To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Imperial College London

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Imperial College London
MottoLatin: Scientia, imperii decus et tutamen
Motto in English
Scientific knowledge, the crowning glory and the safeguard of the empire
TypePublic research university
Established1907 by royal charter[1]
Endowment£219.6 million (2022)[2]
Budget£1.157 billion (2021/22)[2]
PresidentHugh Brady
ProvostIan Walmsley
Academic staff
4,440 (2021/22)[3]
Administrative staff
4,115 (2021/22)[3]
Students22,791 (2021/22)[4]
Undergraduates11,722 (2021/22)[4]
Postgraduates11,069 (2021/22)[4]
4,686 (2021/22)[4]
Colours  Imperial blue[5]
MascotLion Edit this at Wikidata

Imperial College London (sometimes known simply as Imperial) is a public research university in London, England. Its history began with Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria, who developed his vision for a cultural area that included the Royal Albert Hall, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Natural History Museum and several royal colleges.[6][7] In 1907, Imperial College London was established by royal charter, unifying the Royal College of Science, the Royal School of Mines and the City and Guilds of London Institute.[8] In 1988, the Imperial College School of Medicine was formed by merging with St Mary's Hospital Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School.

Imperial College London focuses on science, engineering, business, and medicine. The main campus is in South Kensington, where most teaching and research takes place. A second campus in White City provides a platform for innovation and entrepreneurship. Facilities also include teaching hospitals throughout London that form an academic health science centre. The college was previously a member of the University of London and became an independent university in 2007.[9] Imperial has a highly international community, with 59% of students from outside the UK and 140 countries represented on campus.[10][11]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    10 678
    10 672
    13 402
    3 553
    7 696
  • Brain Sciences research at Imperial College London
  • Biological Sciences BSc - Imperial College London
  • Medical research at Imperial College London
  • A day in the life of a Brain Sciences PhD student
  • Cardiovascular research at Imperial College London



Prince Albert was the main patron of the early Royal Colleges and the development of an area of culture in South Kensington

19th century

The earliest college that led to the formation of Imperial was the Royal College of Chemistry, founded in 1845, with the support of Prince Albert and parliament.[7] This was merged in 1853 into what became known as the Royal School of Mines.[12] The medical school has roots in many different schools across London, the oldest of which being Charing Cross Hospital Medical School which can be traced back to 1823, followed by teaching starting at Westminster Hospital in 1834, and St Mary's Hospital in 1851.[13][14][15]

In 1851, the Great Exhibition was organised as an exhibition of culture and industry by Henry Cole and by Prince Albert, husband of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria. An enormously popular and financial success, proceeds from the Great Exhibition were designated to develop an area for cultural and scientific advancement in South Kensington.[16] Within the next six years the Victoria and Albert Museum and Science Museum had opened, joined by new facilities in 1871 for the Royal College of Chemistry, and in 1881 the opening of the Royal School of Mines and Natural History Museum.[17]

Imperial Institute, now the site of Queen's Lawn

In 1881, the Normal School of Science was established in South Kensington under the leadership of Thomas Huxley, taking over responsibility for the teaching of the natural sciences and agriculture from the Royal School of Mines.[18] The school was renamed the Royal College of Science by royal consent in 1890.[19] The Central Institution of the City and Guilds of London Institute was opened as a technical education school on Exhibition Road by the Prince of Wales in 1884, with courses beginning in 1885.[8]

Royal College of Science

20th century

At the start of the 20th century, there was a concern that Great Britain was falling behind Germany in scientific and technical education. A departmental committee was set up at the Board of Education in 1904, to look into the future of the Royal College of Science. A report released in 1906 called for the establishment of an institution unifying the Royal College of Science and the Royal School of Mines, as well as – if an agreement could be reached with the City and Guilds of London Institute – its Central Technical College.[20][21]

On 8 July 1907, Edward VII granted a Royal Charter establishing the Imperial College of Science and Technology. This incorporated the Royal School of Mines and the Royal College of Science. It also made provisions for the City and Guilds College to join once conditions regarding its governance were met, as well as for Imperial to become a college of the University of London.[22] The college joined the University of London on 22 July 1908, with the City and Guilds College joining in 1910.[8][23] The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute, the new building for the Royal College of Science having opened across from it in 1906, and the foundation stone for the Royal School of Mines building being laid by King Edward VII in July 1909.[20]

As students at Imperial had to study separately for London degrees, in January 1919, students and alumni voted for a petition to make Imperial a university with its own degree awarding powers, independent of the University of London.[24][25] In response, the University of London changed its regulations in 1925 so that the courses taught only at Imperial would be examined by the university, enabling students to gain a BSc.[26]

Royal School of Mines

In October 1945, George VI and Queen Elizabeth visited Imperial to commemorate the centenary of the Royal College of Chemistry, which was the oldest of the institutions that united to form Imperial College. "Commemoration Day", named after this visit, is held every October as the university's main graduation ceremony.[27][28] The college also acquired a biology field station at Silwood Park near Ascot, Berkshire in 1947[29]

Following the Second World War, there was again concern that Britain was falling behind in science – this time to the United States. The Percy Report of 1945 and Barlow Committee in 1946 called for a "British MIT"-equivalent, backed by influential scientists as politicians of the time, including Lord Cherwell, Sir Lawrence Bragg and Sir Edward Appleton.[30][31] The University Grants Committee strongly opposed however,[30] and so a compromise was reached in 1953, where Imperial would remain within the university, but double in size over the next ten years.[32][33] The expansion led to a number of new buildings being erected. These included the Hill building in 1957 and the Physics building in 1960, and the completion of the East Quadrangle, built in four stages between 1959 and 1965. The building work also meant the demolition of the City and Guilds College building in 1962–63, and the Imperial Institute's building by 1967.[34] Opposition from the Royal Fine Arts Commission and others meant that Queen's Tower was retained, with work carried out between 1966 and 1968 to make it free standing.[35] New laboratories for biochemistry, established with the support of a £350,000 grant from the Wolfson Foundation, were opened by the Queen in 1965.[36][37]

In 1988, Imperial merged with St Mary's Hospital Medical School under the Imperial College Act 1988. Amendments to the royal charter changed the formal name of the institution to The Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine and made St Mary's a constituent college.[38] This was followed by mergers with the National Heart and Lung Institute in 1995 and the Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Royal Postgraduate Medical School and the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in 1997, with the Imperial College Act 1997 formally establishing the Imperial College School of Medicine.[39]

21st century

In 2003, Imperial was granted degree-awarding powers in its own right by the Privy Council. In 2004, the Imperial College Business School and a new main college entrance on Exhibition Road were opened.[40][41] The UK Energy Research Centre was also established in 2004 and opened its headquarters at Imperial. On 9 December 2005, Imperial announced that it would commence negotiations to secede from the University of London.[42] Imperial became fully independent of the University of London in July 2007.[9][43][44]

In April 2011, Imperial and King's College London joined the UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation as partners with a commitment of £40 million each to the project. The centre was later renamed the Francis Crick Institute and opened on 9 November 2016. It is the largest single biomedical laboratory in Europe. The college began moving into the new White City campus in 2016, with the launching of the Innovation Hub.[45] This was followed by the opening of the Molecular Sciences Research Hub for the Department of Chemistry, officially opened by Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan in 2019.[46]


Imperial College Business School and College Main Entrance

South Kensington

The South Kensington campus is the college's main campus, where most teaching and research takes place. It is home to many notable buildings, such as the Business School, Royal School of Mines, and Royal College of Science. It is also the original site of the Imperial Institute, whose Queen's Tower stands at the heart of the campus overlooking Queen's Lawn. As part of a cultural centre known as Albertopolis the campus is surrounded by many of London's most popular attractions, including the Royal Albert Hall and Kensington Palace, museums including the Natural History Museum, Science Museum, and Victoria and Albert Museum, and institutions such as the Royal College of Art, the Royal College of Music, and the National Art Library.

The campus has many restaurants and cafés run by the college, and contains much of the college's student accommodation, including the Prince's Garden Halls, and Beit Hall, home to the college union, which runs student pubs, a nightclub, and a cinema on site. To the north, within easy walking distance of the college, are Kensington Gardens and Hyde Park, with green spaces and sports facilities used by many of the student clubs.

Many students enjoy Kensington Gardens

White City

Imperial has a new second major campus in White City providing a platform for innovation and entrepreneurship.[47] The hub houses research facilities, postgraduate accommodation, as well as a commercialisation space.[48][49] The campus is home to the Scale Space and incubator, Invention Rooms, a college hackerspace and community outreach centre.[50] The White City campus also includes another biomedical centre funded by Sir Michael Uren.[51][52][53]

Silwood Park

Silwood Park is a postgraduate campus of Imperial in the village of Sunninghill near Ascot in Berkshire. The Silwood Park campus is a centre for research and teaching in ecology, evolution, and conservation. It is set in 100 hectares of parkland used for ecological field experiments.


Imperial has teaching hospitals across London which are used by the School of Medicine for undergraduate clinical teaching and medical research. All are based around college-affiliated hospitals, and also provide catering and sport facilities. College libraries are located on each campus, including the Fleming library at St Mary's.[54]

Organisation and administration

Faculties and departments

Imperial is organised by four faculties: the Faculty of Engineering, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Natural Sciences, and the Imperial College Business School.[55]

Faculty of Medicine

  • Brain Sciences
  • Immunology & Inflammation
  • Infectious Disease
  • Metabolism, Digestion & Reproduction
  • Surgery and Cancer
  • Institute of Clinical Sciences
  • National Heart and Lung Institute
  • School of Public Health

Imperial College Business School

  • Analytics & Operations
  • Economics & Public Policy
  • Finance
  • Management & Entrepreneurship
  • Marketing

Interdisciplinary centres

Brevan Howard Centre for Financial Analysis

Imperial hosts centres to promote inter-disciplinary work under the titles of Global Challenge institutes, Imperial Centres of Excellence and Imperial Networks of Excellence. It also participates as a partner in a number of national institutes.[56]

Global Challenge institutes:

Academic centres

Imperial College also houses two academic centres, formerly the Department of Humanities, offering teaching to undergraduate and postgraduate students in modern languages, arts and humanities subjects, social sciences and other subjects which fall outside of the standard remit of science, technology and medicine. The aim of these centres is to provide training in study skills, such as the acquisition of English language proficiency, but also to encourage innovatory and interdisciplinary approaches to science, technology and medicine, which might make use of study of the arts, humanities, languages and social sciences. The academic centres are the:

  • Centre for Academic English
  • Centre for Languages, Culture and Communication

The Centre for Languages, Culture and Communication also operates as Imperial College London's adult education centre, offering evening class courses in the arts, humanities, languages and sciences.[57]


Faculty Building, designed by Norman Foster

The council is the governing body of Imperial. The council consists of the Chairman, the President, the Provost, the President of Imperial College Union, 4 senior staff members, and between 9 and 13 lay advisory members (who are not employees of Imperial).

The President is the highest academic official and chief executive of Imperial College London.[58] The position has been held by Hugh Brady, since August 2022.[59] The current Provost is Ian Walmsley, and the current Chair is John Allan.[60]

Finances and endowment

Graduation ceremonies take place in the Royal Albert Hall

In 2020/21, Imperial had a consolidated income of £1,079.3 million. The college's endowment is sub-divided into three distinct portfolios:

  • Unitised Scheme – a unit trust vehicle for the college, Faculties and Departments to invest endowments and unfettered income to produce returns for the long term
  • Non-Core Property – a portfolio containing around 120 operational and developmental properties which the college has determined are not core to the academic mission
  • Strategic Asset Investments – containing the college's shareholding in Imperial Innovations and other restricted equity holdings.[61]

Affiliations and partnerships

Imperial is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, Global Alliance of Technological Universities, League of European Research Universities and the Russell Group. It is a founding member of the Imperial College academic health sciences centre, the Francis Crick Institute and MedCity.

Imperial is a long-term partner of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, with the first formal large-scale collaboration agreement dating back to 1944 as part of the Second World War scientific effort.[62] The two institutions still share a strong bond with exchange programs for their students and academic staff.[63][64]

In the field of Mathematics, Imperial College London has a joint venture with King's College London and University College London running the London School of Geometry and Number Theory, which offers doctoral training in mathematic aspects of number theory, geometry and topology.[65]

Academic profile



In the 2023 Times Higher Education World University Ranking, Imperial is ranked 10th in the world and 3rd in Europe.[72][73]

In the 2024 Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking, Imperial is ranked 6th in the world and 3rd in Europe.[74]

In the 2022 Academic Ranking of World Universities, Imperial is ranked 23rd in the world and 6th in Europe.[75]

In the USNEWS 2022-2023 Best Global Universities Rankings, Imperial is ranked 13th worldwide.[76]


In the 2023 QS MBA Rankings for the MBA specialization of entrepreneurship, Imperial is ranked 3rd in the world and 1st in Europe.[77]

In the 2019 Reuters World's Most Innovative Universities, Imperial is ranked 1st in innovation in the UK and 2nd in Europe.[78]

Career prospects

In the 2019 Guardian University Guide and Complete University Guide, Imperial graduates are ranked 1st amongst UK universities in employment prospects.[79][80]

A 2018 Department for Education report found that Imperial boosted female graduates earnings 31.3% above the average female graduate, and male graduates similarly saw a 25.3% increase in earnings above the average male graduate.[81]

As of 2018, The Guardian notes that Imperial graduates pick up the highest salaries in the UK in the first year after graduation.[82]


Imperial was ranked 1st in the U.K overall in rankings produced by Times Higher Education based upon the Research Excellence Framework results 2021.[83][84]

In the 2021 Research Excellence Framework, 96.6% of Imperial's research is “world-leading” (66.3% achieved the highest possible 4* score) or “internationally excellent” (30.3% achieved 3*).[83][84] The REF found that 93% of Imperial's computer science research was found to be world-leading, achieving the highest possible 4* score.[85]

The college promotes research commercialisation, partly through its dedicated technology transfer company, Imperial Innovations, which has given rise to a large number of spin-out companies based on academic research.[86][87] Imperial was a critical contributor of the discovery of penicillin,[88] and the invention of fiber optics.[89]

The United States is the college's top collaborating foreign country, with more than 15,000 articles co-authored by Imperial and U.S.-based authors over the last ten years.[90] Imperial College has a long-term partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, that dates back from World War II.[62]

Innovation Hub

In January 2018, the mathematics department of Imperial and the French National Center for Scientific Research launched UMI Abraham de Moivre at Imperial, a joint research laboratory of mathematics focused on unsolved problems and bridging British and French scientific communities.[91] In October 2018, Imperial College launched the Imperial Cancer Research UK Center, a research collaboration that aims to find innovative ways to improve the precision of cancer treatments, inaugurated by Joe Biden as part of his Biden Cancer Initiative.[92][93]

Neil Ferguson's 16 March 2020 report entitled "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce COVID- 19 mortality and healthcare demand" was described in a New York Times article, as the coronavirus "report that jarred the U.S. and the U.K. to action".[94][95] Since 18 May, Imperial College's Dr. Samir Bhatt has been advising the state of New York for its reopening plan.[96] The governor of New York, Andrew Cuomo, said at the time that "the Imperial College model, as we've been following this for weeks, was the best, most accurate model."[96]


UCAS Admission Statistics
2022 2021 2020 2019 2018
Applications[α][97] 28,620 28,700 25,650 23,380 21,310
Accepted[α][97] 3,090 3,305 3,450 2,860 2,805
Applications/Accepted Ratio[α] 9.3 8.7 7.4 8.2 7.6
Offer Rate (%)[β][98] 30.1 32.5 42.9 43.0 41.8
Average Entry Tariff[99] 206 198 194 190
  1. ^ a b c Main scheme applications, International and UK
  2. ^ UK domiciled applicants
HESA Student Body Composition
Domicile[100] and Ethnicity[101] Total
British White 22% 22
British Ethnic Minorities[a] 25% 25
International EU 13% 13
International Non-EU 40% 40
Undergraduate Widening Participation Indicators[102][103]
Female 41% 41
Private School 34% 34
Low Participation Areas[b] 5% 5
Queen's Tower
Queen Elizabeth II opening the Alexander Fleming Building

In the academic year 2021/22, Imperial had an admissions rate of 11.1% for undergraduate admissions and 13.0% for postgraduate admissions: The ratio of applicants to admissions was 9:1 for undergraduates and 7.7:1 for postgraduates.[104]

St Mary's Hospital, London

The undergraduate courses with the highest ratios of applicants to admissions were computing (19.2:1), mathematics (14.6:1) and mechanical engineering (11.2:1).[104]

The postgraduate courses with the highest ratios of applicants to admissions were computing (21:1), mathematics (17.9:1), and electrical engineering (14:1).[104]

Imperial is among the most diverse international universities in the United Kingdom,[105][106] with 50% of students from the UK, 16% of students from the EU, and 34% of students from outside the UK or EU.[105][107][108] The student body is 39% female and 61% male.[108] 36.5% of Imperial's undergraduates are privately educated, the fourth highest proportion amongst mainstream British universities.[106]


The college's main library is located next to Queen's Lawn and contains the main corpus of the college's collection. It previously also housed the Science Museum's library until 2014.[109] The Fleming library is located at St Mary's in Paddington, originally the library of St Mary's Hospital Medical School, with other hospital campuses also having college libraries.[110]


The Imperial Faculty of Medicine was formed through mergers between Imperial and the St Mary's, Charing Cross and Westminster, and Royal Postgraduate medical schools and has six teaching hospitals. It accepts more than 300 undergraduate medical students per year and has around 321 taught and 700 research full-time equivalent postgraduate students.

Imperial College London Diabetes Centre, Abu Dhabi

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust was formed on 1 October 2007 by the merger of Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust (Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital) and St Mary's NHS Trust (St. Mary's Hospital and Western Eye Hospital) with Imperial College London Faculty of Medicine.[111] It is an academic health science centre and manages five hospitals: Charing Cross Hospital, Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Hammersmith Hospital, St Mary's Hospital, and Western Eye Hospital. The Trust is currently one of the largest in the UK and in 2012/13 had a turnover of £971.3 million, employed approximately 9,770 people and treated almost 1.2 million patients.[112]

Other (non-academic health science centres) hospitals affiliated with Imperial College include Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Royal Brompton Hospital, West Middlesex University Hospital, Hillingdon Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital, Harefield Hospital, Ealing Hospital, Central Middlesex Hospital, Northwick Park Hospital, St Mark's Hospital, St Charles' Hospital and St Peter's Hospital.[113]


Accusations of bullying

In 2003, it was reported that one third of female academics "believe that discrimination or bullying by managers has held back their careers".[114] Imperial has since won the Athena SWAN Award, which recognises employment practices that are supportive of the careers of women in science, technology, engineering and maths.

In 2007, concerns were raised about the methods that were being used to fire people in the Faculty of Medicine.[115][116] In 2014, Stefan Grimm, of the Department of Medicine, was found dead after being threatened with dismissal for failure to raise enough grant money.[117] His last email before his death accused his employers of bullying by demanding that he should get grants worth at least £200,000 per year.[118][119] The college announced an internal inquiry into Stefan Grimm's death, and found that the performance metrics for his position were unreasonable, with new metrics for performance being needed.[120]

The issue of bullying within the staff at Imperial resurfaced in November 2020 when Alex Sobel, the Labour MP for Leeds North West asked the Secretary of State for Education in a written question on 24 November what steps the Office for Students had taken in response to a report by Jane McNeill QC dated 25 August which found that bullying had taken place at Imperial under the President (Alice Gast) and the Chief Financial Officer. Michelle Donelan, the Conservative MP for Chippenham, responded for the Department for Education that "The Office for Students (OfS) is considering the information it has received in relation to this matter, in line with their normal processes. As is standard practice, the OfS cannot comment on individual cases".[121] The college was accused of a cover-up by the Universities and Colleges Union in December 2020 when it refused to publish McNeill's report, even in redacted form. The Chair of Council said that the report was kept confidential to preserve the anonymity of people who gave evidence, that its recommendations had been accepted by the senior leadership team, and that these recommendations were being implemented in full. A disciplinary panel decided that Gast's dismissal as president was not warranted and spokesperson for the college said that she had "offered wholehearted apologies to those affected".[122]

On 14 February 2021, it was announced that the OfS would formally investigate allegations of bullying.[123]

Student life

Student body

For the 2019/20 academic year, Imperial had a total full-time student body of 19,400, consisting of 10,475 undergraduate students and 8,925 postgraduates.[124] 50.7% of the student body is from outside of the UK.[125] 32% of all full-time students came from outside the European Union in 2013–14,[126] and around 13% of the International students had Chinese nationality in 2007–08.[127]

Imperial's male to female ratio for undergraduate students is uneven at approximately 64:36 overall[127] and 5:1 or higher in some engineering courses. However, medicine has an approximate 1:1 ratio with biology degrees tending to be higher.[128]

Queen's Lawn at South Kensington Campus

Imperial College Union

Imperial College Union is the students' union and is run by five full-time sabbatical officers elected from the student body for a tenure of one year, and a number of permanent members of staff. It is split into constituent unions aligned with the faculties of the college, carrying on the association with the original constituent colleges of Imperial, the Royal College of Science Union, City and Guilds College Union, Royal School of Mines Students' Union and Imperial College School of Medicine Students' Union. The Union is given a large subvention by the university, much of which is spent on maintaining over 300 clubs, projects and societies.[129] Examples of notable student groups and projects are Project Nepal which sends Imperial College students to work on educational development programmes in rural Nepal[130] and the El Salvador Project, a construction based project in Central America.[131] The Union also hosts sports-related clubs such as Imperial College Boat Club and Imperial College Gliding Club.

The Union operates on two sites, with most events at the Union Building on Beit Quad at South Kensington, with mostly medical school events at the Reynold's bar, Charing Cross.


Ethos Gym

Sports facilities at Imperial's London campuses include four gyms, including the main Ethos gym at the South Kensington Campus, two swimming pools and two sports halls.[132] Imperial has additional sports facilities at the Heston and Harlington sports grounds.

On the South Kensington campus, there are a total of six music practice rooms which consist of upright pianos for usage by people of any grade, and grand pianos which are exclusively for people who have achieved Grade 8 or above.[133]

There are two student bars on the South Kensington campus, one at the Imperial College Union and one at Eastside.[134] There are a number of pubs and bars on campus and also surrounding the campus, which become a popular social activity for Imperial's students. The Pewter tankard collection at Imperial College Union is the largest in Europe, with the majority of clubs and societies having tankards associated with their clubs.[135]

The weekly college farmer's market

Student media

Imperial College Radio

Imperial College Radio (ICRadio) was founded in November 1975 with the intention of broadcasting to the student halls of residence from a studio under Southside, actually commencing broadcasts in late 1976. It now broadcasts from the West Basement of Beit Quad over the internet.[136]

Imperial College TV

Imperial College TV (ICTV) is Imperial College Union's TV station, founded in 1969 and operated from a small TV studio in the Electrical Engineering block. The department had bought an early AMPEX Type A 1-inch videotape recorder and this was used to produce an occasional short news programme which was then played to students by simply moving the VTR and a monitor into a common room. A cable link to the Southside halls of residence was laid in a tunnel under Exhibition Road in 1972. Besides the news, early productions included a film of the Queen opening what was then called College Block.

Felix Newspaper

Felix is weekly student newspaper, first released on 9 December 1949.[137] In addition to news, Felix also carries comic strips, features, opinions, puzzles and reviews, plus reports of trips and Imperial College sporting events.

Racing Green Endurance is a student-led project to demonstrate the potential of zero-emission cars.

Student societies

Imperial College Boat Club

The Imperial College Boat Club is the rowing club of Imperial and was founded on 12 December 1919. The college's boat house is located in Putney on the Thames, and was recently refurbished, reopening in 2014.[138] The club has a number of notable accolades, such as three alumni of the college in the gold medal-winning GB 8+ at the 2000 Summer Olympic Games.[citation needed]


Imperial College has over 60 sports clubs,[139] of which many participate in the British Universities and Colleges Sport Association leagues such as American Football, Rugby, Badminton, Lacrosse, Football, Ice Hockey, and many others.[139]

Exploration Club

Beit Hall
Prince's Gardens in the snow, surrounded by college halls of residence

Imperial's Exploration Board was established in 1957 to assist students with a desire for exploration. Trips have included Afghanistan, Alaska, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Fiji, the Himalayas, Iran, Morocco, Norway, Tanzania, Thailand, Ukraine, and the Yukon.[140]

Dramatic Society

The Imperial College Dramatic Society (DramSoc[141]) is one of two major theatrical arts societies, with the other being the Musical Theatre Society, and it was founded in 1912.[142] The society puts on three major plays each year, in addition to several smaller fringe productions. It is additionally one of the London-based dramatic societies to participate in the London Student Drama Festival,[143] and regularly attends the Edinburgh Fringe. DramSoc is responsible for the day-to-day maintenance of the Union's theatrical space, the Union Concert Hall.

The Techtonics

The Techtonics are an all-male a cappella group from Imperial College London, and are a part of the Imperial College A Cappella Society.[144] The group was formed in 2008, and has since risen to prominence in the world a cappella scene. The group is best known for winning the International Championship of Collegiate A Cappella in 2016.[145]

Student housing

Imperial College owns and manages twenty-three halls of residence in Inner London, Acton, and Ascot. Over three thousand rooms are available, guaranteeing first year undergraduates a place in College residences.

The majority of halls offer single or twin accommodation with some rooms having en suite facilities. Bedrooms are provided with basic furniture and with access to shared kitchens and bathrooms. All rooms come with internet access and access to the Imperial network.[146] Most of them are considered among the newest student halls at London universities.

Most students in college or university accommodation are first-year undergraduates, as they are granted a room once they have selected Imperial as their firm offer with UCAS. The majority of older students and postgraduates find accommodation in the private sector, help for which is provided by the college private housing office. However a handful of students may continue to live in halls in later years if they take the position of a "hall senior", and places are available for a small number of returning students in the Evelyn Garden halls.[147] Some students also live in International Students House, London.

Notable alumni, faculty and staff

Nobel laureates: (medicine) Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Ernst Boris Chain, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley, Rodney Robert Porter, (physics) Abdus Salam, Sir George Paget Thomson, Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett, Dennis Gabor, Peter Higgs, (chemistry) Sir Norman Haworth, Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Sir Derek Barton, Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson, Sir George Porter.[148]

Fields medalists: Klaus Friedrich Roth, Sir Simon Donaldson, Martin Hairer.[149]

Academic affiliations include: Sir Tom Kibble, co-discoverer of Higgs Boson;[150] Sir Tejinder Virdee, experimental particle physicist;[151] Narinder Singh Kapany, inventor of fibre optics;[152][153][154][155] Sir John Pendry, theoretical solid state physicist;[156] Sir Christopher Kelk Ingold, physical organic chemistry pioneer;[157] Sir William Henry Perkin, discoverer of the first synthetic organic chemical dye mauveine;[158] Sir Edward Frankland, originator of the theory of chemical valency;[159] Sir William Crookes, discoverer of thallium;[160] Sir Alan Fersht, chemist;[161] David Phillips, chemist;[162] Harold Hopkins, contributed to the theory and design of optical instruments;[163] Alfred North Whitehead, mathematician and philosopher;[164] Sir Steven Cowley, physicist and president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford;[165] and Sir John Ambrose Fleming, inventor of the vacuum tube.[166] In biology and medicine; Thomas Huxley, advocate of the theory of evolution; Azeem Majeed. Clinical Academic and Public Health Specialist; Wendy Barclay, virologist; Dame Sally Davies, the Chief Medical Officer for England;[167] David Livingstone, medical missionary and Clare Lloyd, biologist. In engineering; Sir Alec Skempton, one of the founding fathers of soil mechanics; George E. Davis, regarded as the founding father of chemical engineering; Olgierd Zienkiewicz, a pioneer of the Finite Element Method; Dame Julia Higgins, polymer scientist;[168] Dame Judith Hackitt, former Chair of the Health and Safety Executive;[169] Dudley Maurice Newitt, scientific director of the Special Operations Executive;[170] and Julia King, Baroness Brown of Cambridge, engineer and Member of the House of Lords.[171]

Non-academic affiliations include: H. G. Wells, author;[172] Nikolas Tombazis, chief car designer at McLaren and Ferrari; Ralph Robins, CEO of Rolls-Royce;[173] Brian May, guitarist of rock band Queen;[174] Chew Choon Seng, CEO of Singapore Airlines; Sir Julius Vogel, former Prime Minister of New Zealand;[175] Rajiv Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India;[176] Teo Chee Hean, Senior Minister of Singapore (formerly Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore); Edem Tengue, Minister of maritime economy of the republic of Togo; Huw Thomas, Physician to the Queen;[177] Sir Roger Bannister, ran the first four-minute mile;[178] David Warren, inventor of the flight data recorder and cockpit voice recorder;[179] Andreas Mogensen, first Danish astronaut; Winston Wong, entrepreneur; Alan Howard, hedge fund manager and philanthropist; Cyrus Pallonji Mistry, former chairman of the Tata Group;[180] Michael Birch, entrepreneur; Henry Charles Stephens, politician; Sir Michael Uren, businessman and philanthropist; Ian Read, CEO of Pfizer, Pallab Ghosh, BBC correspondent, Hannah Devlin, science journalist; Chi Onwurah, politician;[181] Dyah Roro Esti Widya Putri, member of House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia; Nicola Fox, Head of Science at NASA;[182] Danny Lui, co-founder Lenovo;[183] Simon Singh, author.

See also


  1. ^ Includes those who indicate that they identify as Asian, Black, Mixed Heritage, Arab or any other ethnicity except White.
  2. ^ Calculated from the Polar4 measure, using Quintile1, in England and Wales. Calculated from the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) measure, using SIMD20, in Scotland.
  3. ^ Attended; did not graduate.


  1. ^ "Charitable status". Imperial College London. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Annual Report and Accounts 2021–22" (PDF). Imperial College London. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Who's working in HE?".
  4. ^ a b c d "Statistics Guide 2020–21" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Brand colours". Imperial College London. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Prince Albert's cultural vision and the history of South Kensington: What is Albertopolis?". Royal Albert Hall. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Chemistry at Imperial". Imperial College London. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "City and Guilds College ─ Imperial College". Royal Institute of British Architects. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012.
  9. ^ a b "Imperial College splits from University of London". The Guardian. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  10. ^ "Most international universities in the world 2018: top 200". Times Higher Education. 14 March 2018.
  11. ^ "International students | Study". Imperial College London. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Royal School of Mines – Imperial College". Royal Institute of British Architects. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
  13. ^ "A timeline of College developments". Imperial College London. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  14. ^ Ballantyne, John (August 2004). "St Mary's: the History of a London Teaching Hospital". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 97 (8): 405–406. doi:10.1177/014107680409700816. ISSN 0141-0768. PMC 1079568.
  15. ^ "Lost Hospitals of London". Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  16. ^ "Albertopolis – the wisdom of Prince Albert". Cultural Heritage Resources. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  17. ^ "Imperial College". British History Online. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  18. ^ "Royal College of Science ─ Imperial College". Royal Institute of British Architects. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012.
  19. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of Abbreviations. Oxford University Press. 1992. ISBN 9780192800732.
  20. ^ a b F. H. W. Sheppard, ed. (1975). Imperial College. pp. 233–247 – via {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  21. ^ The Report of the Board of Education to the King's Most Excellent Majesty in Council for the Year 1905–1906. HMSO. 1906. pp. 16–17.
  22. ^ "Imperial College of Science and Technology". Nature. 76 (1959): 56–57. 16 May 1907. Bibcode:1907Natur..76...56.. doi:10.1038/076056a0.
  23. ^ University of London, the Historical Record. University of London Press. 1912. p. 85.
  24. ^ "The London Imperial College of Science and Technology". Science. XLIX (1261): 209–210. 28 February 1919. Bibcode:1919Sci....49..209.. doi:10.1126/science.49.1261.209.
  25. ^ "The Imperial College of Science and Technology". Nature. 105 (2632): 173–175. 16 May 1907. doi:10.1038/105173a0.
  26. ^ "Imperial College 1920–1929". Imperial College. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  27. ^ "Imperial College 1940–1949". Imperial College. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  28. ^ "Imperial celebrates its newest graduates at Commemoration Day 2018". Imperial College. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
  29. ^ Gay, Hannah (2007). The History of Imperial College London, 1907–2007: Higher Education and Research in Science, Technology, and Medicine. World Scientific. ISBN 9781860947087.
  30. ^ a b Jean Bocock; Lewis Baston; Peter Scott; David Smith (2003). "American influence on British higher education: science, technology, and the problem of university expansion, 1945–1963". Minerva. 41 (4): 327–346. doi:10.1023/B:MINE.0000005154.25610.b2. JSTOR 41821255. S2CID 143347639.
  31. ^ Michael Shattock (1 October 2012). Making Policy in British Higher Education 1945-2011. McGraw-Hill Education (UK). ISBN 9780335241873.
  32. ^ "Higher Technological Education (Government Policy)". Hansard. 11 June 1952. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  33. ^ John Boyd-Carpenter (29 January 1953). "Imperial College Of Science And Technology (Expansion)". Hansard.
  34. ^ J S Cockburn; H P F King; K G T McDonnell, eds. (1969). "The University of London: The Constituent Colleges". The Imperial College of Science and Technology. pp. 345–359 – via British History Online. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  35. ^ "The Queen's Tower". Imperial College. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  36. ^ "The Wolfson Foundation 1955–2015: Sixty Years of Philanthropy" (PDF). The Wolfson Foundation. 2015. pp. 29, 57. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  37. ^ "Imperial College – Centenary website – Timeline – 1960–1969". Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  38. ^ "Charter and Statutes" (PDF). Imperial College. Explanatory note. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  39. ^ "WEST LONDON MEDICINE – PAST AND FUTURE". Imperial College London. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  40. ^ "A timeline of College Developments". Imperial College London.
  41. ^ "New identity for Imperial College Business School". Imperial College London. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
  42. ^ "Imperial College London – Imperial College London to begin negotiations to withdraw from the University of London". 9 December 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  43. ^ "Imperial College top choice for Singaporean students". Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  44. ^ "University of London: Updated position statement re: Imperial College London". Archived from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  45. ^ "Imperial launches its new hub for innovation at White City". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  46. ^ Djaba, Andy. "White City Woes". Archived from the original on 1 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  47. ^ "White City Campus".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  48. ^ Barrett, Claer (5 August 2014), "Imperial unveils details of £3bn campus extension", Financial Times
  49. ^ "Novartis joins rush of science companies moving to White City". Evening Standard. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  50. ^ Fyles, Fred S. "College reaches out to White City community with Invention Rooms". Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  51. ^ "Sir Michael Uren, engineer who poured vast sums into charitable projects from a fortune built on recycling steel-industry slag – obituary". The Daily Telegraph. 17 September 2019. Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  52. ^ "Open Cell launches affordable biotech hub in Shepherds Bush". Hammersmith & Fulham Council. 31 July 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  53. ^ "Imperial White City Incubator". Imperial College London. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  54. ^ "St Mary's Fleming Library". Imperial College London. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  55. ^ "Faculties and departments". Imperial College London. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  56. ^ "Multidisciplinary networks, centres and institutes". Imperial College. Retrieved 18 March 2023.
  57. ^ "Evening classes and lunchtime learning". Imperial College London. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  58. ^ Past Rectors, Imperial College London, archived from the original on 17 November 2008, retrieved 21 March 2009
  59. ^ "President Hugh Brady". Imperial College London.
  60. ^ "Composition and Membership". Imperial College London. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  61. ^ "Annual Report and Accounts 2020–21". Imperial College London. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  62. ^ a b "Imperial College and 'M.I.T.'". Nature. 153 (3873): 104. 1 January 1944. Bibcode:1944Natur.153R.104.. doi:10.1038/153104b0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  63. ^ "MIT expands partnership with Imperial College London". MIT News. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  64. ^ "MIT and Imperial launch 'unparalleled' student exchange". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  65. ^ "Home – LSGNT".
  66. ^ "Complete University Guide 2024". The Complete University Guide. 7 June 2023.
  67. ^ "Guardian University Guide 2024". The Guardian. 9 September 2023.
  68. ^ "Good University Guide 2024". The Times. 15 September 2023.
  69. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 15 August 2023.
  70. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2024". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. 27 June 2023.
  71. ^ "THE World University Rankings 2023". Times Higher Education. 12 October 2022.
  72. ^ "World University Rankings 2021". Times Higher Education. 25 August 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  73. ^ "Best universities in Europe". Times Higher Education (THE). 21 November 2018. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  74. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2024". Top Universities. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
  75. ^ "ARWU 2022". ARWU.
  76. ^ "USNEWS 2022-2023 Best Global Universities Rankings".
  77. ^ "MBA by Specialization – Entrepreneurship 2021". QS.
  78. ^ "Reuters". Reuters. 11 October 2018.
  79. ^ "Career University Guide". Career Prospects. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  80. ^ "Top UK University League Tables and Rankings 2020". Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  81. ^ "Undergraduate degrees: relative labour market returns (Table 7: HEI – conditional impact on earnings five years after graduation)". Department for Education. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  82. ^ Collinson, Patrick (23 September 2018). "Graduates of Imperial College beat Oxbridge on earnings". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  83. ^ a b "Results". Imperial College London. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  84. ^ a b "REF 2021: Quality ratings hit new high in expanded assessment". Times Higher Education (THE). 12 May 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  85. ^ "Imperial overall scores by UoA". Imperial College London. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  86. ^ "Background to the Group – Imperial Innovations". Archived from the original on 31 July 2016.
  87. ^ "How Imperial College is turning innovation into cash". 30 November 2015. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  88. ^ "Imperial College London – Fleming's early research is honoured". 1999. Retrieved 29 November 2019.[dead link]
  89. ^ Goff, David (8 October 2013). Fiber Optic Video Transmission: The Complete Guide. CRC Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-136-02490-0.
  90. ^ "USA and Canada | About | Imperial College London". Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  91. ^ "Imperial College London and CNRS create joint laboratory to bring world's best mathematicians together". (in French). Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  92. ^ "CRUK Imperial Center Website". Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  93. ^ "Joe Biden delivers inaugural cancer research lecture at Imperial". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  94. ^ Ferguson, Neil M; Laydon, Daniel; Nedjati-Gilani, Gemma; Imai, Natsuko; Ainslie, Kylie; Baguelin, Marc; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Cucunubá, Zulma; Cuomo-Dannenburg, Gina; Dighe, Amy; Fu, Han; Gaythorpe, Katy; Thompson, Hayley; Verity, Robert; Volz, Erik; Wang, Haowei; Wang, Yuanrong; Walker, Patrick GT; Walters, Caroline; Winskill, Peter; Whittaker, Charles; Donnelly, Christl A; Riley, Steven; Ghani, Azra C (16 March 2020). "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID-19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF). Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine: 20. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  95. ^ Landler, Mark; Castle, Stephen (17 March 2020). "Behind the Virus Report That Jarred the U.S. and the U.K. to Action – The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  96. ^ a b "Amid Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic, Governor Cuomo Announces State is Bringing in International Experts to Help Advise the State's Reopening Plan". New York State. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  97. ^ a b "UCAS Undergraduate Sector-Level End of Cycle Data Resources 2022". UCAS. Show me... Domicile by Provider. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  98. ^ "2022 entry UCAS Undergraduate reports by sex, area background, and ethnic group". UCAS. 2 February 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  99. ^ "University League Tables entry standards 2024". The Complete University Guide.
  100. ^ "Where do HE students study?: Students by HE provider". HESA. HE student enrolments by HE provider. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  101. ^ "Who's studying in HE?: Personal characteristics". HESA. 31 January 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  102. ^ "Widening participation: UK Performance Indicators: Table T2a - Participation of under-represented groups in higher education". Higher Education Statistics Authority. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  103. ^ "Good University Guide: Social Inclusion Ranking". The Times. 16 September 2022.
  104. ^ a b c "Statistics Guide 2021–22" (PDF). Imperial College London. 2022. Retrieved 24 November 2022.
  105. ^ a b "Most international universities in the world 2018: top 200". Times Higher Education (THE). 14 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  106. ^ a b "Widening participation: UK Performance Indicators 2016/17". Higher Education Statistics Authority. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  107. ^ "The World's Most International Universities 2017". Times Higher Education (THE). 1 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  108. ^ a b "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Authority. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  109. ^ "Science Museum Library closes to prepare for new research centre". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  110. ^ "Our libraries". Imperial College London. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  111. ^ "About us – Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust Internet". Archived from the original on 2 December 2015. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  112. ^ "Annual Report 2012/13" (PDF). Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  113. ^ "Meet the Council". Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
  114. ^ Woodward, Will (18 April 2003). "Female staff 'feel bullied' at Imperial College". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  115. ^ "Crude recipe for a 'chicken-run' sector". 31 May 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  116. ^ Colquhoun, David (2007). "How to get good science" (PDF). Physiology News. 69: 12–14.
  117. ^ "Imperial College London to 'review procedures' after death of academic". 27 November 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  118. ^ "Publish and perish at Imperial College London: the death of Stefan Grimm". December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  119. ^ "Imperial College professor Stefan Grimm 'was given grant income target'". 3 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  120. ^ "Stefan Grimm inquest: new policies may not have prevented suicide". Times Higher Education (THE). 9 April 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  121. ^ "Bullying: Imperial College London. Question for Department for Education". 24 November 2020. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  122. ^ Quinn, Ben (7 December 2020). "Imperial College accused of cover-up over claims of bullying by president". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  123. ^ "Imperial College under investigation by OfS over bullying scandal". The Guardian. 14 February 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  124. ^ "Where do HE students study?". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  125. ^ "World-ranked universities with the most international students". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  126. ^ "2013/14 Students by HE provider, level, mode and domicile". Higher Education Statistics Agency. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  127. ^ a b "Statistics Pocket Guide 2009–10" (PDF). Imperial College London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  128. ^ "Search best UK universities, make university comparisons and see student satisfaction ratings and UCAS points". Unistats. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  129. ^ Dave Parry. "Imperial College Union". Archived from the original on 30 April 2006. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  130. ^ "Felix : The student voice of Imperial College London" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  131. ^ "Sponsors". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  132. ^ Imperial College London. "Imperial College Sports Facilities". Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  133. ^ Imperial College London. "Imperial College Music Facilities". Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  134. ^ Imperial College Union. "Food and Drink". Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  135. ^ "Questions about Tankards". Archived from the original on 23 May 2017.
  136. ^ "Imperial College Radio, London, UK". Archived from the original on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
  137. ^ "Imperial College – Centenary website – Timeline – 1940–1949".
  138. ^ "Putney Boathouse development‌". Imperial College London. Retrieved 25 December 2018.[permanent dead link]
  139. ^ a b "Imperial College Union A to Z of Societies". Imperial College Union. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  140. ^ "Exploration Club". A timeline of College Developments.
  141. ^ "DramSoc". DramSoc. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
  142. ^ "Dramatic Changes". No. 371. Felix Newspaper. 9 December 1974. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  143. ^ "London Student Drama Festival". UCLU Drama. UCLU Drama Society. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
  144. ^ "Imperial A Cappella Society". Imperial College Union. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  145. ^ "Results". Varsity Vocals. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  146. ^ "College Accommodation Licence (2019–2020)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  147. ^ "Accommodation for returning students". Archived from the original on 26 April 2021. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  148. ^ "Award winners | Imperial College London". Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  149. ^ "Fields medallists". Imperial College London. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  150. ^ ‘KIBBLE, Sir Thomas (Walter Bannerman)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2016; online edn, Nov 2016 accessed 2 April 2017
  151. ^ "Virdee, Sir Tejinder Singh, (Born 13 Oct. 1952), Professor of Physics, Imperial College London, since 1996". Who's Who. 2013. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U257519. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  152. ^ Risen, Clay (7 January 2021). "Narinder S. Kapany, 'Father of Fiber Optics,' Dies at 94". The New York Times.
  153. ^ Dinesh C. Sharma (15 October 2009). "Nobel question mark". India Today.
  154. ^ Kanavi, Shivanand. "How India missed another Nobel Prize". Rediff.
  155. ^ "Narinder Singh Kapany: The relentless innovator behind the science of fibre optics". The New Indian Express.
  156. ^ "Pendry, Sir John (Brian), (Born 4 July 1943), Professor of Theoretical Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Imperial College London (Formerly Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of London), since 1981 (Head, Department of Physics, 1998–2001); Dean, Royal College of Science, 1993–96". Who's Who. 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U30495. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  157. ^ ‘INGOLD, Sir Christopher (Keik)’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  158. ^ ‘PERKIN, Sir William Henry’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2015; online edn, Feb 2015 accessed 2 April 2017
  159. ^ ‘FRANKLAND, Sir Edward’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  160. ^ ‘CROOKES, Prof. Sir William’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  161. ^ "Fersht, Sir Alan (Roy), (born 21 April 1943), Herchel Smith Professor of Organic Chemistry, University of Cambridge, 1988–2010; Fellow, since 1988, and Master, 2012–18, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; Hon. Director, Cambridge Centre for Protein Engineering (formerly MRC Unit for Protein Function and Design), 1989–2010; Emeritus Group Leader, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, since 2010". Who's Who. Oxford University Press. 1 December 2018. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U15668.
  162. ^ "Phillips, Prof. David, (born 3 Dec. 1939), Professor of Physical Chemistry, 1989–2006, Hofmann Professor of Chemistry, 1999–2006, now Professor Emeritus, and Dean, Faculties of Life Sciences and Physical Sciences, 2002–06, Imperial College London". Who's Who. Oxford University Press. 1 December 2018. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U30743.
  163. ^ ‘HOPKINS, Prof. Harold Horace’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  164. ^ ‘WHITEHEAD, Alfred North’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  165. ^ "Cowley, Prof. Steven, President, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, since 2016". Who's Who. 2015. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U261946. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  166. ^ ‘FLEMING, Sir (John) Ambrose’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  167. ^ "Davies, Dame Sally (Claire)". Who's Who & Who Was Who. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U13126. ISBN 978-0-19-954088-4.
  168. ^ "Higgins, Dame Julia (Stretton)". Who's Who & Who Was Who. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U20092. ISBN 978-0-19-954088-4.
  169. ^ "Hackitt, Dame Judith (Elizabeth)". Who's Who & Who Was Who. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U151505. ISBN 978-0-19-954088-4.
  170. ^ "Newitt, Dudley Maurice". Who's Who & Who Was Who. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U157958. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.
  171. ^ "Brown of Cambridge, Baroness (Julia Elizabeth King)". Who's Who & Who Was Who. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U41612. ISBN 978-0-19-954088-4.
  172. ^ Parrinder, Patrick (6 January 2011). "Wells, Herbert George (1866–1946), novelist and social commentator". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36831. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  173. ^ "Robins, Sir Ralph (Harry), (Born 16 June 1932), Chairman, Rolls-Royce PLC, 1992–2003". Who's Who. 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U32829. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  174. ^ "May, Dr Brian Harold, (Born 19 July 1947), guitarist, songwriter and producer; Owner, London Stereoscopic Company, since 2008". Who's Who. 2008. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U247368. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  175. ^ ‘VOGEL, Hon. Sir Julius’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  176. ^ ‘GANDHI, Rajiv’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 1920–2016; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014; online edn, April 2014 accessed 2 April 2017
  177. ^ "Thomas, Prof. Huw Jeremy Wyndham, (Born 25 Feb. 1958), Consultant Physician and Gastroenterologist, St Mary's Hospital, London, since 1994; Professor of Gastrointestinal Genetics, Imperial College London, since 2007; Physician to the Queen and Head of HM Medical Household, since 2014". Who's Who. 2014. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U282180. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  178. ^ "Bannister, Sir Roger (Gilbert), (Born 23 March 1929), Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, 1985–93; Hon. Consultant Physician, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, WC1 (Formerly Consultant Physician, National Hospital for Nervous Diseases), 1963–96; Hon. Consultant Neurologist: St Mary's Hospital and Western Ophthalmic Hospital, W2 (Formerly Consultant Neurologist); Oxford Regional and District Health Authorities, 1985–95". Who's Who. 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U6405. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  179. ^ "This little-known inventor has probably saved your life". BBC News. 18 July 2019.
  180. ^ "Mistry, Cyrus Pallonji, (Born 4 July 1968), Chairman, Tata Sons LTD, since 2012 (Director, since 2006)". Who's Who. 2014. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U268705. ISBN 978-0-19-954089-1.[permanent dead link]
  181. ^ "MP Chi Onwurah: "As an engineer, I was often the only Black person in the room"". Imperial News. Imperial College London. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  182. ^ "Women should never be afraid to ask questions, NASAs, new science chief". The Guardian. 17 March 2023.
  183. ^ "DANNY LUI". Greater Good Radio - Leaders Inspiring Leaders. 22 July 2006. Retrieved 15 September 2022.

External links

51°29′54″N 0°10′37″W / 51.498356°N 0.176894°W / 51.498356; -0.176894

This page was last edited on 24 September 2023, at 12:04
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.