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Indiana's 11th congressional district

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Indiana's 11th congressional district was a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives in Indiana. In its final configuration, it covered most of the southern portion of Indianapolis. It was eliminated as a result of the 1980 Census.

It was last represented by Andrew Jacobs, Jr. After the 1980 census, most of its territory became the 10th District, and Jacobs transferred there.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Congressional Elections: Crash Course Government and Politics #6

Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics, and today we're going to talk about what is, if you ask the general public, the most important part of politics: elections. If you ask me, it's hair styles. Look at Martin Van Buren's sideburns, how could he not be elected? Americans are kind of obsessed with elections, I mean when this was being recorded in early 2015, television, news and the internet were already talking about who would be Democrat and Republican candidates for president in 2016. And many of the candidates have unofficially been campaigning for years. I've been campaigning; your grandma's been campaigning. Presidential elections are exciting and you can gamble on them. Is that legal, can you gamble on them, Stan? Anyway, why we're so obsessed with them is a topic for another day. Right now I'm gonna tell you that the fixation on the presidential elections is wrong, but not because the president doesn't matter. No, today we're gonna look at the elections of the people that are supposed to matter the most, Congress. Constitutionally at least, Congress is the most important branch of government because it is the one that is supposed to be the most responsive to the people. One of the main reasons it's so responsive, at least in theory, is the frequency of elections. If a politician has to run for office often, he or she, because unlike the president we have women serving in Congress, kind of has to pay attention to what the constituents want, a little bit, maybe. By now, I'm sure that most of you have memorized the Constitution, so you recognize that despite their importance in the way we discuss politics, elections aren't really a big feature of the Constitution. Except of course for the ridiculously complex electoral college system for choosing the president, which we don't even want to think about for a few episodes. In fact, here's what the Constitution says about Congressional Elections in Article 1 Section 2: "The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature." So the Constitution does establish that the whole of the house is up for election every 2 years, and 1/3 of the senate is too, but mainly it leaves the scheduling and rules of elections up to the states. The actual rules of elections, like when the polls are open and where they actually are, as well as the registration requirements, are pretty much up to the states, subject to some federal election law. If you really want to know the rules in your state, I'm sure that someone at the Board of Elections, will be happy to explain them to you. Really, you should give them a call; they're very, very lonely. In general though, here's what we can say about American elections. First stating the super obvious, in order to serve in congress, you need to win an election. In the House of Representatives, each election district chooses a single representative, which is why we call them single-member districts. The number of districts is determined by the Census, which happens every 10 years, and which means that elections ending in zeros are super important, for reasons that I'll explain in greater detail in a future episode. It's because of gerrymandering. The Senate is much easier to figure out because both of the state Senators are elected by the entire state. It's as if the state itself were a single district, which is true for states like Wyoming, which are so unpopulated as to have only 1 representative. Sometimes these elections are called at large elections. Before the election ever happens, you need candidates. How candidates are chosen differs from state to state, but usually it has something to do with political parties, although it doesn't have to. Why are things so complicated?! What we can say is that candidates, or at least good candidates, usually have certain characteristics. Sorry America. First off, if you are gonna run for office, you should have an unblemished record, free of, oh I don't know, felony convictions or sex scandals, except maybe in Louisiana or New York. This might lead to some pretty bland candidates or people who are so calculating that they have no skeletons in their closet, but we Americans are a moral people and like our candidates to reflect our ideals rather than our reality. The second characteristic that a candidate must possess is the ability to raise money. Now some candidates are billionaires and can finance their own campaigns. But most billionaires have better things to do: buying yachts, making even more money, building money forts, buying more yachts, so they don't have time to run for office. But most candidates get their money for their campaigns by asking for it. The ability to raise money is key, especially now, because running for office is expensive. Can I get a how expensive is it? "How expensive is it?!" Well, so expensive that the prices of elections continually rises and in 2012 winners of House races spent nearly 2 million each. Senate winners spent more than 10 million. By the time this episode airs, I'm sure the numbers will be much higher like a gajillion billion million. Money is important in winning an election, but even more important, statistically, is already being in Congress. Let's go to the Thought Bubble. The person holding an office who runs for that office again is called the incumbent and has a big advantage over any challenger. This is according to political scientists who, being almost as bad at naming things as historians, refer to this as incumbency advantage. There are a number of reasons why incumbents tend to hold onto their seats in congress, if they want to. The first is that a sitting congressman has a record to run on, which we hope includes some legislative accomplishments, although for the past few Congresses, these don't seem to matter. The record might include case work, which is providing direct services to constituents. This is usually done by congressional staffers and includes things like answering questions about how to get certain government benefits or writing recommendation letters to West Point. Congressmen can also provide jobs to constituents, which is usually a good way to get them to vote for you. These are either government jobs, kind of rare these days, called patronage or indirect employment through government contracts for programs within a Congressman's district. These programs are called earmarks or pork barrel programs, and they are much less common now because Congress has decided not to use them any more, sort of. The second advantage that incumbents have is that they have a record of winning elections, which if you think about it, is pretty obvious. Being a proven winner makes it easier for a congressmen to raise money, which helps them win, and long term incumbents tend to be more powerful in Congress which makes it even easier for them to raise money and win. The Constitution give incumbents one structural advantage too. Each elected congressman is allowed $100,000 and free postage to send out election materials. This is called the franking privilege. It's not so clear how great an advantage this is in the age of the internet, but at least according to the book The Victory Lab, direct mail from candidates can be surprisingly effective. How real is this incumbency advantage? Well if you look at the numbers, it seems pretty darn real. Over the past 60 years, almost 90% of members of The House of Representatives got re-elected. The Senate has been even more volatile, but even at the low point in 1980 more than 50% of sitting senators got to keep their jobs. Thanks, Thought Bubble. You're so great. So those are some of the features of congressional elections. Now, if you'll permit me to get a little politically sciencey, I'd like to try to explain why elections are so important to the way that Congressmen and Senators do their jobs. In 1974, political scientist David Mayhew published a book in which he described something he called "The Electoral Connection." This was the idea that Congressmen were primarily motivated by the desire to get re-elected, which intuitively makes a lot of sense, even though I'm not sure what evidence he had for this conclusion. Used to be able to get away with that kind of thing I guess, clearly David may-not-hew to the rules of evidence, pun [rim shot], high five, no. Anyway Mayhew's research methodology isn't as important as his idea itself because The Electoral Connection provides a frame work for understanding congressman's activities. Mayhew divided representatives' behaviors and activities into three categories. The first is advertising; congressmen work to develop their personal brand so that they are recognizable to voters. Al D'Amato used to be know in New York as Senator Pothole, because he was able to bring home so much pork that he could actually fix New York's streets. Not by filling them with pork, money, its money, remember pork barrel spending? The second activity is credit claiming; Congressmen get things done so that they can say they got them done. A lot of case work and especially pork barrel spending are done in the name of credit claiming. Related to credit claiming, but slightly different, is position taking. This means making a public judgmental statement on something likely to be of interest to voters. Senators can do this through filibusters. Representatives can't filibuster, but they can hold hearings, publicly supporting a hearing is a way of associating yourself with an idea without having to actually try to pass legislation. And of course they can go on the TV, especially on Sunday talk shows. What's a TV, who even watches TV? Now the idea of The Electoral Connection doesn't explain every action a member of Congress takes; sometimes they actually make laws to benefit the public good or maybe solve problems, huh, what an idea! But Mayhew's idea gives us a way of thinking about Congressional activity, an analytical lens that connects what Congressmen actually do with how most of us understand Congressmen, through elections. So the next time you see a Congressmen call for a hearing on a supposed horrible scandal or read about a Senator threatening to filibuster a policy that may have significant popular support, ask yourself, "Is this Representative claiming credit or taking a position, and how will this build their brand?" In other words: what's the electoral connection and how will whatever they're doing help them get elected? This might feel a little cynical, but the reality is Mayhew's thesis often seems to fit with today's politics. Thanks for watching, see you next week. Vote for me; I'm on the TV. I'm not -- I'm on the YouTube. Crash Course: Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Voqal.org. Crash Course is made by all of these nice people. Thanks for watching. That guy isn't nice.

List of members representing the district

Member Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history
District created March 4, 1853
Andrew Jackson Harlan.jpg

Andrew J. Harlan
Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
33rd Elected in 1852.
[data unknown/missing]
Johnupettitindiana.jpg

John U. Pettit
Opposition March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
34th
35th
36th
Elected in 1854.
Re-elected in 1856.
Re-elected in 1858.
[data unknown/missing]
Republican March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1861
JPCShanks.jpg

John P. C. Shanks
Republican March 4, 1861 –
March 3, 1863
37th Elected in 1860.
[data unknown/missing]
Hon. James F. McDowell, Ind - NARA - 528690.jpg

James F. McDowell
Democratic March 4, 1863 –
March 3, 1865
38th Elected in 1862.
[data unknown/missing]
ThomasNStilwell.jpg

Thomas N. Stilwell
Republican March 4, 1865 –
March 3, 1867
39th Elected in 1864.
[data unknown/missing]
JPCShanks.jpg

John P. C. Shanks
Republican March 4, 1867 –
March 3, 1869
40th Elected in 1866.
Redistricted to the 9th district.
JasperPackard.jpg

Jasper Packard
Republican March 4, 1869 –
March 3, 1873
41st
42nd
Elected in 1868.
Re-elected in 1870.
Redistricted to the At-large district
District inactive March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1875
43rd
JamesLaFayetteEvans.jpg

James L. Evans
Republican March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1879
44th
45th
Elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
[data unknown/missing]
Calvin Cowgill Republican March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1881
46th Elected in 1878.
[data unknown/missing]
GeorgeWashingtonSteele.jpg

George W. Steele
Republican March 4, 1881 –
March 3, 1889
47th
48th
49th
50th
Elected in 1880.
Re-elected in 1882.
Re-elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
[data unknown/missing]
Augustus N. Martin (Indiana Congressman).jpg

Augustus N. Martin
Democratic March 4, 1889 –
March 3, 1895
51st
52nd
53rd
Elected in 1888.
Re-elected in 1890.
Re-elected in 1892.
[data unknown/missing]
GeorgeWashingtonSteele.jpg

George W. Steele
Republican March 4, 1895 –
March 3, 1903
54th
55th
56th
57th
Elected in 1894.
Re-elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
[data unknown/missing]
FrederickLandis.jpg

Frederick Landis
Republican March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1907
58th
59th
Elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
[data unknown/missing]
GeorgeWRauch.jpg

George W. Rauch
Democratic March 4, 1907 –
March 3, 1917
60th
61st
62nd
63rd
64th
Elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
Re-elected in 1912.
Re-elected in 1914.
[data unknown/missing]
Milton Kraus HarrisEwing.jpg

Milton Kraus
Republican March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1923
65th
66th
67th
Elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Re-elected in 1920.
[data unknown/missing]
SamuelECook.jpg

Samuel E. Cook
Democratic March 4, 1923 –
March 3, 1925
68th Elected in 1922.
[data unknown/missing]
Albert R. Hall Republican March 4, 1925 –
March 3, 1931
69th
70th
71st
Elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
Re-elected in 1928.
[data unknown/missing]
Glenn Griswold Democratic March 4, 1931 –
March 3, 1933
72nd Elected in 1930.
Redistricted to the 5th district.
William Larrabee (Indiana Congressman).jpg

William Larrabee
Democratic March 4, 1933 –
January 3, 1943
73rd
74th
75th
76th
77th
Redistricted from the 6th district and re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
[data unknown/missing]
LouisLudlow.jpg

Louis Ludlow
Democratic January 3, 1943 –
January 3, 1949
78th
79th
80th
Redistricted from the 12th district and re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
[data unknown/missing]
Andrew Jacobs Democratic January 3, 1949 –
January 3, 1951
81st Elected in 1948.
[data unknown/missing]
Charles B. Brownson.jpg

Charles B. Brownson
Republican January 3, 1951 –
January 3, 1959
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
Elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
[data unknown/missing]
Joseph W Barr.jpg

Joseph W. Barr
Democratic January 3, 1959 –
January 3, 1961
86th Elected in 1958.
[data unknown/missing]
DonaldCBruce.jpg

Donald C. Bruce
Republican January 3, 1961 –
January 3, 1965
87th
88th
Elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
[data unknown/missing]
Andrew Jacobs Jr.jpg

Andrew Jacobs Jr.
Democratic January 3, 1965 –
January 3, 1973
89th
90th
91st
92nd
Elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
[data unknown/missing]
WmHudnutIII.png

William H. Hudnut III
Republican January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1975
93rd Elected in 1972.
[data unknown/missing]
Andrew Jacobs Jr.jpg

Andrew Jacobs Jr.
Democratic January 3, 1975 –
January 3, 1983
94th
95th
96th
97th
Elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Redistricted to the 10th district.
District inactive since January 3, 1983

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present


This page was last edited on 25 April 2021, at 11:24
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