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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indiana Jones is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. In 1984, a prequel, The Temple of Doom, was released, and in 1989, a sequel, The Last Crusade. A fourth film followed in 2008, titled The Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. A fifth film is in production and is scheduled to be released in 2023. The series was created by George Lucas and stars Harrison Ford as Indiana Jones.

In 1992, the franchise expanded to a television series with The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, portraying the character in his childhood and youth, and including adventures with his father. Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics gained the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, as well as many novels with original adventures, including a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books, and a series set during the character's childhood inspired by the television show. Numerous Indiana Jones video games have been released since 1982.


During 1973, George Lucas wrote The Adventures of Indiana Smith.[1] Like Star Wars, it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the movie serials of the 1930s and 1940s.[2] Lucas discussed the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with him for several weeks and decided upon the Ark of the Covenant as the MacGuffin. The project was stalled when Clint Eastwood hired Kaufman to write The Outlaw Josey Wales.[3] In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to escape the worldwide success of Star Wars. His friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, on vacation from work on Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a James Bond film, but Lucas told him of an idea "better than James Bond", outlining the plot of Raiders of the Lost Ark. Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the hardware",[4] and had the character's surname changed to Jones.[2] Spielberg and Lucas made a deal with Paramount Pictures for five Indiana Jones films.[4]

Spielberg and Lucas aimed to make Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom much darker, because of their personal moods following their respective breakups and divorces. Lucas made the film a prequel as he did not want the Nazis to be the villains again. He had ideas regarding the Monkey King and a haunted castle, but eventually created the Sankara Stones, that would be used in the film.[5] He hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script as he knew of their interest in Indian culture.[6] The major scenes that were dropped from Raiders of the Lost Ark were included in this film: an escape using a giant rolling gong as a shield, a fall out of a plane in a raft, and a mine cart chase.[2] For the third film, Spielberg revisited the Monkey King and haunted castle concepts, before Lucas suggested the Holy Grail. Spielberg had previously rejected this as too ethereal, but then devised a father-son story and decided that "The Grail that everybody seeks could be a metaphor for a son seeking reconciliation with a father and a father seeking reconciliation with a son."[7]

Following the 1989 release of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas let the series end as he felt he could not think of a good plot device to drive the next installment, and chose instead to produce The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, which explored the character in his early years. Ford played Indiana in one episode, narrating his adventures in 1920 Chicago. When Lucas shot Ford's role in December 1992, he realized that the scene opened up the possibility of a film with an older Indiana set in the 1950s. The film could reflect a science fiction 1950s B-movie, with aliens as the plot device.[8] Ford disliked the new angle, telling Lucas: "No way am I being in a Steven Spielberg movie like that."[9] Spielberg himself, who depicted aliens in Close Encounters of the Third Kind and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, resisted it. Lucas devised a story, which Jeb Stuart turned into a script from October 1993 to May 1994.[8] Lucas wanted Indiana to get married, which would allow Henry Jones Sr. to return, expressing concern over whether his son is happy with what he has accomplished. After learning that Joseph Stalin was interested in psychic warfare, Lucas decided to have Russians as the villains and the aliens to have psychic powers.[10] Following Stuart's next draft, Lucas hired Last Crusade writer Jeffrey Boam to write the next three versions, the last of which was completed in March 1996. Three months later, Independence Day was released, and Spielberg told Lucas he would not make another alien invasion film (or at least not until War of the Worlds in 2005). Lucas decided to focus on the Star Wars prequels instead.[8]

In 2000, Spielberg's son asked when the next Indiana Jones film would be released, which made him interested in reviving the project.[11] The same year, Ford, Lucas, Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy met during the American Film Institute's tribute to Ford, and decided they wanted to enjoy the experience of making an Indiana Jones film again. Spielberg also found returning to the series a respite from his many dark films during this period.[12] Spielberg and Lucas discussed the central idea of a B-movie involving aliens, and Lucas suggested using crystal skulls to ground the idea. Lucas found these artifacts as fascinating as the Ark,[13] and had intended to feature them for a Young Indiana Jones episode before the show's cancellation.[8] M. Night Shyamalan was hired to write for an intended 2002 shoot,[11] but he was overwhelmed by the task, and claimed it was difficult to get Ford, Spielberg, and Lucas to focus.[14] Stephen Gaghan and Tom Stoppard were also approached.[11]

Frank Darabont, who wrote various Young Indiana Jones episodes, was hired to write in May 2002.[15] His script, titled Indiana Jones and the City of Gods,[8] was set in the 1950s, with ex-Nazis pursuing Jones.[16] Spielberg conceived the idea because of real-life figures such as Juan Perón in Argentina, who allegedly protected Nazi war criminals.[8] Darabont claimed Spielberg loved the script, but Lucas had issues with it, and decided to take over writing himself.[8] Lucas and Spielberg acknowledged that the 1950s setting could not ignore the Cold War, and the Russians were more plausible villains. Spielberg decided he could not satirize the Nazis after directing Schindler's List,[17] while Ford felt "We plum[b] wore the Nazis out."[9] Darabont's main contribution was reintroducing Marion Ravenwood as Indiana's love interest, but he gave them a 13-year-old daughter, which Spielberg decided was too similar to The Lost World: Jurassic Park.[8]

Jeff Nathanson met with Spielberg and Lucas in August 2004, and turned in the next drafts in October and November 2005, titled The Atomic Ants. David Koepp continued on from there, giving his script the subtitle Destroyer of Worlds,[8] based on the Robert Oppenheimer quote. It was changed to Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, as Spielberg found this a more inviting title which actually named the plot device.[18] Koepp wanted to depict the character of Mutt as a nerd, but Lucas refused, explaining he had to resemble Marlon Brando in The Wild One; "he needs to be what Indiana Jones's father thought of [him] – the curse returns in the form of his own son – he's everything a father can't stand".[8] Koepp collaborated with Lawrence Kasdan on the film's "love dialogue".[19]

The Walt Disney Company has owned the Indiana Jones intellectual property since its acquisition of Lucasfilm, the series' production company, in 2012, when Lucas sold it for $4 billion.[20] Walt Disney Studios owns the distribution and marketing rights to future Indiana Jones films since 2013, with Paramount retaining the distribution rights to the first four films and receiving "financial participation" from any additional films.[21][22][23][24]


Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
Raiders of the Lost Ark June 12, 1981 (1981-06-12) Steven Spielberg Lawrence Kasdan George Lucas and Philip Kaufman Frank Marshall
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom May 23, 1984 (1984-05-23) Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz George Lucas Robert Watts
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade May 24, 1989 (1989-05-24) Jeffrey Boam George Lucas and Menno Meyjes
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull May 22, 2008 (2008-05-22) David Koepp George Lucas and Jeff Nathanson Frank Marshall
Untitled fifth Indiana Jones film June 30, 2023 (2023-06-30) James Mangold James Mangold, Jez Butterworth and John-Henry Butterworth[25] Frank Marshall, Kathleen Kennedy, Simon Emanuel, and Steven Spielberg[26]

Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)

The first film is set in 1936. Indiana Jones (Harrison Ford) is hired by government agents to locate the Ark of the Covenant, the gold plated chest containing the stone tablets Moses used to inscribe the Ten Commandments before the Nazi Germans steal it for themselves. The Nazis have teams searching for religious artefacts, including the Ark, which is rumored to make an army that carries the Ark before it invincible.[27] The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's arch-rival and French archaeologist René Belloq (Paul Freeman). With the help of his former lover and tough bar owner Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen) and his excavator friend Sallah (John Rhys-Davies), Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt. The Nazis steal the Ark and capture Indiana and Marion. Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, all they find inside is sand. Suddenly, spirits come out of the Ark and the Nazis are all killed by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark to the United States, where it is stored in a secret government warehouse.

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)

The second film is a prequel set in 1935, a year before Raiders of the Lost Ark. Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters led by Lao Che with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw) and his twelve-year-old sidekick Short Round (Jonathan Ke Quan). The trio crash-land in India, where they come across a Punjabi village whose children have been kidnapped. The Thuggee cult led by Mola Ram (Amrish Puri) has also taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature. The film has been noted as an outlier in the franchise, as it does not feature Indy's university or any antagonistic political entity, and is less focused on archaeology, being presented as a dark movie with gross-out elements, human sacrifice and torture.

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)

The third film is set in 1938. Indiana and his friend Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan (Julian Glover) to find the Holy Grail. They are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider (Alison Doody), following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry (Sean Connery) left off before he disappeared. It transpires that Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry Jones in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, and manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other is more important than finding the relic.

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)

The fourth film is set in 1957, nineteen years after The Last Crusade. Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust into a new adventure. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Irina Spalko (Cate Blanchett) for a crystal skull. His journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut, Peru, and the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Indiana is faced with betrayal by one of his best friends, Mac (Ray Winstone), is introduced to a greaser named Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf), who turns out to be his son (his real name revealed to be Henry Jones III), and is reunited with, and eventually marries, Marion Ravenwood, who was the lead female character introduced in the first movie.

Untitled fifth Indiana Jones film (2023)

A fifth film is scheduled for release on June 30, 2023.[28] The film is being directed by James Mangold, who wrote the script with Jez and John-Henry Butterworth.[25][29] Spielberg was initially set to direct the film, before passing it to Mangold. Spielberg instead serves as a producer, along with Kennedy and Marshall.[30] Ford reprises the title role, and new cast members include Phoebe Waller-Bridge, Mads Mikkelsen, Thomas Kretschmann, Boyd Holbrook, Shaunette Renée Wilson, Toby Jones and Antonio Banderas.[31][32] Development of the film began in 2008, but the project stalled for years.[33][34] Filming eventually began in the United Kingdom in June 2021[35][36] and wrapped in February 2022.[37]


SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast airedNetwork
16March 4, 1992 (1992-03-04)April 8, 1992 (1992-04-08)ABC
222September 21, 1992 (1992-09-21)July 24, 1993 (1993-07-24)
TV films4October 15, 1994 (1994-10-15)June 16, 1996 (1996-06-16)The Family Channel

A television series titled The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–1996) featured three incarnations of the character: Sean Patrick Flanery played Indiana aged 16–21; Corey Carrier played an 8- to 10-year-old version in several episodes; and George Hall narrated the show as the 93-year-old Jones, who bookended each episode. Lucas began developing the series in 1990 as "edutainment" that would be more cerebral than the films. The show was his first collaboration with producer Rick McCallum, and he wrote the stories for each episode. Writers and directors on the show included Carrie Fisher, Frank Darabont, Vic Armstrong, Ben Burtt, Terry Jones, Nicolas Roeg, Mike Newell and Joe Johnston. In the Chronicles, Jones crosses paths with many historical figures, played by stars such as Daniel Craig, Christopher Lee, Bob Peck, Jeffrey Wright, Marc Warren, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Elizabeth Hurley, Anne Heche, Vanessa Redgrave, Julian Fellowes, Timothy Spall and Harrison Ford as a 50-year-old Indiana in one episode (taking the usual place of Hall).[38][39][40]

The show was filmed in over 25 countries for over 150 weeks. Season one was shot from March 1991 to March 1992; the second season began two months later and wrapped in April 1993.[41] The ABC network was unsure of Lucas's cerebral approach, and attempted to advertise the series as an action-adventure like the films. Ratings were good if unspectacular, and ABC was nervous enough to put the show on hiatus after six episodes until September 1992.[38] With only four episodes left of the second season to air, ABC eventually sold the show to the Family Channel, who changed the format from 50-minute episodes to 90-minute TV movies. Filming for the final four episodes took place from January 1994 to May 1996.[41] The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles received a mixed reception from fans, although it won 10 Emmy Awards out of 23 nominations, as well as a 1994 Golden Globe nomination for Best Drama series. It was also an experimentation ground in digital effects for Lucasfilm.[38]

The original broadcast versions of some episodes were briefly released in Japan on laserdisc in 1993 and on VHS in 1994. However, Lucas drastically reedited and restructured the show for its worldwide home video release. Major structural changes were made, including the complete removal of the 'bookend' sections narrated by the 93-year-old Jones, and the editing of all the one-hour episodes together into two-hour episodes. Approximately half of the series was released on VHS in various markets around the world in 1999, but the entire series was not released until its DVD debut, in a series of three boxsets released from 2007 to 2008, to tie in with the theatrical debut of Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Among other extras, the DVDs include approximately 100 new historical featurettes.

Cast and crew


List indicator(s)

This section shows characters who will appear or have appeared in in the Indiana Jones film franchise.

  • An empty, dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film, or that the character's official presence has not yet been confirmed.
  •  P indicates an appearance in onscreen photographs.
Characters Films Television series
Raiders of the Lost Ark Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Untitled fifth Indiana Jones film The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
Season 1 Season 2
Dr. Henry "Indiana" Jones, Jr. Harrison Ford Harrison Ford Harrison Ford Sean Patrick Flanery (age 16–21)
Corey Carrier (age 8–10)
George Hall (age 93)
River Phoenix
(age 13)[42]
Boutalat (age 3) Harrison Ford (age 50)
Neil Boulane (infant)
Marcus Brody Denholm Elliott Denholm Elliott Denholm ElliottP
Sallah John Rhys-Davies John Rhys-Davies John Rhys-DaviesP
Marion Ravenwood Karen Allen Karen Allen
René Belloq Paul Freeman[43]
Major Arnold Toht Ronald Lacey[44]
Colonel Dietrich Wolf Kahler[45]
Wilhelmina "Willie" Scott Kate Capshaw Kate CapshawP
Short Round Ke Huy Quan[46]
Mola Ram Amrish Puri[47]
Maharaja Zalim Singh Raj Singh
Chattar Lal Roshan Seth
Professor Henry Jones, Sr. Sean Connery Sean ConneryP Lloyd Owen
Alex Hyde-White
Walter Donovan Julian Glover[49]
Dr. Elsa Schneider Alison Doody[50]
Colonel Vogel Michael Byrne[51]
Kazim Kevork Malikyan
Herman J. J. Hardy
Henry "Mutt" Jones III Shia LaBeouf
Irina Spalko Cate Blanchett
George "Mac" Michale Ray Winstone
Professor Harold Oxley John Hurt
Colonel Dovchenko Igor Jijikine
Dean Charles Stanforth Jim Broadbent
TBA Phoebe Waller-Bridge
TBA Mads Mikkelsen
TBA Thomas Kretschmann
TBA Boyd Holbrook
TBA Shaunette Renée Wilson
TBA Toby Jones
TBA Antonio Banderas
Anna Jones Ruth De Sosa
Helen Seymour Margaret Tyzack
Remy Baudouin Ronny Coutteure
Thomas Edward
"T. E." Lawrence
Joseph A. Bennett Douglas Henshall

Additional crew and production details

Film Executive producer(s) Composer Editor Cinematographer Production
Raiders of the Lost Ark George Lucas
Howard Kazanjian
John Williams Michael Kahn Douglas Slocombe Lucasfilm Ltd. Paramount Pictures
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom George Lucas
Frank Marshall
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull George Lucas
Kathleen Kennedy
Janusz Kamiński
Untitled fifth film TBA TBA Phedon Papamichael Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures


Box office performance

Film Original release date Total box office gross Box office ranking Budget Ref
North America Other
Worldwide All time
North America
All time
Raiders of the Lost Ark June 12, 1981 $248,159,971 $141,766,000 $389,925,971 #85 (#20(A)) #237 $18 million [52]
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom May 23, 1984 $179,870,271 $153,237,000 $333,107,271 #187 (#86(A)) #321 $28 million [53]
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade May 24, 1989 $197,171,806 $277,000,000 $474,171,806 #153 (#99(A)) #174 $48 million [54]
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull May 22, 2008 $317,101,119 $473,552,823 $790,653,942 #76 (#131(A)) #93 $185 million [55]
Total $942,303,167 $1,045,555,823 $1,987,858,990 $279 million [56]
List indicator(s)
  • (A) indicates the adjusted totals based on current ticket prices (calculated by Box Office Mojo).

Critical and public response

Film Critical Public
Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore[57]
Raiders of the Lost Ark 95% (84 reviews)[58] 85 (16 reviews)[59]
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 84% (69 reviews)[60] 57 (14 reviews)[61]
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade 88% (73 reviews)[62] 65 (14 reviews)[63] A
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull 78% (277 reviews)[64] 65 (40 reviews)[65] B


The series has been nominated for 13 Academy Awards, of which they have won 6. Raiders of the Lost Ark was also given a Special Achievement Award for Best Sound Effects Editing.

Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)

Award Category Recipient/Nominee Result
Academy Awards Best Picture Frank Marshall Nominated
Best Director Steven Spielberg Nominated
Best Cinematography Douglas Slocombe Nominated
Best Film Editing Michael Kahn Won
Best Original Score John Williams Nominated
Best Production Design Norman Reynolds, Leslie Dilley, Michael D. Ford Won
Best Sound Editing Ben Burtt, Richard L. Anderson Won
Best Sound Mixing Bill Varney, Steve Maslow, Gregg Landaker, Roy Charman Won
Best Visual Effects Richard Edlund, Kit West, Bruce Nicholson, Joe Johnston Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film Frank Marshall Nominated
Best Actor in a Supporting Role Denholm Elliott Nominated
Best Cinematography Douglas Slocombe Nominated
Best Editing Michael Kahn Nominated
Best Original Music John Williams Nominated
Best Production Design Norman Reynolds Won
Best Sound Roy Charman, Ben Burtt, Bill Varney Nominated
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directing – Feature Film Steven Spielberg Nominated
Golden Globe Awards Best Director Steven Spielberg Nominated
Saturn Awards Best Fantasy Film Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark Won
Best Director Steven Spielberg Won
Best Actor Harrison Ford Won
Best Actress Karen Allen Won
Best Supporting Actor Paul Freeman Nominated
Best Writing Lawrence Kasdan Won
Best Costume Design Deborah Nadoolman Landis Nominated
Best Music John Williams Won
Best Special Effects Richard Edlund Won
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Original Screenplay Lawrence Kasdan, George Lucas, Philip Kaufman Nominated

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)

Award Category Recipient/Nominee Result
Academy Awards Best Original Score John Williams Nominated
Best Visual Effects Dennis Muren, Michael J. McAlister, Lorne Peterson, George Gibbs Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Cinematography Douglas Slocombe Nominated
Best Editing Michael Kahn Nominated
Best Sound Ben Burtt, Simon Kaye, Laurel Ladevich Nominated
Best Special Visual Effects Dennis Muren, George Gibbs, Michael J. McAlister, Lorne Peterson Won
Saturn Awards Best Fantasy Film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Nominated
Best Director Steven Spielberg Nominated
Best Actor Harrison Ford Nominated
Best Performance by a Younger Actor Jonathan Ke Quan Nominated
Best Writing Willard Huyck, Gloria Katz Nominated
Best Costume Design Anthony Powell Nominated
Best Make-up Tom Smith Nominated

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)

Award Category Recipient/Nominee Result
Academy Awards Best Original Score John Williams Nominated
Best Sound Editing Richard Hymns, Ben Burtt Won
Best Sound Mixing Ben Burtt, Gary Summers, Shawn Murphy, Tony Dawe Nominated
British Academy Film Awards Best Actor in a Supporting Role Sean Connery Nominated
Best Sound Richard Hymns, Tony Dawe, Ben Burtt, Gary Summers, Shawn Murphy Nominated
Best Special Visual Effects George Gibbs, Michael J. McAlister, Mark Sullivan, John Ellis Nominated
Saturn Awards Best Fantasy Film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Nominated
Best Actor Harrison Ford Nominated
Best Writing Jeffrey Boam Nominated
Best Costume Design Anthony Powell, Joanna Johnston Nominated

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008)

Award Category Recipient/Nominee Result
British Academy Film Awards Best Special Visual Effects Pablo Helman, Marshall Krasser, Steve Rawlins Nominated
Critics' Choice Awards Best Action Movie Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Nominated
Golden Raspberry Awards Worst Prequel, Remake, Rip-off or Sequel Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Won
MTV Movie Awards Best Summer Movie So Far Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Nominated
Saturn Awards Best Science Fiction Film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Nominated
Best Director Steven Spielberg Nominated
Best Actor Harrison Ford Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Shia LaBeouf Nominated
Best Costume Design Mary Zophres Won
Best Special Effects Pablo Helman, Daniel Sudick Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Stunt Ensemble in a Motion Picture Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Nominated
Visual Effects Society Awards Best Single Visual Effect of the Year Stephanie Hornish, Pablo Helman, Jeff White, Craig Hammack Nominated
Outstanding Matte Paintings in a Feature Motion Picture Richard Bluff, Barry Williams, Yannick Dusseault, Yusei Uesugi Nominated
Outstanding Models and Miniatures in a Feature Motion Picture David Fogler, Craig Hammack, Brian Gernand, Geoff Herson Nominated
Outstanding Created Environment in a Feature Motion Picture Michael Halsted, David Fogler, Steve Walton, David Weitzberg Nominated

Other media


A novelization of Raiders of the Lost Ark was written by Campbell Black and published by Ballantine Books in April 1981.[66] It was followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, written by James Kahn and published by Ballantine in May 1984.[67] Finally, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade was published in May 1989, and was the first Indiana Jones book by Rob MacGregor.[68] A fan of the first two films, MacGregor admitted that writing the novelization made him "somewhat disappointed" with the third film, as he had expanded the script whereas Steven Spielberg had cut scenes to tighten the story.[69]

George Lucas asked MacGregor to continue writing original novels for Bantam Books. These were geared toward an adult or young adult audience, and were prequels set in the 1920s or early 1930s after Jones graduates from college. Of the film characters, Lucas only permitted Marcus Brody to appear.[69] He asked MacGregor to base the books on real myths, but except for the deletion of a sex scene, the writer was given total creative freedom. His six books – Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi, Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants, Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils, Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge, Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy, and Indiana Jones and the Interior World – were published from February 1991 to November 1992. The Genesis Deluge, published in February 1992 and featuring Noah's Ark, was the best-selling novel; MacGregor felt this was because it "had a strong following among religious-oriented people [...] because they tend to take the Noah's Ark story to heart and think of it as history and archaeological fact, rather than myth." MacGregor's favorite book was The Seven Veils,[69] which featured real-life explorer Percy Fawcett and the death of Indiana's wife, Deirdre Campbell.[70][71][72][73][74][75]

Martin Caidin wrote the next two novels in Bantam's series, Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates and Indiana Jones and the White Witch. These feature Gale Parker as Indiana's sidekick; they introduced afterwords to the series, regarding each novel's historical context.[76][77]

Caidin became ill, so Max McCoy took over in 1995 and wrote the final four novels: Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone, Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs, Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth, and Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx. McCoy set his books closer in time to the events of Raiders of the Lost Ark, which led to his characterizing Indiana as "a bit darker". The prolog of his first book featured a crystal skull,[78] and this became a recurring story, concluding when Jones gives it up in the final novel. Lucas's involvement with McCoy's novels was limited, although LucasFilm censored sexual or outlandish elements in order to make the books appeal to younger readers;[79] they also rejected the theme of time travel in the final book.[78] Sallah, Lao Che, Rene Belloq and the Nazis made appearances, and McCoy also pitted Jones against Benito Mussolini's fascists and the Japanese. Jones also has a doomed romance with Alecia Dunstin, a librarian at the British Museum.[80][81][82][83] A novel involving the Spear of Destiny was dropped, because Dark Horse Comics was developing the idea and later DC Comics developed the idea.[78]

The books were only published in paperback, as the series editor felt readers would not be prepared to pay the hardback price for an adventure novel.[84]

In February 2008, the novelizations of the first three films were published in one edition;[85] James Rollins' Kingdom of the Crystal Skull novelization arrived the following May.[86] Children's novelizations of all four films were published by Scholastic in 2008.[87]

MacGregor was said to be writing new books for Ballantine for early 2009, but none have been published.[88]

A new adult adventure, Indiana Jones and the Army of the Dead by Steve Perry, was released in September 2009.[89]

A novel based on the video game Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings, written by MacGregor to coincide with the release of the game, was canceled due to problems around the game's production.[90]

Additionally, German author Wolfgang Hohlbein wrote eight Indiana Jones novels in the early 1990s, which were never translated to English.

List of novels

All of the following were published by Bantam Books, with the exception of Army of the Dead, which was published by Del Rey.

Indiana Jones novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein:

  • Indiana Jones und das Schiff der Götter (1990) – (Indiana Jones and the Longship of the Gods)
  • Indiana Jones und die Gefiederte Schlange (1990) – (Indiana Jones and the Feathered Snake)
  • Indiana Jones und das Gold von El Dorado (1991) – (Indiana Jones and the Gold of El Dorado)
  • Indiana Jones und das verschwundene Volk (1991) – (Indiana Jones and the Lost People)
  • Indiana Jones und das Schwert des Dschingis Khan (1991) – (Indiana Jones and the Sword of Genghis Khan)
  • Indiana Jones und das Geheimnis der Osterinseln (1992) – (Indiana Jones and the Secret of Easter Island)
  • Indiana Jones und das Labyrinth des Horus (1993) – (Indiana Jones and the Labyrinth of Horus)
  • Indiana Jones und das Erbe von Avalon (1994) – (Indiana Jones and the Legacy of Avalon)

Children's novels

Find Your Fate

Ballantine Books published a number of Indiana Jones books in the Find Your Fate line, written by various authors. These books were similar to the Choose Your Own Adventure series, allowing the reader to select from options that change the outcome of the story. Indiana Jones books comprised 11 of the 17 releases in the line, which was initially titled Find Your Fate Adventure.[91]

  • Indiana Jones and the Curse of Horror Island (June 1984) – R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Lost Treasure of Sheba (June 1984) – Rose Estes
  • Indiana Jones and the Giants of the Silver Tower (Aug 1984) – R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Fates (Aug 1984) – Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Cup of the Vampire (Oct 1984) – Andy Helfer
  • Indiana Jones and the Legion of Death (Dec 1984) – Richard Wenk
  • Indiana Jones and the Cult of the Mummy's Crypt (Feb 1985) – R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Dragon of Vengeance (Apr 1985) – Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Gold of Genghis Khan (May 1985) – Ellen Weiss
  • Indiana Jones and the Ape Slaves of Howling Island (1986) – R. L. Stine
  • Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Elephant (Feb 1987) – Megan Stine and H. William Stine


In 2008, Scholastic released a series of middle-grade novels based on the stories and screenplays. Each book of this edition included several pages of color stills from filming.

  • Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark – Ryder Windham
  • Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom – Suzanne Weyn
  • Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade – Ryder Windham

In May 2009, two new middle-grade books were to begin a new series of Untold Adventures, though no further books appeared.[92]

  • Indiana Jones and the Pyramid of the Sorcerer – Ryder Windham
  • Indiana Jones and the Mystery of Mount SinaiJ.W. Rinzler

Young Indiana Jones

In the early 1990s, different book series featured childhood and young adult adventures of Indiana Jones in the early decades of the century. Not all were directly tied to the Young Indiana Jones Chronicles TV series.

Random House

The following books are set in Indy's mid- to late-teen years.

  • Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure (1990) – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror (1990) – by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death (1990) – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City (1990) – by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril (1991) – by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge (1991) – by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders (1991) – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of Ruby Cross – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Titanic Adventure (1993) – by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango (1993) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld (1994) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire (1994) – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates' Loot (1994) – by J.N. Fox
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger (1995) – by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Madman (unpublished) – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ring of Power (unpublished) – Megan Stine

Random House

These books were novelizations of episodes of the TV series. Some feature Indy around age 8; others have him age 16–18.

  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Mummy's Curse – by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Field of Death – by Les Martin
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Safari Sleuth – by A.L. Singer
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Secret Peace – by William McCay
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Trek of Doom – by Les Martin
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Revolution! – by Gavin Scott
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Race to Danger – by Stephanie Calmenson
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Prisoner of War – by Sam Mclean

Bantam Books

These are labeled Choose Your Own Adventure books. Like the TV series, some feature Indy around age 8, others age 16–18.

The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles:

  • The Valley of the Kings – by Richard Brightfield
  • South of the Border – by Richard Brightfield
  • Revolution in Russia – by Richard Brightfield
  • Masters of the Louvre – by Richard Brightfield
  • African Safari – by Richard Brightfield
  • Behind the Great Wall – by Richard Brightfield
  • The Roaring Twenties – by Richard Brightfield
  • The Irish Rebellion – by Richard Brightfield

Ballantine Books

Young Indiana Jones:

  • The Mata Hari Affair – by James Luceno
  • The Mummy's Curse – by Parker Smith

Graphic novels

  • The Curse of the Jackal – by Dan Barry
  • The Search for the Oryx – by Dan Barry
  • The Peril of the Fort – by Dan Barry

Non-fiction books

  • Lost Diaries of Young Indiana Jones – by Eric D. Weiner
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: On the Set and Behind the Scenes – by Dan Madsen
  • Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Egypt – by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Rome – by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Greece – by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores The Vikings – by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores The Incas – by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores The Aztecs – by John Malam

Comic books

Video games

Since the release of the original film, there have been a number of video games based on the Indiana Jones series. These include both games based on (or derived from) the films, as well as those featuring the characters in new storylines.

Games adapted or derived from the films

Original games

Cancelled games


Theme park attractions

Action on the set of the "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!"
Action on the set of the "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!"

Prior to Disney's acquisition, George Lucas collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on several occasions to create Indiana Jones attractions for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide. Indiana Jones-themed attractions and appearances at Disney theme parks include:

Toy lines

For the holiday season following the June 1981 debut of Raiders of the Lost Ark, Kenner produced a 12-inch-tall "Authentically styled Action Figure" of Indiana Jones. The next spring they delivered nine smaller-scale (334") action figures, three playsets, replicas of the German desert convoy truck and Jones's horse, all derived from the Raiders movie.[104] They also offered a Raiders board game.[105]

In conjunction with the theatrical release of The Temple of Doom in 1984, TSR, Inc. released miniature metal versions of twelve characters from both films for a role playing game. LJN Toys Ltd. also released action figures of Jones, Mola Ram, and the Giant Thugee.

No toys were produced to tie in with The Last Crusade in 1989

Hasbro released toys based on Raiders of the Lost Ark and Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008. Further figures, including characters from The Temple of Doom and The Last Crusade, followed later in the year,[106] but were distributed on a very limited basis. This line of toys included 334-inch and 12-inch figures, vehicles, a playset, and a series of "Adventure Heroes" aimed at young children.[107] Hasbro announced the cancellation of the line in the fall of 2008, due to decreasing sales, although some figures continued to be released up until the 2011 San Diego Comic Convention.

Sideshow Collectibles, Gentle Giant, Diamond Select Toys and Kotobukiya[108] also earned Indiana Jones licensing rights in 2008.[109][110][111][112] Lego released eight play sets to coincide with the fourth film, based on Raiders and The Last Crusade as well as on Kingdom of the Crystal Skull[113][114]

Merchandise featuring franchise cross-overs include a Mr. Potato Head "Taters Of The Lost Ark" set by Hasbro,[115] Mickey Mouse as Indiana Jones,[116] and a Muppets-branded Adventure Kermit action figure, produced by Palisades Toys and based on the frog's appearance in the Disney World stunt show as seen in The Muppets at Walt Disney World.[117]

Disney Vinylmation introduced a series based on Indiana Jones characters in 2014.[118]

Role-playing games

There have been two publications of role-playing games based on the Indiana Jones franchise. The Adventures of Indiana Jones Role-Playing Game was designed and published by TSR, Inc. under license in 1984.[119] Ten years later, West End Games acquired the rights to publish their own version, The World of Indiana Jones.


A pinball machine based on the first three films was released in 1993. Stern Pinball released a new edition in 2008, which featured all four movies.[120]

See also




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  6. ^ Hearn, pp. 144–7
  7. ^ "Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade". Empire. October 2006. pp. 96–100.
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  9. ^ a b Daly, Steve (April 16, 2008). "Indiana Jones: The Untold Story". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 17, 2008.
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  118. ^ Mauney, Matt (January 10, 2014). "New Disney Vinylmation figures include Indiana Jones and limited edition Duffy". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  119. ^ "The History of TSR". Wizards of the Coast. Archived from the original on September 24, 2008. Retrieved August 20, 2005.
  120. ^ "Indiana Jones". Pinball News. March 20, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.


Further reading

  • Rinzler, J.W.; Laurent Bouzereau (2008). The Complete Making of Indiana Jones. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-192661-8.

External links

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