, gulfs, lakes, trees, boulders, and caves. Indigenous man-made places of worship are still present in certain communities in the provinces, notably in ancestral domains where the people continue to practice their indigenous religions.[47][50][55][56]

In traditional dambana beliefs, all deities, beings sent by the supreme deity/deities, and ancestor spirits are collectively called anitos or diwata. Supernatural non-anito beings are called lamang-lupa (beings of the land) or lamang-dagat (beings of the sea or other water bodies). The dambana is usually taken care of by the Philippine shamans, the indigenous spiritual leader of the barangay (community), and to some extent, the datu (barangay political leader) and the lakan (barangay coalition political leader) as well. Initially unadorned and revered minimally,[57] damabanas later on were filled with adornments centering on religious practices towards larauan statues due to trade and religious influences from various independent and vassal states.[58] It is adorned with statues home to anitos traditionally-called larauan, statues reserved for future burial practices modernly-called likha, scrolls or documents with suyat baybayin calligraphy,[59] and other objects sacred to dambana practices such as lambanog (distilled coconut wine), tuba (undistilled coconut wine), bulaklak or flowers (like sampaguita, santan, gumamela, tayabak, and native orchids), palay (unhusked rice), bigas (husked rice), shells, pearls, jewels, beads, native crafts such as banga (pottery),[60] native swords and bladed weapons (such as kampilan, dahong palay, bolo, and panabas), bodily accessories (like singsing or rings, kwintas or necklaces, and hikaw or earrings), war shields (such as kalasag), enchanted masks,[61] battle weapons used in pananandata or kali, charms called agimat or anting-anting,[62] curse deflectors such as buntot pagi, native garments and embroideries, food, and gold in the form of adornments (gold belts, necklace, wrist rings, and feet rings) and barter money (piloncitos and gold rings).[63][64] Animal statues, notably native dogs, guard a dambana structure along with engravings and calligraphy portraying protections and the anitos.[65][66]

Status and adherence

Aklanon participants at the vibrant Ati-Atihan festival, which honors the Ati people and the Aklanon since around 1200 AD through a native thanksgiving tradition based on the indigenous faith. Spanish colonizers, in an attempt to erase the people's indigenous folk religion, used their political power and Catholic idols to replace the festival's original roster of honorees.

In 2014, the international astronomical monitoring agency Minor Planet Center (MPC) named Asteroid 1982 XB 3757 Anagolay, after the Tagalog goddess of lost things, Anagolay.[67] In 2019, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) named star Wasp 34 as Aman Sinaya, the Tagalog deity of the ocean, while planet Wasp 34-b was named as Haik, a Tagalog sea god.[68] On the same year, the world's largest caldera was named as the Apolaki Caldera, after the god of sun in various indigenous religions in Luzon.[69] In 2021, three bridges in Albay were named after three heroes from the Bicolano religious epic, Ibalon, namely Baltog, Handyong, and Bantog.[70]

In accordance to the National Cultural Heritage Act, as enacted in 2010, the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property (PReCUP) was established as the national registry of the Philippine Government used to consolidate in one record all cultural property that are deemed important to the cultural heritage, tangible and intangible, of the Philippines. The registry safeguards a variety of Philippine heritage elements, including oral literature, music, dances, ethnographic materials, and sacred grounds, among many others.[71] The National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Law, as enacted in 1992 and expanded in 2018, also protects certain Anitist sacred grounds in the country.[72]

The indigenous Philippine folk religions were widely spread in the archipelago, prior to the arrival of Abrahamic religions. The majority of the people, however, had converted to Christianity due to Spanish colonization from the 16th to the late 19th century, which continued through the 20th century during and after American colonization.[11][54] During the Philippine Revolution, there were proposals to revive the indigenous Philippine folk religions and make them the national religion, but the proposal did not prosper, as the focus at the time was the war against American colonizers.[73]

The Philippine Statistics Authority notes in the 2020 national census, that 0.23% of the Filipino national population are affiliated with indigenous Philippine folk religions, which they wrote as "tribal religions" in their census.[5] This is an increase from the previous 2010 census which recorded 0.19%.[6] Despite the current number of adherents, many traditions from indigenous Philippine folk religions have been integrated into the local practice of Catholicism and Islam, resulting in "Folk Catholicism"[1][2] and "Folk Islam".[7] The continued conversion of adherents of the indigenous Philippine folk religions into Abrahamic religions by missionaries is a notable concern, as certain practices and indigenous knowledge continue to be lost because of the conversions.[74]

See also


  1. ^ Known as magdantang in Visayan and ulango or simbahan in Tagalog. Among the Itneg, shrines are known tangpap, pangkew, or alalot (for various small roofed altars); and balaua or kalangan (for larger structures). In Mindanao, shrines are known among the Subanen as maligai ; among the Teduray as tenin (only entered by shamans); and among the Bagobo as buis (for those built near roads and villages) and parabunnian (for those built near rice fields).(Kroeber, 1918)
  2. ^ Also saloko or palaan (Itneg); sakolong (Bontoc); salagnat (Bicolano); sirayangsang (Tagbanwa); ranga (Teduray); and tambara, tigyama, or balekat (Bagobo)


  1. ^ a b Almocera, Ruel A., (2005) Popular Filipino Spiritual Beliefs with a proposed Theological Response. in Doing Theology in the Philippines. Suk, John., Ed. Mandaluyong: OMF Literature Inc. Pp 78-98
  2. ^ a b c d Maggay, Melba Padilla (1999). Filipino Religious Consciousness. Quezon City: Institute for Studies in Asian Church and Culture.
  3. ^ a b c Sitoy, T. Valentino Jr. (1985). A history of Christianity in the Philippines Volume 1: The Initial Encounter. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 9711002558.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Demetrio, Francisco R.; Cordero-Fernando, Gilda; Nakpil-Zialcita, Roberto B.; Feleo, Fernando (1991). The Soul Book: Introduction to Philippine Pagan Religion. GCF Books, Quezon City. ASIN B007FR4S8G.
  5. ^ a b "Religious Affiliation in the Philippines (2020 Census of Population and Housing)". Philippines in Figures. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. February 22, 2023. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  6. ^ a b "Table 1.10; Household Population by Religious Affiliation and by Sex; 2010" (PDF). 2015 Philippine Statistical Yearbook. East Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority: 1–30. October 2015. ISSN 0118-1564. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4.
  8. ^ Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-448-5.
  9. ^ Antonio Sánchez de la Rosa (1895). Diccionario Hispano-Bisaya para las provincias de Samar y Leyte, Volumes 1-2. Tipo-Litografia de Chofre y Comp. p. 414.
  10. ^ Frederic H. Sawyer (1900). The Inhabitants of the Philippines. Charles Scribner's Sons.
  11. ^ a b c d e Hislop, Stephen K. (1971). "Anitism: a survey of religious beliefs native to the Philippines" (PDF). Asian Studies. 9 (2): 144–156. ISSN 0004-4679.
  12. ^ a b c Gaverza, Jean Karl M. (January 2014). The Myths of the Philippines (Undergraduate Thesis). Quezon City: University of the Philippines Diliman – via
  13. ^ Celino, Sonia M. (1990). Death and Burial Rituals and Other Practices and Beliefs of the Cordillerans (Dissertation) (Thesis). University of Baguio.
  14. ^ Gatan, R. M. (1981). Ibanag Indigenous Religious Beliefs . Manila: Centro Escolar University Research and Development Center.
  15. ^ a b c d e Mercado, Leonardo N. (1991). "Soul and Spirit in Filipino Thought". Philippine Studies. 39 (3 (Third Quarter 1991)). Ateneo de Manila University: 287–302. ISSN 0031-7837. JSTOR 42633258.
  16. ^ Vicerra, Paolo Miguel; Javier, Jem R. (January 1, 2013). "Tabi-Tabi Po: Situating The Narrative of Supernatural in the Context of the Philippines Community Development" (PDF). Manusya: Journal of Humanities. 16 (2): 1–13. doi:10.1163/26659077-01602001. ISSN 0859-9920.
  17. ^ McCoy, A. W. (1982). Baylan: Animist Religion and Philippine Peasant Ideology. University of San Carlos Publications.
  18. ^ Pangcoga, Jehad Zacaria (March 18, 2014). "The Okir (Motif): An Art of Marano Depicting Their Culture and Society".
  19. ^ "Alab Village: Mysteriously Ancient Destination in Bontoc". Choose Philippines. July 8, 2021.
  20. ^ a b "The Hidden Myth Behind the Symbolism of the Anting-Anting". May 27, 2018.
  21. ^ a b c d "The Beautiful History and Symbolism of Philippine Tattoo Culture". May 4, 2017.
  22. ^ a b "PANG-O-TÚB: The Traditional Philippine Tattooing You Haven't Heard About". June 21, 2019.
  23. ^ "CULTURE & TRADITION: Phalluses and Phallic Symbols of the Philippines". December 5, 2018.
  24. ^ "PHILIPPINE MYTHOLOGY: Similarities and Parallels to World Mythologies". April 9, 2019.
  25. ^ "The Egg Motif in Philippine Creation Myths". February 22, 2019.
  26. ^ "The Theme of Resurrection in Philippine Epic Tales". May 23, 2019.
  27. ^ "6 Guidelines for Becoming a Filipino Shaman". December 4, 2016.
  28. ^ "Notrs on the Medical Practices of the Visayans, 1908". June 29, 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Ancient Philippines: Rituals for Land, Weather and Sailing". November 30, 2017.
  30. ^ Nalangan, Gladys P. "Pagmamaman: A World Culture Experience and Dumagat Lifestyle" – via
  31. ^ "Ifigao Divinities: Philippine Mythology & Beliefs". November 28, 2018.
  32. ^ "VISAYAN Class Structure in the Sixteenth Century Philippines". June 16, 2018.
  33. ^ "Mermaids, Mermen and Sirens – Sea Spirits that Protect and Destruct".
  34. ^ "Lighting The Forge: Examining the Panday from the Pre-Colonial Era". January 11, 2018.
  35. ^ Limos, Mario Alvaro (March 18, 2019). "The Fall of the Babaylan".
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