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Illinois gubernatorial election, 1990

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Illinois gubernatorial election, 1990

← 1986 November 6, 1990 1994 →
JimEdgar2013 (cropped).png
No image.svg
Nominee Jim Edgar Neil Hartigan
Party Republican Democratic
Running mate Bob Kustra James B. Burns
Popular vote 1,653,126 1,569,217
Percentage 50.8% 48.2%

Illinois gubernatorial election, 1990.svg
County results

Governor before election

James R. Thompson

Elected Governor

Jim Edgar

The Illinois gubernatorial election were held in November 1990. Republican candidate Jim Edgar won his first of two terms in office, defeating Democrat Neil Hartigan by a narrow margin of about 80,000 votes.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Jay: A Rockefeller's Journey


Announcer: From WV Public Broadcasting   Jay, A Rockefeller's Journey is presented with financial assistance from the West Virginia Humanities Council.   § Woman singing somberly in German gives way to violin music.   Jay: Music is a huge part of my life.   §   Jay: I spend at least an hour to an hour and a half every single day listening to Johann Sebastian Bach. If you serve in public life, you need something that grounds you that puts things in perspective which is just sheer beauty, which is not about Republicans and Democrats fighting each other.   §   Jay: I started listening to music when I was about 6 and I started piano lessons when I was about 8 and I kept them up thru college. And I tend to like masses and oratorios and things that have to do with the death of Jesus Christ and the mourning of that.   §   Jay: It's something that touches your soul, something that's so beautiful that it takes the breath out of you. And it's haunting and it stays with you forever. It makes me a better person.   Narrator: Why would an heir to one of the nation's largest family fortunes, familiar and comfortable in the most elite circles, come to one of the poorest states in the nation and stay?   Jay: I think that I was meant to do this. I think this is what I was always meant to do.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller will choose his own and unexpected path, into public service, and public office. He'll go from Harvard student, to Peace Corps volunteer to social worker in WV. He'll go from the WV House of Delegates to the Secretary of States' office, from college president to governor and from the governor's office, to 3 decades in the US Senate.   Jay: I love the Senate. I love the Senate. I love the intensity of the work, the gravity of the issues. I love fighting for WV here.   Jay: I don't know of anything more honorable, more satisfying than helping people. But there's a lot of downside to it, exhaustion, failure.   Man: He's a friend of the people. He's been thru different trials and tribulations, may I say, that prove that he's really a friend of, not only the black people, but all people.   Narrator: He will say he learns experientially and he'll take with him the heartbreak and frustration he experiences, first as a student in a foreign country and later as a VISTA social worker, living among the poor who lack jobs, health care, quality education and often workers' rights. He'll take these experiences of social injustice all the way to the nation's capital, where he'll be an instrumental force in passing landmark legislation.   Wyden: Make no mistake about it, this has come about because a humble person who has been relentless in his admirable desire to stand up for those in need, said he was going to go to bat for this program every step of the way.   Jay: It's why I don't consider my being in elective office or being in the governorship or the Senate as a job. I consider it as a privilege, an opportunity to do things.   Robert Rupp: We're looking at a narrative that could not be written about in fiction. We're looking at someone from one of the most famous, and maybe infamous, families in American history, one of the wealthiest families, one who has been raised in an environment that WV is not even on the fringe. And yet he will end up coming to WV, he will end up staying in WV, he will end up working for WV, in a career that will span almost 50 years. That's an amazing story. It's an amazing legacy.   Applause   Narrator: Autumn 1957. The United States is experiencing its most prosperous time in decades. The Korean War is over, Dwight Eisenhower is in the White House and in a dorm room in one of the most elite Ivy League colleges resides an heir to one of the nation's largest family fortunes, amassed by one of its most ruthless industrial titans. The young man is 6 feet 6 inches tall and will inherit millions. But in many ways, he feels uncomfortable, unfulfilled, even stymied, like his father and to a greater extent, his father's father.   Jay: He was unhappy in his life a lot and one of the problems I saw in my grandfather and to some extent in my father was that they couldn't break free to be themselves until they were in their late '40s and '50s, but I saw that and I was determined that was not going to happen to me.   §   Narrator: John Rockefeller, nicknamed Jay, the great-grandson of John Davison Rockefeller, is born June 18, 1937 in New York City, just 3 weeks after the death of John D Senior. At the turn of the 20th century, John D is considered the most hated man in America, a reputation remembered to this day by the public and his family. As co-founder of Standard Oil Company, John D is despised for controlling up to 99% of the country's oil refining business by unapologetically crushing mom and pop refineries thru a brilliantly organized monopoly.   Jay: He was obviously a phenomenal business person, phenomenal and creative, grasping for more and more money. That was the way things were then. There were no rules and regulations. President Teddy Roosevelt finally passed the Sherman Antitrust Law. He divided the Standard Oil Company into 13 different companies, all of which my great-grandfather had huge amounts of stock in, right? So it just made him richer. It was still a good Act, but I've always been struck by the irony of that.   Narrator: John D becomes a billionaire and possibly the richest man in the world. His wealth ensures unmatched opportunities for generations of descendants, including a life of opulence at the secluded, secure, sprawling family estate he built in Pocantico Hills, NY. This is where Jay will visit his grandfather, during the Great Depression, accompanied by his sisters, Sandra, two years older, and Hope, 11 months younger. When America enters World War II, Rockefeller's father moves the family to Washington DC where he serves as a Navy lieutenant commander. The youngest child, Alida, is born in 1948. Less than a year later, Jay is sent away to boarding school, to exclusive Phillips-Exeter Academy in New Hampshire.   Jay: I was 12. I was too young to go to prep school. I'd grown so much. I was already huge when I was in elementary school. So back in those days they just advanced you a grade. That's a bad thing to do, especially to a young male, if you go into your class, at least a year younger than everybody else. That's one of the reasons I'm not that much of a socializer and I'm a little bit of an introvert.   Narrator: The national economy is now booming. Rockefeller graduates Exeter and moves right onto Harvard College, with most assuming the great-grandson will one day head one of the Rockefeller Family enterprises.   Jay: Why did I go to Harvard? Because virtually everybody in my class at Exeter went to Harvard, but I didn't like Harvard and it was in the middle of the '50s, end of the '50s. People were just satisfied. People weren't driven to talk about interesting and difficult things or other people's problems.   Narrator: Then come Jay's junior year and a defining moment.   Jay: I was elected president of a very elite social club, which meant that I would have to spend my senior year, convincing thru black tie dinners Harvard students to join the Fly Club. 'Had my own office, I had a rope that I could pull and somebody in a white coat would come up and say, "What would you like." After 3 weeks, I went to the person I felt closest to at Harvard, Doctor Ed Reischauer, and I said, "Get me out of here fast. I don't want to become what I think I will become unless I go contrary to what's going on in life now around here." I wanted out and within I think 3 weeks or so I was in Japan. I knew I had to make a break in order to begin to figure out who I was, what I wanted to do and I wanted it to be worthy.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller's career path will surprise his parents and his journey will be unlike that of any other Rockefeller of his generation. Throughout, he will remain profoundly influenced and motivated by Rockefeller Family legacy and by family history. Other Rockefellers of his generation are influenced, too.   Jay: It's interesting that all of the women in my generation in the Rockefeller family and there are many more women than men, they have all, including all 3 of my sisters, when they were in their teens, they dropped their last name of Rockefeller. It was just not a good name to have. It put many impediments into their relationships at school and elsewhere. And so they dropped it and to this day, none of them have taken it back.   Narrator: It's important to note the complexity of the Rockefeller patriarch and how some characteristics of John Davison Senior can be seen threaded throughout succeeding generations of Rockefellers. While he boasted of his business prowess, John D Senior was a staunch Baptist, who frowned on notoriety and frivolous and decadent living.   Rupp: Then you immediately go to the son and the son said, "I was born in wealth and I couldn't do anything about it", but the question is what do you do with wealth and what he did with wealth was start giving it away, philanthropy. The next generation is into service, with the 2 uncles who are Governor. And then that leads us to Jay's generation, what they called the Cousins. This amazing 4th generation is still Rockefellers, still extremely one of the largest family fortunes in America. Where are they gonna go? And it seems that they part. Some of them reject it during the '60's and go away and some of them, like Jay, embrace it. But what they're embracing here is service: "I have wealth, I have power. I'm gonna do something for my country, for my nation."   Jay: Really, I think it's a matter of just feeling that public service is the area in which the most can be done and that the opportunity to help America or a small part of it is the greatest in public service. And therefore for me, it's the most exciting career.   Narrator: Although he is a great-grandson, John Rockefeller the Harvard student is not John D Rockefeller IV. While rejecting a life of leisure the family dynasty can afford him, he requests the patriarch's name.   Jay: My birth certificate says John Rockefeller to spare me from the John D. Rockefeller IV thing. But the fact of the matter is I'm very proud of the name. I wrote my grandfather, John D Rockefeller Junior and I asked him for permission to change my name to John D Rockefeller IV, because in a way that increased the pressure on me to do good, to live up to this awesome name and do good.   Rupp: So many people in the Rockefeller family would end up trying to run away or hide from and what he's really doing is going right to the source and embracing it. And I think that says something about his character, it says something about his ambition, something about what he wants to do with the Rockefeller name. By adopting the great-grandfather's name he said, "I'm not doin' PR here, I'm not running away from this." It was a very striking action by a young man of 21.   Jay: And the letter that my grandfather wrote me is absolutely beautiful.   Interviewer: What did he say?   Jay: That you're obviously very proud of our family, you want to do good. And that makes it very easy for me to give you permission. Did I need his permission? In my mind I did.   Narrator: At the time, John the 3rd, working closely with Jay's mother, Blanchette, runs the Rockefeller Foundation. Jay's father also heads the Rockefeller Brothers Fund and organizes first-of-their kind national commissions on philanthropy. He manages all Rockefeller medical research and public health programs. He also establishes the Population Council, helps build the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City and sets up the United Negro College Fund. These are just a few of Jay's parents' philanthropies and passions.   Jay: They worked hard. They were very strict Baptists. It wasn't a touchy, feely type family. To be honest, if I wanted to see my father in our home I had to make an appointment to go see him in his study as did my sisters, my 3 sisters. It was a formal house. When we had important friends of my father to dinner we were sent upstairs to eat upstairs because you don't mix those 2 things. And that hurt a little bit. But the main thing was that he worked and he worked really, really hard. And so did my mother. It was harder those days for women to work. She found ways. She was president of the Museum of Modern Art. She did all kinds of things.   Interviewer: Your younger sister was quoted many years ago as saying, "My father and mother's greatest fear was that their 4 children might take their wealth for granted and grow up spoiled and arrogant."   Jay: Spot on. She's exactly right. And unfortunately it's worked out in the cases of some of my generation that they have kind of been trust fund babies. To me, if you don't work you don't exist. I think you have to work. It doesn't have to change the world. It doesn't even have to change the block or the rural road that you live on; but you have to work and again it has to be hard. I measure people by that. I think work is part of salvation. Working for an honorable purpose is more a part of salvation.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller leaves the comfort and prestige of Harvard to teach English at the very new International Christian University in Tokyo, Japan. He decides to enroll as a student as well to learn the Japanese language. And all this makes sense. His parents had long worked on developing cultural ties with Japan, not a popular effort among many Americans following WW II. The Rockefellers had also made lasting friendships among the Japanese people, including one with Shoichiro Toyoda who, decades later, would become chairman of Toyota Motor Corporation. As a teenager, Jay travels twice to Japan in the 1950s with his parents. Earlier, while at Exeter, he gets permission to skip a science class in order to take Chinese and Japanese history. So while Asian studies are already of interest to the Harvard student, leaving his senior year for Japan is not a calculated move.   Jay: It wasn't, in fact, calculated at all. My reason for going to Japan was I wanted to get out of what I thought I might become if I stayed at Harvard, getting into something where I not only couldn't speak the language but where everybody was different and I was tremendously tall and they'd never sort of seen anything like that before. So it was the getting out factor. Putting yourself in hard situations, tough situations, where you have to survive by your wits and study of the language over a period of 3 years, that's a long time.   Narrator: While Jay had visited the country before, he could not have known how living as a student in Japan would affect him.   Jay: This is 12 years after the end of WW II and they were on the mat. They were down. They were struggling. In the deepest sense they were struggling. Those were my friends. Those were my roommates. We lived together in the middle of a rice field in a paper and wood shack and walk or bicycle every day, in my case to learn the Japanese language. Japanese is hard, the written language, 3,500 ideographs; kanji they call it. And it was hard. And that's when you got up really early in the morning and it was cold and you practice and you practice and you practice and you practice. And I got good at Japanese. And I went to farms of my roommates, friends' families or their families which had been in their families for 30 generations and began to understand what a long, committed history of hard work and hardship brings to people. It was a very personal experience for me, a very deep experience. It was the beginning of putting me on the track to public service.   Narrator: And so the seeds of what will become the 2nd biggest single industrial investment in WV history, the Toyota Motor Corporation Plant in Buffalo, are sown in the late 1950s, in a rice field, in a small wooden house in late night and early morning study of the Japanese language.   Rupp: Fast forward and suddenly what is happening? Toyota is bringing their plant to WV and who is in the middle making the deal, but Jay Rockefeller. He's the bridge.   Narrator: 1,200 jobs, a billion-point-3 in investment after a decade of trips and meetings to promote WV, his adopted home. As WV's Governor, Rockefeller will set up an economic development office in Japan, a move criticized by many during a national recession. Years later, as US Senator, meeting in Japan with Doctor Shoichiro Toyoda and his staff in Japan, Rockefeller seals the deal for the automotive plant, thanks in part to his knowledge of the Japanese language.   Lane Bailey: And one of the Japanese said to the other, "This isn't gonna work, this State is not the place to put this plant. Have you heard about the labor problems?" And I saw Jay just sitting there listening to this conversation and then suddenly Jay spoke out in Japanese to the people having this conversation. They realized for the first time, "Oh my God, he recognized what we were saying" and the room fell silent. Having a US Senator who speaks Japanese and writes Japanese was very useful in these discussions. And then we had a high five at the end of that meeting and Doctor Toyoda shook his hand and said, "We're gonna go to WV." It was really awesome!   WV Representative: The doors are always open.   Narrator: By the time Rockefeller retires from public office, more than 20 Japanese companies establish facilities in WV.   Tom Heywood: I think it's impossible to overstate the significance of that relationship begun over a half century ago and what it's meant for WV a half a century later, but not just the jobs created by foreign investment, but by jobs here created by West Virginians, direct investment by US companies, WV companies, small business entrepreneurs, you can really see Jay light up because he has a great appreciation of the power and importance of a job and a good job for every West Virginian.   Applause   Narrator: A grateful Japan bestows upon John D Rockefeller IV the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Son as he begins his final year in the US Senate.   Toshiaki Taguchi: I think he has a very fair assessment between Japan and the US. He always tries to make the 2 bilateral relations better, like his father. We admire the family's contribution to Japan and the US relationship very much.   Taguchi: And join me as we salute our very good friend, Senator Jay Rockefeller. Kanpai!   Crowd: Kanpai!   Jay: Two of the people who wanted to come were friends of mine from that place and they couldn't come because they're older. And they texted me their sort of grief and I texted them that, as far as I was concerned, they were there; they'd always been there for me and they were there on that night.   Jay: We have enjoyed a deep friendship rooted in our mutual values, like service and dedication to our family and country.   Jay: If I hadn't gone to Japan, would I have been here in WV? I want to say yes, but I can't prove that. I had to get outside of my box, outside of my comfort zone, my privilege zone.   § Narrator: Jay Rockefeller returns from Japan in 1960, a year he defies Rockefeller Republican tradition: He votes for a Democrat for President.   Jay: I voted for Kennedy over Nixon, so that was the break point, right? That was an easy decision for me.   Narrator: But he doesn't change his party registration, he says, out of respect for his Uncle Nelson, Governor of New York, who's running for the Republican Party's presidential nomination.   Jay: And I could not go down and register as a Democrat because that would have been unkind or a slap in the face to him. So that's what held things up.   Narrator: 1960 is also the year Rockefeller gains national attention for articles published that summer in the New York Times and Life Magazine. In the articles, he explores reasons for student demonstrations in Japan and Japan's mutual security treaty with the US. 1960 also ushers in America's decade of idealism, change and political upheaval.   Jay: I'm a child of the '60s. 'Sounds funny to hear myself say that but I am. People just believed in the promise of America and the promise of what was within each of them. And they weren't afraid to take on new things, new ideas, the Peace Corps, Legal Aid, Head Start and all kinds of things that were put in place by a guy named R Sargent Shriver, who is my all-time hero.   Narrator: Rockefeller graduates Harvard in 1961 with a degree in Far Eastern Languages and History. He immediately enters Yale for a 5-year program to learn Chinese. But the New York Times and Life magazine articles catch the attention of the new Kennedy Administration, including Sargent Shriver, who's developing the Peace Corps program. Shriver sends a letter to Jay Rockefeller, asking him to join the effort. Rockefeller leaves Yale, joins the National Advisory Council of the Peace Corps and becomes a special assistant to Shiver in Washington.   Jay: He was so talented, he was so determined. He just never stopped pouring out good ideas and then making good on those ideas. The Peace Corps was laughed at by many, in the very early '60's. And he went to every single Congressperson and lobbied and got the money.   Narrator: After a year, Shriver assigns Rockefeller to head the Philippines program, the largest in the Peace Corps.   Charles Peters: We have a project in the Philippines requiring teachers of English.   Narrator: Rockefeller meets Charlie Peters, director of evaluation at the Peace Corps, a WV native and former state legislator.   Peters: One day, this tall, lanky guy stuck his nose into my door and said, "Somebody, 'X', told me we should get to know each other, so you want to have lunch?" So we had lunch. It turned out our first bond was not over any high intellectual calling, but we both love baseball and football. [Laughter] And so, we got to talking about sports.   Narrator: The Harvard-educated and well-connected Rockefeller knows the Kennedy family socially. He's attended White House dinners and been to Hickory Hills, Robert Kennedy's home.   Peters: Why I expected him to be a stuffy prig. I just didn't imagine that someone that rich would be nice [Laughter]. I thought he'd be spoiled to death and all that and very elitist. He was none of those things; he was very down to earth, super down to earth.   Narrator: After 2 years in the Peace Corps, Rockefeller joins the State Department's Far Eastern Affairs office, but soon confides in his close friend that he isn't satisfied as an administrative officer at a Washington desk. He wants a more hands-on job working at a grassroots level impacting poverty.   Peters: My first line of persuasion was, "Well, if you want to know about poverty, come to WV."   Robert Kennedy: Our program here in Charleston --.   Peters: Robert Kennedy, who was then the Attorney General, was in charge of a program called the President's Council on Juvenile Delinquency, which was running the pilot programs that turned into the War on Poverty and one of those was something called Action for Appalachian Youth and headquartered in Charleston. Bobby said, "Well, if you want to go to WV, why don't you check in with those people. So Jay went to work out in a little town called Emmons.   Narrator: The isolated community of Emmons, WV is located on the Kanawha County/Boone County border, 20 miles south of Charleston. Its population in 1964 is about 240. All, but 13 of its 60 families, are on welfare.   Shirley Giles: Anywhere I'd see him, he'd say, "Why Shirley!" He just seemed like one of my boys.   Narrator: Lifelong Emmons resident Shirley Giles was a member of one of these working families. In 1964, her husband is a chemical worker and a Baptist preacher. Shirley is raising their 2 sons and attending college.   Giles: When Jay came to Emmons, first time I saw him he came over here in the yard and I had all my mattresses out sunnin' them. And I said, "You must be a Rockefeller." I looked up at him, I was short and I was right. And from then on we were very close.   Narrator: Shirley soon learns the young man has an insatiable appetite.   Giles: Pinto beans and cornbread and fried pies and 'said I baked fabulous pecan pies. We'd have cucumbers and onions in a dish with vinegar on it and he'd just stick his fingers in there and eat it.   Rupp: What is amazing is that there should not be an intersection between the man and the state. Jay is part of one of the wealthiest families in the nation and he's coming to one of the poorest states in the nation. He seems like an alien, he seems like an outsider and the term they used was carpetbagger. How will he adapt to the Appalachia that is not at all part of his experience?   Giles: Some people rejected him because they knew he had money and because of his name. A lot of people was on welfare and things like that and drank and that's all they knew.   Jay: Being a VISTA volunteer is an incredibly intimate experience. I was this tall stranger coming from the city that everybody loved to hate and with a name that lots of people love to hate. And so what was I doing there? It was hard to explain it to myself even at the time but I was trying to get out of my comfort zone and to learn what real people in the real world, what they face, what they're up against.   Giles: He's kind and tender and caring and loving and patient. He had to be patient to work here in Emmons, but he wasn't afraid to put his finger in it and get it burned.   Jay: What saved me is I've always been good with kids. There's one railroad track that goes thru Emmons. I would sit on the rail; they would sit on the rail. We would sort of toss rocks, not at each other, but just pick 'em up and toss 'em. And then they got comfortable. And then one of them said, "Ah come on; let's go back to my house and we'll get something to eat. And that broke the whole thing. I hadn't proved myself but I had demystified myself in some way which they found acceptable.   Shriver: We've started a domestic Peace Corps called VISTA. 9,000 Americans have volunteered to serve in that for $50 a month.   Narrator: The VISTA program emphasizes citizen-directed community improvement projects. But getting that input becomes another lesson in the education of Jay Rockefeller.   Jay: People generally, I think, in WV, are nervous about change because if you've got what you've got, at least you've got that even if you don't like it, you've got what you've got. And any idea of something new, doing something new, organizing a community organization was nerve wracking. People would come to community meetings and sometimes some of the men face the other directions, because they were not accustomed to talking in public settings. A community meeting was a strange organism and a threatening organism.   Narrator: The national press follows John D Rockefeller IV to WV which has a level of poverty only recently discovered by President Kennedy and along with Kennedy, much of the rest of the nation. Rockefeller talks to reporters about a fatalism he sees in the community he's living in, comments that anger many West Virginians who let Jay know about it. This is the first of what will be a pattern for Jay Rockefeller throughout his career, speaking without filtering his comments from saying West Virginians suffer with an inferiority complex, while he's Secretary of State in the late 1960s, all the way to his last months in the US Senate, while chairing his Senate Commerce Committee, when he says some oppose the Affordable Care Act because President Obama is "maybe of the wrong color." Rockefeller remains undeterred by the backlash over such comments.   Jay: You have to face up to things that potentially hold you back. And if they make people uncomfortable, then you're wrong to say it if it's not true, if it is true, somebody has to say it, maybe it shouldn't be me, but somebody has to say it. And you have to make people want to be, as they say, all that they can be.   Narrator: Eventually the hard feelings about the comment on fatalism in Emmons dissipate to a point that allows Rockefeller to assess multiple service needs and move several basic initiatives forward.   Giles: He provided transportation to the kids to dental clinics. He tried to encourage 'em to go to school. He helped a lot of children in the community get jobs. I don't know whether anybody could have just came in and done that; 'takes a special person.   Narrator: Rockefeller uses his connections to bring celebrities to Emmons, like Cleveland Browns running back Jim Brown. He also brings Little League Baseball to the community.   Jay: We started a baseball team. They had never had a bat, they had never had a glove, they'd thrown rocks but they hadn't thrown baseballs, baseballs were expensive. And they got pretty good and they saw themselves getting pretty good.   Narrator: Rockefeller leads the building of a community center, the material for which comes primarily from an abandoned school building in another section of the county.   Charles Ryan: It isn't the Rockefeller Center that the world thinks of, but to the people of Emmons, WV, it's just as important. Rockefeller Center, consisting of a community building and park, was conceived by anti-poverty worker John D Rockefeller IV. The people, in appreciation, named the center Rockefeller Center.   Narrator: John D Rockefeller 3rd visits Emmons for the official opening. Jay is also successful in getting the women of Emmons access to mobile health screenings and successfully petitions the board of education to extend school bus service into the rural community.   Peters: It was clear that he loved the people and they loved him. He was going to WV to learn about poverty, learn about domestic problems but now, he'd fallen in love and he was gonna stay.   Jay: It was really hard emotionally to see what they were going thru, emotionally to see the way they were getting shafted at every corner, by every form of government and private sector. And I kept a diary every day which I didn't read for 50 years, it was sort of like a sacred document to me. In reading that, I realized how much I grew, how I changed, how much they did, the people of Emmons, to make me who I believe I am. But you can't stay your whole life at Emmons. And if you are gonna do something more, which I wanted to, it has to be at a level where the reach of what you do is farther. You had to be in politics, in WV politics, in national politics.   §   Narrator: January 31, 1966, after living 2 years in WV, a state historically dominated by the Democratic Party, Jay Rockefeller adds his name to the list of Kanawha County candidates, vying for a seat in the House of Delegates. It is also the day he changes his voting registration from Republican to Democrat, to the disappointment of many Mountaineer Republicans.   Jay: I am a Democrat. Since 1960, I've really felt myself to be a Democrat, although I realize that public image would probably be different. But I've voted Democratic, I've contributed.   Tom Potter: We in the Republican Party had high hopes that he would become our leader, to become the Republican candidate and be a leader. He, for whatever reason, chose the other route.   Rupp: He's very liberal in terms of both social issues and economic. I think he gained that in the 1960s, that liberal agenda of governmental action. I see that as fitting into his character and as we know for the next 40 years in office he was one of the most liberal Democrats we had. So this was no sheep's clothing cover at all. I think it fit the political need of winning and it was also a comfortable fit in terms of ideology.   Nelson Rockefeller: You only get reelected if you get things done, not if you promise them.   Narrator: Knowing his uncle, New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, plans to seek the presidency in 1968, Jay tells him of his Republican Party defection face-to-face.   Jay: He was very busy but he fit me into a drive in his limousine from one appointment to another. And I told him and he just stopped and turned and looked at me. And he said, "I wish I had done that."   §   Narrator: Rockefeller says his Uncle Nelson, who represented the Republican Party's most liberal wing, felt an obligation to remain in the Party, because of family tradition.   Jay: And he meant it! His eyes misted over. I distinctly remember that. And then he was always very close to me afterwards because he felt that I was doing something hard. I had a job. I was in politics. And it's rough, and tumble, in New York, and it's rough and tumble in WV.   Narrator: The 28-year-old's candidacy for the WV House of Delegates becomes national news. The New York Times says Rockefeller is a shoo-in. And it is a spectacular May primary win. Among about 60 candidates for 14 House seats, he leads the entire field 7,000 votes ahead of the 2nd place candidate. While in November's general election Republicans capture 9 of those 14 seats Rockefeller again gets the most votes, 4,000 votes ahead of his nearest competitor.   Potter: In the House, as a member of the Legislature, he was influential, even as a freshman.   Narrator: Tom Potter is one of the 9 Republicans who capture house seats from Kanawha County in 1966.   Potter: I have fond memories of Jay. He was a very congenial guy, good to talk to, nice to be around, a little bit aloof, as I recall, spoke his mind when he needed to, otherwise kept pretty much to himself. He was not totally comfortable being a West Virginian at the time, but he adapted rapidly and he was well liked by everyone around him.   Jack Canfield: Jay, I would not say that he was aloof or distant. What I would say is that he was like a duck that's calm on the top and paddling like hell underneath.   Narrator: Rockefeller successfully shepherds a stream pollution control bill thru the legislature that first session, but operates mostly behind the scenes.   Potter: In the Legislature, it isn't always what you pass or you defeat, it's what you do in committees, where you make your reputation. He evolved as a leader of the Finance Committee, not the Chair, but as one whose views were sought.   Narrator: But 1967 stands out in Rockefeller's journey, not so much for that inaugural session, but as the year he marries Sharon Percy on the first of April.   Sharon Rockefeller: I volunteered in my first campaign when I was 14 for Don Rumsfeld, who's now Secretary of Defense. I met Jay while I was working in a Congressman's office in Washington. His name was Gerald Ford. And of course, I campaigned for my father.   Narrator: Sharon Percy, daughter of future Republican US Senator Charles Percy of Illinois, is a student intern from Stanford University when she first agrees to a date with Jay Rockefeller.   Jay: She came down the stairs, turned right and I was facing this absolute vision of beauty in a white dress, blonde hair, just wonderful human being. I never had another date after that.   Narrator: At the time, Percy is a member of the Stanford Chorus.   Jay: She has a beautiful voice, a soprano voice, absolutely beautiful. The Stanford Chorus was singing with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, Haydn's Creation, which I love. I was in the audience. For some reason there was a light way up in the ceilings which seemed to be shining directly on her blonde head. And it just washed me away.   Sharon: I had a year to finish in college. We fell in love pretty quickly but obviously I was going to finish school and then things started picking up steam right after that, after I graduated.   §   Newsreel Announcer: Two of America's most wealthy, prominent and influential families are united in marriage. John D Rockefeller IV takes Sharon Lee Percy to be his wife. The Illinois Senator, Charles Percy is the father of the bride. Guests include George Hamilton and Linda Bird Johnson. Political, business and society leaders watch Sharon Lee and John blissfully kiss single life goodbye.   Sharon: Ok, girls, come on.   Narrator: Sharon Percy Rockefeller has been Jay Rockefeller's partner in every way. As a seasoned campaigner herself, she's been of great support and counsel.   Sharon: Politics is not for sissies. [Chuckles] It's really hard and you have to have a tough skin to get thru it. And you have to really believe that your message and what you're trying to do is the right thing to do. And if you believe that, you just plow forward.   §   Narrator: The 22-year-old bride and Jay's mother, Blanchette, become very close.   Sharon: She and I hit it right off. My mother had died young, so I just found it very easy to be with her. I guess that was it. And we both liked the same things and above all she liked art. She was president of the Museum of Modern Art in New York which was founded by her mother-in-law, Abby Aldridge Rockefeller. Now I'm a board member of the Museum of Modern Art. So this sort of gets passed down thru the daughters-in-law less the name Rockefellers thru the sons, but the art interest is very definitely there in the women of the family and we really did quite adore each other.   Narrator: Blanchette Rockefeller watches in delight as her daughter-in-law develops her own interests and takes on her own causes. She founds the Mountain Artisans, a quilting business for low-income WV women, this while working as a teacher's assistant. She serves on the boards of Sunrise Museum, the WV Humanities Council and Holz Elementary PTA. Sharon Rockefeller goes from board member of the WV Educational Broadcasting Authority to a national player in Public Broadcasting. All while raising 4 children and always supporting her husband's work.   Jay: Who is an enormous factor in my life? Sharon, my wife; strong women: There's a great value in marrying strong women.   Interviewer: You recommend it.   Jay: I recommend it.   Narrator: With the support of his new bride, Jay Rockefeller enters a 3-way primary race for WV Secretary of State in early 1968.   Jay: The question is, if you have corrupt elections and I'd say in most places we don't have them in this state, in the vast majority of places, but we do in some places and that's an incredibly great evil, the fact of having those corrupt elections. And stopping that, I think, is important.   Potter: I will never forget the conversation we had around the rotunda, before he made that decision, where I urged him to run for treasurer because, at the time, we had a treasurer who later was convicted and sent to prison. And I thought that he had an opportunity to replace him, but he took the open seat, which was the smart, political thing to do and the rest is kind of history.   Narrator: But Rockefeller is offered an opportunity that could have altered history, that summer, when US Senator Robert Kennedy of New York is gunned down.   Jay: And I was devastated. My uncle, Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of the State of New York, called me and said, "Jay, I want you to take his seat." Now that's very awkward. I said no, I said, "First of all, I think that's called nepotism". But he had the power to appoint me. And I said no to him. It was just immediate. And he said I could do it as a Democrat. But it just gets back to the same thing: I knew what I was doing. I was still in WV, early, I wanted to stay.   Narrator: Rockefeller continues campaigning, giving speeches, like this one to a society of professional engineers in Huntington.   James Casto: He said that he was glad to be there, even though many of them had come to see what a real live carpetbagger looks like. I thought then and still think now that it was very savvy on his part to confront the carpetbagger issue so directly. I came away very impressed.   §   Narrator: With Sharon by his side, Jay campaigns to victory in November, beating Republican candidate John Callebs by 155,000 votes. Rockefeller immediately pushes for election law reform, using his office to bust up several notorious county political machines, all Democratic.   Jay: Democrats must be willing to commit themselves to election law reform. We have to take the lead in that.   Bob Brunner: Rockefeller was this wonderful, wealthy, amazing nationally recognized young man who had come in to save WV, with all the liberal ideas and principles. Once he was elected Secretary of State, he decided he was going to get rid of the 5 most corrupt members of the State Senate. And so as the liberal wing of the Democratic Party watched with shining amazement and everybody else watched in horror, these young Turks went down and they took out of the Senate Noah Floyd of the Noah Floyd machine in Mingo County and they took out W Bernard Smith of Logan County. There were 5 of them they took out.   Jay: I had to make some changes. I said there would be, in the running of an election, no more exchange of cash. Everything had to be done by a check for which there are obviously receipts, so everything is transparent. The place went crazy. And the second thing I did was I issued an order that all dead people who are still registered on the voting rolls and who all had been voting for a number of years had to be banned and excluded and taken off the voting rolls. And they were. It turned out there were 10,000 of them. Now if you're a Democratic county chairman in Southern WV, you are not happy about that. If you're a Democratic county chairman anywhere you're not happy about that, but it was the right thing to do.   Narrator: That first year in statewide office is also marked by the July birth of the Rockefellers' first child, John, nicknamed Jamie, who will eventually also choose the middle name Davison. The young family splits time between their Charleston home and a just-purchased 3,000-acre home site in Pocahontas County. The Secretary of State sets his sights on the Governor's Mansion.   §   Narrator: By 1970, Secretary of State Rockefeller is acting more and more like gubernatorial candidate Rockefeller. He's criticizing the extremely popular Republican Governor, Arch Moore, for taking credit for successes that Rockefeller says aren't rightfully Moore's, and he's criticizing executive decisions.   Jay: One of the problems was the Governor didn't include it in his call, he didn't recognize it as a problem, he didn't say there was a problem, he didn't ask for any more money and we cannot have that in this state, to have children without food.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller declares his candidacy for Governor in January 1972. After a Democratic primary win, with 72% of the vote, the 35-year-old faces 49-year-old Arch Moore.   Bailey: These are 2 men very generationally apart and politically generationally apart, as well.   Gov Arch Moore: Good to see you. Good Morning.   Supporter: Good morning, Governor.   Bailey: Governor Moore was kind of the old school WV politician and Jay Rockefeller positioned himself as new school, was gonna think differently about politics in the State. And that was what attracted me and many others to his campaign.   Jay: 50,000 new jobs.   Bailey: It was clear that this is a guy who was willing to look at things differently that had been ingrained in WV for generations. He was going to be a different leader in the State. That pulled me to him and others it repulsed.   Narrator: Rockefeller again enters the national spotlight as Parade Magazine predicts the candidate will seek the US Presidency after serving as Governor of WV. He's compared to John Kennedy for his "youth, energy and loyalty". And Sharon Rockefeller is compared to Jackie Kennedy, described as "young, pretty and stylish."   Sharon: I don't think people vote for or against a candidate because of his wife, but it always helps to meet people. And I think this is what's been lost in American politics.   Narrator: The months pass, and the gubernatorial campaign grows increasingly ugly.   Moore: These are the 31 jobs created to elect this man to public office and not one for the benefit of the state of WV!   Jay: Your record is clear on manufacturing loss of over 10,000 jobs. You have failed.   Narrator: Rockefeller, as he did in 1968, faces harsh criticism for his exemption from military service.   RL Bonar: To my knowledge, he is the only person in the history of the State of WV to claim legislative services to gain exception from military service. I am glad that this dubious distinction is held by a displaced New Yorker and not a native West Virginian.   Jay: I was between wars, between the Korean and Vietnam War, and when it came my time for service, there was a President who said something about trying to help one's country. And there being no war, I joined the Peace Corps.   Bailey: There's the famous commercial in 1972 against Rockefeller where a New York City taxi cab driver was intercepted by a crew and a microphone was put in his face and the question was asked, "What would you think about a West Virginian becoming Governor of New York?" And the cab driver looked interestingly at the question and then laughed. And that was the commercial, one 30-second spot; devastating spot because it filled all the negatives that people had about Jay.   Narrator: But Jay had stepped into a hornets' nest of his own making, declaring he'd work to outlaw strip mining in WV.   Jay: We cannot have strip mining as an industry and still hope to have my children, but more importantly, their children, have a place where they can happily live and work. And I think only an abolition of strip mining will make that possible.   Rupp: That certainly pleased his base of reformers but it certainly upset the coal interest and the coal supporters.   Woman: I voted for him before, but I don't intend to vote for him again and from what I've heard and speaking to the people involved in this situation, I don't think any of us are.   Sharon: Things were just out of sync. Whatever his intentions were, they weren't taken that way and they weren't to hurt the coal industry as much as help it and not do so much damage to the environment. That's what that was about. The economy was bad and when the economy is bad, everything else gets negative too.   Canfield: I remember being on the Jay bus and going thru McDowell County and this is not a figment of my imagination. There actually were people with rifles up on some of the mountaintops. And I remember at one point Jay saying, "I want a frozen-custard at that stand right over there." And his Chief of Security, his bodyguard whom we called Odd Job, said, "I don't think it's a good idea to get out of the Jay bus here and walk over there right now. I mean, you're in deep strip mining territory, they are very antagonistic toward you." And he said, "I don't give a damn. I want a frozen-custard." So he got out and he went over and got it and he got back on the bus.   Lou Ann Johnson: In 1972, I was 14 and he came to my high school, Sophia High School in Raleigh County. And my dad was the assistant principal and actually was tasked with takin' 'em around. An underdog, given his position on strip mining, he wasn't exactly popular. So, it was a very rainy evening, just sheets of rain. And they moved the homecoming festivities into the gymnasium. But he couldn't speak in the gym. Instead, he was told he could speak out in the stadium and in literally sheets of rain. And there were maybe 2 dozen people who had come out from the gym to hear him. And I connected with that. He'd come to my little town and waited for his turn to speak and did so in a driving rain.   Brunner: As WV's gubernatorial campaign thunders to a close, the 2 candidates are doing what they've been doing for the past few months. Candidate Rockefeller is out campaigning, shaking hands, making speeches and promising things. Arch Moore is telling the voters what he has done.   Narrator: November 7, 1972: Jay Rockefeller, whose political star had seemed unstoppable, is trounced in the general election.   Moore: We knew how we wanted to develop the campaign and it went just generally according to scale.   Narrator: In a state that has a 2-1 Democratic majority, Republican Arch Moore wins a second term by 73,000 votes.   Rupp: 1972 was a disaster for the Democrats nationwide because McGovern was seen as too radical so they were defeated across the way. More importantly Jay was going against the most popular Governor and certainly the most popular Republican Governor, Arch Moore, a governor in the governor's mansion, who was an amazing campaigner.   Women: Oh, we love ya. Yeah!   Rupp: And it was seen by Jay and those around him that his stand on strip mining cost him the election. And the 4th was money, that people were distrustful about the money.   Potter: Here's the verdict.   Applause   Sharon: The very end, I didn't realize, 'cause the campaign didn't tell me that he was gonna lose, and I remember election night thinking, I was just crying and what's going on, and they had polling, they knew. But losses are losses and it's how people pick themselves up and put their lives back together that matters.   Jay: And I certainly don't rule out another run at the governorship in 1976.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller learns several lessons from his only defeat at the polls.   Bailey: Jay in 1972 and before 1972 failed to understand just how complex something like surface mining is. Not because Jay isn't smart, wouldn't have understood it, but he reacted to the issue like most people react to surface mining initially from an emotional standpoint. It's just emotional stripping a mountaintop but the issue is far more complex than that. If you look at sustainable communities in WV, that is more, than just whether or not you have the mountain top on. It's whether you have people working; whether people can afford to send kids to college; it's whether communities can afford to put water and sewer in.   Narrator: Seasoned by his loss, Rockefeller becomes more politically astute.   Bailey: I don't mean he reversed positions. He certainly evolved on something like coal.   Jay: Is that right?   Bailey: He chose words carefully. He positioned himself a little more carefully. He became very sophisticated in the way that he looked at these issues and understood that a lot of things are not black and white. Politics, getting to the right place sometimes you live in gray.   Jay: You have to go thru a campaign and sometimes you have to lose a campaign to know what the stakes are and know what the price is and also to know how much you want it. Energy and wanting it is basic to politics and I wanted it. And then when I lost it that was a lesson to me that you have to understand better than I did how politics works. But I learned that stuff and I learned how to play hard and to win.   Narrator: Records show the Arch Moore campaign spending $696,000 on the 1972 election. The Rockefeller campaign spends more than twice that, 1-and-a-half million dollars a record at the time, but only a fraction of what will be spent in Rockefeller campaigns to come.   Jim Reader: This doesn't look like Siberia; it's a picture perfect, small college campus. But it's a kind of exile for a man who wanted the biggest office in the state, possibly self-imposed to come so far from the political heartbeat of the state, but possibly imposed by an overwhelming number of the voters who said these next 4 years are not his, politically, in WV.   Jay: In WV, if you're going to be one of us you've got to get beaten upside the head and you fall down and then you get up either pouting or with a smile on your face ready for the next whatever. And I did the second. And it changed people's views about me in great measure.   Narrator: Within 2 months of his gubernatorial defeat, Jay Rockefeller is named the president of WV Wesleyan College, a small, conservative and Methodist liberal arts institution in the very Republican town of Buckhannon.   Jay: I believe a college has to be a part of a community and part of a county and part of a state. And when the college came to me and asked me to do this work or consider the work, one of the things they said is they wanted to see Wesleyan even more a part of WV, as a whole in this area.   Narrator: Accompanied by much fanfare, John D Rockefeller-the-third delivers the keynote address, following his son's investiture.   JD Rockefeller 3rd: I am pleased as a father would be that my son has entered into a relatively stable line of employment.   Laughter and applause   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller will be the college's first president not to be Methodist (he's Presbyterian), its first president not to be an ordained minister, and its first president who lacks an earned doctorate degree. Once again, Rockefeller sets out to prove himself in a small WV community.   Dauna Hawkins: There were peoples' jaws that were out of joint because he didn't have the academic background and he didn't have the degrees and was a politician. There was a lot of snarking going on amongst the community and particularly and I dare say this, the faculty, at least the people on the faculty that I knew.   Jay: I was at peace with myself. I was at peace with the world. I didn't care a whole lot what people thought about me if I had a good feeling about what I was doing.   Richard Calef: I think he achieved more in a short period of time than many presidents have achieved for a long period of time. Some students even said they loved talking to him because it was like talking to their dad. I mean, he was fatherly. And to the faculty, he always wanted to help us. I remember receiving a memo from him saying, "What is it that you need in your department to help achieve your academic goals?" I don't remember any president asking us that, even after he was here.   Narrator: Students and faculty are amazed at how the new president is seen everywhere, seemingly involved in everything, and once again, broadening the world of those around him.   Bob Skinner: He sat in the cafeteria and ate with us and we talked about political issues and what was going on in America during that time. I think Jay really challenged us to remain current and to be well read and to know what was going on around us. And at the same time, I think Jay had a real passion for service that came thru his experience before he had come to Wesleyan and serving others. That was something that he pushed us to do as well.   Narrator: Wesleyan students also see the competitive side of their president, a die-hard sports-enthusiast.   Skinner: Jay Rockefeller was loved by students because he was one of us. He sat in the middle of the cheering section at football games and basketball games. And I can remember that he'd be drenched from sweat from jumpin' up and down and rallying with the crowd. He played racquetball with us, he played handball; he was a fierce racquetball player, had the wingspan of a condor. We all dreaded playing him because you couldn't get the ball by him. But he was so much fun to play with.   Narrator: Rockefeller leads the college's effort to build a multi-purpose recreational center, personally contributing $250,000 to its construction. The facility helps turn the college's basketball program into a source of community pride. Not far from campus, the Rockefellers are raising their small children, Jamie, who turns 4 in 1973, his sister, Valerie, age 2 and newborn Charles. Dauna Hawkins' children attend the same daycare as Jamie and Valerie.   Hawkins: He was a real hands-on dad. I can remember seeing him. And you can't miss him he's so darn tall and he'd be walkin' down coming from the college with Jamie on his shoulders giving a piggyback ride to this gal's house. Those kids were just beautiful kids and they were hands-on parents. Sharon at that point was getting involved with the Sesame Street people and that end of public television. And they were really concerned about what kids should be involved in and what kids needed to learn and they were forward thinking.   Narrator: By the spring of 1975, Wesleyan student recruitment is up 30% and fundraising has doubled. Rockefeller submits his letter of resignation to the board of trustees, saying he needs to prepare for the following year's gubernatorial race. After his departure, what is commonly known as "the new gym" is dedicated in 1976, and named the John D Rockefeller IV Physical Education Center.   Jay: I run for Governor because I know our people in WV want, and in fact, hunger for absolute, personal honesty and integrity in the Governor's office and because people want strong, executive leadership.   Narrator: As the nation marks the bicentennial year of 1976, Rockefeller's second campaign for governor is in full swing. He campaigns for jobs, health care, better roads, seniors, the environment and, yes, coal. The country is experiencing an energy shortage. He says he's changed his mind on strip mining because of better reclamation practices.   Jay: I think there's been change in the way the coal industry itself has reacted to some of the pressure that's been brought upon them by environmentalists.   Narrator: But Rockefeller's incredible wealth and campaign spending are still issues.   Jay: The point is not whether you're worth $100 or $100,000.   Rupp: How does he turn the liability of great inherited wealth into a political campaign asset? And he does that by sayin', "I can't be bribed. I have so much money that I can say no to those lobbyists, I can say no to those special interests."   Narrator: Rockefeller spends 1-point-7 million dollars in the primary election. He reports 1-point-1 million dollars as his own money. He easily beats his 7 Democratic opponents, including Supreme Court Justice Jim Sprouse and Congressman Ken Hechler.   Sharon: I tell ya, it starts all over again and the thing is you win and then your work just begins, but that's, of course, the way we want it.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller now faces Republican candidate and former Governor Cecil Underwood.   Cecil Underwood: As our candidates, myself included, begin to move much more aggressively, the Republican vote'll be there. I don't fear of losing it, I think it'll be there in great strength. We'll have a record vote, I'm sure.   Narrator: WV's 1976 general election is another one for the history books. Jay Rockefeller defeats Cecil Underwood by more than 242,000 votes, the largest majority in state history. Rockefeller reports spending just under 2 million dollars of his own money, of the total 2-point-7 million dollars spent on his campaign. At his inauguration, the 29th Governor of WV envisions big changes and a bright future.   Jay: Today, we leave behind the defeatism of the past. Starting here, starting now, you and I together step out into the rising sun of a new day for WV.   Canfield: The Rockefeller experience, I think, has been described as baptism by fire, but I think if any gubernatorial historian looks at those 8 years, they will find them the most challenging when it comes to crisis management of perhaps any Governor since Kump during the Great Depression.   §   Narrator: It starts on day one. The inauguration crowd endures temperatures of 3 below zero with a wind chill factor that drops down to 25 below. The arctic weather continues that week and the next. Then, predictions of a significant snowstorm drive the brand-new Governor to take one of his earliest, executive actions one that he's still living down today. He uses the Emergency Broadcasting System to tell everyone to stay home. Everything is closed, public events cancelled.   Jay: The National Weather Service, which this morning was predicting --.   Narrator: The storm that never materializes comes to be known as Jay's Blizzard.   Jay: Jay's Blizzard. Just [Whistles] like that. The sun came out at noon. And I've been teased about that ever since. But, by golly, if it had happened and people had been out there on the roads it would have been a catastrophe. So you learn that a lot of things come up very suddenly and you had better be prepared to deal with them.   Woman: I'm Dolly Varney from Williamson, WV. I was flooded out.   Narrator: No one is prepared for the 1977 spring floods bringing destruction to the southern counties of McDowell, Wayne, Logan, and Mingo.   Bailey: Towns like Matewan wiped off the map, this lady, gray-haired lady, grandmotherly like, came sobbing up to Rockefeller and just put her arms around him. And he, like he does so many people just kind of this big wrap around this woman and had tears in our eyes listening to her story about, about losing her son in the flood. And it really connected the people at that time of Mingo County to Jay Rockefeller, because they felt like he understood. He wasn't supposed to stay overnight, he stayed overnight. He did as much as he could, would go to from place to place and help pick up stuff; he tried to get engaged and understood the importance of connecting to individuals.   Narrator: Safe housing above flood plains becomes a focus of the Rockefeller administration. The Governor sets records in secondary road construction and as the recently appointed Chair of President Jimmy Carter's Commission on Coal; he pushes for a national energy policy that has its foundation in Appalachian coal.   Jay: The long-term future of coal is a strong one.   Judge Chuck Chambers: He was sort of a rock star politician for WV in those early days and everybody believed that he had ambitions to go higher in office and that was a good thing because I think that helped make him a more effective political leader and Governor. But I think most folks were very impressed with how hard he worked at the job and I don't think there's a more difficult job in the state, certainly and maybe one of the toughest governorships in the country just because of the nature of WV and our history and our problems.   Jay: The problems I see are, one, we gotta --.   Narrator: Beyond record snowfalls and floods, the late 1970s bring inflation, fuel shortages and the worst construction accident in state history, at the Willow Island plant of Monongahela Power Company. This is followed by a deadly prison break at the Moundsville penitentiary and ongoing coal mining deaths.   Jay: Civil insurrection, prison riots, hostages, all kind of emergencies are what we have to be prepared for.   Canfield: I think there are 2 types of governors, I think there are those that like the political games, like to be out front, like to shake up the bureaucracy, like to get micromanaging into the bureaucracy, like the battles with the legislature, that's one type of governor. I think that's the type of governor that Arch Moore was. Then there's the type of governor who is immersed in issues and is a big picture thinker and likes to understand an issue fully and then plant the flag and try to take the state from here to there and he was that type of governor.   Narrator: Rockefeller creates the WV Board of Coal Mine Health and Safety. He proposes bills that ultimately reorganize state agencies and he sets up senior centers statewide.   Jay: I care a lot about senior citizens and there were a lot of those in Emmons. But it wasn't until I became Governor that I was able to say, "Okay, over the next 4 years or 8 years, whatever it turns out to be, I'm going to build a senior center in every of the 55 counties of WV." And I did. That's what you can't do as a social worker in Emmons and what you can do if you are in a public policy-making position.   Narrator: As Governor, he creates the Office of Community and Economic Development. He reaches out for Japanese investment and becomes increasingly frustrated with President Carter's lack of action on his commission's coal report. In the middle of all this: A 111-day national coal mining strike.   Bailey: Jay was not always on the side of the unions in those strikes and he would push the Unions as hard as anyone would push the unions using his power and influence of the office. And yes, listening to what they might need in order to make a settlement. He understood. He was listening, he was patient; he did what he needed to do to try to avert disaster or more violence. I think West Virginians understood this man who had come from New York was really becoming part of us, more a West Virginian every single day.   Narrator: Members of the media recall Governor Rockefeller as extremely accessible.   Paul Nyden: I was working for The Gulf Times, a little weekly paper in Raleigh County, based in Sophia. I called his office and asked for some information about a topic I can't remember. I said, "I was wondering if you could help me in writing this story." And a couple of hours later, I was really surprised 'cause I'm sure that Governor Rockefeller didn't know me from the man in the moon. And I get a call in the office and I thought it was a joke, at first. The caller said, "Paul, this is Jay. How are you?" I said, "Okay." He said, "If you have a moment right now and it's convenient for you, I'll be happy to answer your questions that you wanted to ask me." Well, thank you very much Governor. I then proceeded to ask him questions.   Sharon: It's just an absolutely fascinating business.   Narrator: Sharon Rockefeller is an energetic First Lady of WV, pursuing several endeavors, including promoting Public Television.   Sharon: Often, television insults the viewer and they should have better programming and that's why I'm working for Public Television.   Narrator: The Rockefellers are now raising their 4 children in the Governor's Mansion.   Sharon: They were all happy and proud to be raised in WV. We were happy and proud of that too. They had so many friends at school.   Jay: Trick or treat!   Sharon: But for us the hard part was making sure they were growing up normally so to speak. Well, they had the name Rockefeller and they were living downtown in a governor's mansion and being driven to school sometimes by the State Police. So it isn't normal in anybody else's world, but we had to establish a climate inside the house, I think, of well okay, kids are kids, kids better get their homework done, kids better clean up their room. The little basics don't change.   §   Narrator: At the end of Rockefeller's first term, the administration touts the creation of 50,000 jobs. But one of his biggest victories that first term, is today one of his biggest regrets. The legislature passes Rockefeller's bill to gradually eliminate the consumers' sales tax on food.   Jay: I remember getting rid of the sales tax on food, which was probably not a very smart idea. I think I did it to help me win the campaign and it was devastating on the State Treasury. That was a mistake, I think, that I made. I made a campaign promise and by God I was going to keep that promise.   Narrator: In March 1980, Jay Rockefeller's family, including the newest member, 8-month-old Justin, is gathered around the Governor as he announces his intention of serving a second term.   Jay: We've had our share of setbacks and we've made our share of mistakes, too, but we've also achieved a great deal together.   Narrator: The state's 1980 governor's race sets the stage for a rematch between Jay Rockefeller and former Governor Arch Moore.   Moore: We have started modestly a media campaign, which will begin to build until the November election and it will parallel all of our media campaigns of the past. The question is, "Will it be drowned out by the opposition's media campaign?"   Narrator: Rockefeller is again criticized for using his own substantial wealth to fund his campaign.   Rupp: Some political, ambitious people treat power like it's a gold watch; it's a reward for what I did. And other people like Jay and like John Kennedy and LBJ and Bobby, they treat power as something that you can use. Now if you know power can be used to help the people, what will you do to get power? There's nothing as bad as a defeated politician because not only have they been defeated, they've never been able to hold the power. So when Jay needs to spend money, the flood gates open.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller sets national records in campaign spending and personal contribution, 11-point-6 million dollars, by a candidate. The Moore campaign spends just under one million.   Potter: I came up with a bumper sticker that said, "Arch, Make Him Spend It All." The issue of his money became significant. It enabled him to win in tight races. And I don't mean to imply that he used it illegally or an improper way. He was very careful about that, but it was a resource that could not be matched.   Lloyd Jackson: What do we have today? We have people who are elected and supported with the same amounts of money, huge amounts of money, that come from outside the state of WV and elect people and we don't even know who contributed to 'em and to whom they owe that debt of gratitude for their election. I would much prefer to have someone openly, publicly spent their own money as Senator Rockefeller did, than the system we have today; any day I'd rather have that.   Jay: The lesser point is that at least I wasn't taking money from coal companies or whatever in large amounts, etcetera, which is generally the way people build up war chests. Secondly, it was my own money and there was nothing illegal, although it was unsettling, granted, to me and to others that I spent that. Third point, I wanted to win. I wanted to win. I'd lost once and I didn't like it and I wanted to win.   Jay: How Sweet it is!   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller beats Arch Moore by 64,000 votes.   §   Narrator: During Rockefeller's second term as Governor, WV suffers significantly in the midst of federal funding cuts and what's described as the "trickle-down" economics of President Ronald Reagan's administration.   Canfield: Because of the downturn in the economy which was severe and lasted for over two-and-a-half years, we lost coal mining jobs, because the coal was needed to make coke, to make steel, we lost steel jobs. Weirton Steel almost closed and had to be saved. We lost glassmaker jobs because the glass companies were competing with foreign companies. At one point we were paying out half a billion dollars a year in unemployment compensation benefits and the federal government was cutting our staff.   Johnson: Almost every day, it felt like, you'd pick up the paper and see where there was some mine closing or another plant closing. And so, it was a lot of fighting to keep what we had. And also, people were hurting.   Canfield: Now, if you're governor of WV and you're sitting there with this collapsing economy and money is not coming into your state coffers, there aren't a lot of new initiatives that you can launch.   Narrator: One of the biggest disappointments of Rockefeller's second term is a promised half-billion dollar, federal demonstration plant in coal liquification that is planned for Morgantown. The project is started under the Carter Administration and scrapped under President Reagan. In his second term, Governor Rockefeller also deals with a teacher's walkout and a lengthy statewide coal miners' strike.   Jay: The overriding principle for me as Governor during these past 8 years was when we were in a position to be able to do it, we did it. When we had the resources to carry thru, we did it.   Interviewer: What would you say were your biggest accomplishments in your 8 years in the governor's office?   Jay: This is gonna sound a little bit silly, but I was honest. You better start out that way. I had a head of one of my departments which had a large lobby and I found out that that person was out in a western state hunting with a whole lot of lobbyists for what they wanted from him. I called him up and fired him on the phone. I never had to do anything like that again. The message was sent: Don't do wrong.   Chambers: I think that's absolutely true. I think that's one of the strongest things about his administration. As West Virginians we sort of grow up hearing the legends of corruption in WV politics and unfortunately there are too many present day examples to ignore that. But the Rockefeller Administration and the Governor himself, I think, set a very high standard of ethics, not just being honest but also being trustworthy in the way they addressed issues and putting politics aside and trying to do what was best for the state even in a difficult political environment. And having someone as prominent as a Rockefeller come in and get elected and then doing a good job and seeing things improve in the state was a very important, symbolic achievement I think for WV. It showed a lot of us that we're worth something.   §   Interviewer: Do you look back with regret on what was?   Jay: No I don't, because I was learning like crazy. Being a governor is very hard. And you're one among one and everybody looks to you. A lot of the Governor's job is ceremonial, too; and I don't enjoy that as much. You're constantly going to governors-have-to-be-ther type events as opposed to long policy discussions and working things thru with a lot of staff conflicting and it's not as cerebral as being in the Senate.   Interviewer: So, while you were Governor, you knew you wanted to shoot for the Senate?   Jay: Yes. Yeah. And because that was always of huge interest to me; in the Senate, you get to pick and choose where you go, where you'll have the best effect.   Senate Reader: Rockefeller, Sanders, Schatz, Shaheen --.   Jay: And that's where huge decisions get made. But when I ran for the Senate, you know what my job approval rating was at the end of 8 years of being Governor of WV? 19%. And I won.   Interviewer: What do you attribute that to? That was one hard fought campaign.   Jay: Yeah. Well, there were several of them. And I don't know what I attribute it to. But I had been toughened by the experience of being Governor.   Narrator: It's 1984 and Jay Rockefeller is making a bid for the office he's longed for. He faces Republican challenger, Morgantown businessman, John Raese in the race for US Senate, another extremely negative campaign.   Jay: If you were elected, would you vote for Robert C Byrd to be majority leader again and return WV to the #1 position in the US Senate or would you go with your Republican colleagues and vote against him? I want to know the answers to those questions.   Moderator: Mr. Raese.   Raese: 'Be hard to do because Robert Byrd'll be in the minority and I couldn't vote for a majority leader that's in the minority.   Audience roars.   Narrator: By Election Day, local news reports say the race is a dead heat.   Bailey: I had a CBS News producer come to me at 6 pm and told me that the exit polls that CBS was going to announce showed Jay losing the race by a single percentage point and suggested that I go up to Barberry Lane to tell the first family that they were going to lose the election. And the exit polls in fact showed that but at the end of the day Jay pulled it out, thanks to, like, Mingo and Logan and the southern WV counties and the little white haired lady that he was so connected to in the State; tough election.   Narrator: The race is another record-breaker. The Rockefeller camp spends 12 million dollars. 10-point-2 million dollars come from the candidate. The Raese campaign spends 1-point-1 million dollars with $441,000 coming directly from the candidate. It's the third most expensive Senate race in the nation in 1984. It's also the third closest race. Rockefeller wins by 4 percentage points.   Jay: I have a tremendous sense of what our future can be and how I can help as your US Senator.   §   Narrator: John D Rockefeller IV, representing his adopted home of WV, goes to Washington DC where he fills the seat of retiring Senator Jennings Randolph. Working alongside Senator Robert C Byrd, Jay Rockefeller will go on to be reelected 4 times, in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008, serving a total of 30 years in the US Senate.   Jay: Standing up for our veterans has been one of the top priorities since I began public service.   Narrator: He'll have tenures as Chair of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, Chair of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and Chair of the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation.   Jay: Any effort to revise or update the law must keep consumers front and center and it is something we will be watching extremely closely.   Narrator: But the name Jay Rockefeller on Capitol Hill may be most closely identified as Chair of the Senate Finance Committee's Subcommittee on Health Care as a champion of healthcare coverage for all.   Jay: Our problem is that we treat potential solutions in healthcare on, like, a short-term basis.   Bailey: You had Jay Rockefeller fighting for healthcare reform before, before it was known as HillaryCare or ObamaCare, Jay Rockefeller was in there fighting.   Jay: I wanted to be good at healthcare. It's my general thought if you don't have healthcare you don't have anything, no matter what else you might think you have. And it was certainly true in Emmons, WV, but it started, to me, with the Pepper Commission. Then it went to the Children's Commission, then plunging deep dive into the Clinton Healthcare Bill, then eventually the Affordable Care Act. But I learned healthcare thru work and thru passion. What triggered it? Those 2 years in Emmons.   Narrator: He's at the forefront of every major healthcare fight in the Senate, preserving and expanding both Medicaid and Medicare.   Jay: In the end, I want to enact a bill that guarantees West Virginians the same access to lifesaving and life enhancing prescription drugs as people in other states.   Narrator: Rockefeller also authors the Children's Health Insurance Program, known as CHIP.   Jay: Most of the people who don't have health insurance, the kids, their families are working.   Narrator: In 2015, CHIP is providing healthcare to 8 million children in low income families.   Ivan Lee: CHIP really helped out, because, there was a lot, of things that I needed in life to help me get by.   Bailey: Delivering on the Children's Health Insurance Program is probably the singular achievement of his Senate years. And he was made chairman of the National Commission on Children, in which healthcare became a huge part of that. So healthcare spans this whole range. He knows it cold, understands it better than anybody in the Senate.   Jay: I'm of the belief that the ACA is probably the most complex piece of legislation ever passed by the US Congress.   Rick Wilson: When the Affordable Care Act came along, there was some confusion about what could happen to the Children's Health Insurance Program because it could have gotten gobbled up in the exchange. And he actually at a late stage pushed thru an amendment that kept the CHIP program intact for several years so that there will be no loss due to friction or changes as the Affordable Care Act is implemented, so I think that was probably a signature achievement in addition to his support for the Affordable Care Act. So, I think together those are huge accomplishments.   Jay: 10 years from now, we'll still have to fix some things, but 10 years from now people are going to say, "What was all that fuss about? We've got a great healthcare system." You don't think that makes me happy? It does.   Narrator: His earlier work on universal healthcare and the partisan politics coming into play to derail that work motivate Jay Rockefeller of WV to contemplate a run for the US presidency. It's 1991. He's 54 and the President-appointed Chair of the National Commission on Children. The blue ribbon, bipartisan group is to vote on recommendations and report those back to President George Herbert Walker Bush and Congress.   Bailey: Just on the eve of the vote, President Bush made phone calls into his commission members and got them to change their votes from what they had committed to Rockefeller. And there was a tie vote so all the recommendations of the Commission including children's health care failed. And Rockefeller was just furious that the White House had engaged because you'll recall George Bush was campaigning on a "no new taxes" pledge: "Read my lips, no new taxes."   Narrator: Rockefeller leaves Washington livid, on his way to give the keynote speech to a gathering of the Democratic Leadership Council, meeting in Cleveland.   Bailey: He got off the plane and I had no more than said hello to him and was helping with one of his bags that he said, "You know what? I'm gonna use my platform tomorrow to announce my candidacy for President." And I was totally flabbergasted. There'd been no conversation, this was not pre-thought. There was no plan, no strategy. This was just Rockefeller really being angry, "If the President's going to do this to me then the nation should know and we're gonna have a national debate about this." So, we were in the car on our way back to the airport to go back to Charleston and it occurred to Jay, "You know, oh my God I didn't speak to Sharon about this." Or "We didn't tell our press secretary." Or, like there was no planning here. And so, Jay had to call Sharon, "You may get a phone call!" [Chuckles] and this whole process began for us in 1991.   Jay: Even as I and the entire Democratic Party --.   Narrator: From April to August 1991, Jay Rockefeller, as a potential presidential Democratic candidate, travels to several states, all the while meeting with strategists, pollsters, and political consultants, who become convinced Jay Rockefeller can beat President Bush.   Man: Good luck. I mean, he's done a lot for our state and if he has a good chance, let him go for it.   Woman: I've always liked Governor Rockefeller and he does a lot for the senior citizens.   2nd Woman: He's really nice, nice guy. I think he'd make a nice President.   2nd Man: They're lookin' for some good Democrats. I think he'd be a good Democrat, good pick.   Narrator: But in the end, Rockefeller does not pursue it. Later that fall, former Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton declares his candidacy.   Jay: If you're a president you're too high up, you're too far away. It's not natural. I was living a real life. And it was a life that I felt to me was important and potentially to others was important. I don't think my finest quality is being a CEO. I'm an advocate. I fight for things. I didn't have to aspire to climb that mountaintop because the mountaintops I was climbing were very apparent to me and I really liked it. I loved what I was doing.   Narrator: The next year, Rockefeller works with the Bituminous Coal Operators Association and the United Mine Workers of America to come up with a plan to save the union's health and retirement funds which were headed toward insolvency. Rockefeller authors a bill that successfully secures the promised lifetime benefits of retired coal miners. The Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 is commonly called the Coal Act, and referred to by many of his colleagues as the Rockefeller Coal Act.   Kenneth Perdue: So many of them struggle with the black lung and broke down backs and knees and shoulders and every part of their body. He was relentless on making sure those coal miners are taken care of. He has a heart and compassion for people that few people have. He just doesn't walk away.   Jay: I'll never forget on the Senate floor the person Bennett Johnson who was head of the Energy Committee which I was on. He didn't want this amendment. He didn't want it. I remember standing there, getting up, asking for recognition and just telling him, "I'm going keep the congress in session all during Christmas." This was just before Christmas. "I'm gonna do it." And I remember him turning around, looking at me and I had really hard eyes, unforgiving eyes and he went along with it.   Narrator: The Coal Act guarantees funding of health benefits for as many as 200,000 retired union coal miners and their widows and dependants.   Jay: So there was no strike, which is a hugely important thing for the country and for WV in particular. And that law is still on the books, it still works and people come up to me all the time to thank me. It's just what happens when you invest yourself into something. And in this case, I was protecting coal miners, most of them older. And I knew it was the right thing to do and I have been proud of that ever since.   §   Narrator: And he believes his great-grandfather, and most especially his grandfather, would be proud, too considering how far the great-grandson, with his work on behalf of coal miner families, has taken the Rockefeller legacy away from what's referred to as the Ludlow Massacre. A century ago, 1914, Ludlow, Colorado: A miners' strike is underway at a coal mine owned by the Rockefeller Family. Mine managers bring in National Guardsmen, a fire breaks out and then a gun battle. When it's over, 24 people are dead including 11 women and 2 children. This chapter of family history will influence, years later, Jay's father's work with laborers and the poor. But as it unfolds, the events profoundly change his grandfather, John D Rockefeller Junior, who is ultimately responsible for all Rockefeller businesses at the time.   Jay: That tragedy, so horrible and such inattention from the coal company to the people, to the miners, changed his life. I can't imagine what his feelings of guilt were, but my grandfather, who didn't even believe in dancing religiously as a strict Baptist, came to know them; he spent time with them and he danced with them, he went to their dinners with them and then what happened, Suzanne, was his epiphany.   Narrator: After traveling to Colorado, Jay's grandfather works with his new head of Industrial Research, William Lyon Mackenzie King, to find ways to settle labor disputes peacefully and improve labor relations. At this time, Rockefeller, Junior also expands his philanthropic efforts, among them conserving natural landscapes and preserving historic landmarks. Jay's grandfather ultimately gives away more than half a billion dollars.   Jay: And it was his way of entering into the world of public service. And I think Ludlow triggered that. He was rooted out of his comfort zone and had the right reaction, because he was a good man. That had an effect on me.   §   Rupp: It's the worst black mark on the Rockefeller Family, Ludlow, 1914. Go ahead 70 years. And what is Jay Rockefeller doing in the Senate? He's promoting a bill to protect the health of miners, both in coal. But in one it's a bad mark. And the other he's advocating for the coal miners of WV. And I think that maybe there was a part of Jay that said, "I know the burdens and I'm gonna use some of the blessings to be in a position of service, where I'm gonna work to make the Rockefeller name respectable." And that was a steep hill to climb.   Narrator: Jay Rockefeller will go on to author the Miner Act of 2006, the most significant mine safety legislation in a generation. And in his final year in office, he'll see the adoption of policy that cuts in half the amount of permissible coal dust in underground mines, the same stricter standards Rockefeller had pushed for, for years, while addressing the resurgence of Black Lung disease. But because of his position on global warming, the Senator will leave office knowing he has fallen out of favor with the coal industry.   Jay: It's not clean enough and it is accelerating our environmental problems. So the coal industry gets very angry at me; coal miners do too, but I've spent my whole life fighting for coal miners. And so I take whatever I get; if it's criticism or whatever. But there's gonna have to be clean coal, we're gonna come to that point, one way or another. Carbon capturing sequestration is something that I'm fixed on. It's hard for private companies, even utilities, to pay for that. The government has to get involved and increase spending for research. We have a wonderful national energy lab up in Morgantown. They're all over this. But you have to be willing to spend money on it and nobody in Congress these days wants to spend money on anything. There's going to have to be clean coal. We're going to come to that point one way or another. It'll come. It'll come because it'll have to come.   Narrator: As a member of the Senate Steel Caucus, Rockefeller works equally hard for the steel industry, work that includes arranging aid and protection for American steelworkers.   Jay: I'm never so happy, as when I'm in the middle of a steelworkers' brawl with somebody.   Marching Band   Narrator: For Veterans, Rockefeller leads the effort resulting in the official acknowledgment of Gulf War Illness, which is now addressed with proper treatment. Years earlier, he authored legislation to assure ongoing delivery of affordable prescription drugs to veterans. He's also penned legislation to encourage the Veterans Administration to provide home health, day care, respite and hospice care.   Jay: We talk of courage, of sacrifice, of gratitude, but the fact of the matter is, veterans have heard these words so many times and I think what they are looking for is for us to be more like them, for us to live our lives with full meaning.   Jay: We're gonna have hearings and we're gonna do it until we pass the bill.   Narrator: As Chair of the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Rockefeller sponsors legislation to establish an inter-operable wireless network for first responders to communicate in emergencies.   Teacher: Alright guys.   Narrator: Rockefeller has remained an advocate for students of all ages thru his support of science and technology.   Jessica Rosenworcel: He is the founding father of the E-Rate program, a program that has helped connect schools and libraries to modern communications all across this country. When that program started, only 14% of public schools were connected to the internet. Today, that number is north of 95% and we're gonna keep on moving on, because the challenge is not just connection, its broadband capacity. But I think it's pretty neat that in 1996 he had the foresight to say that connecting everyone to the internet was going to be important to education.   Jay: The internet could be the greatest thing that ever happened to America and it could also be the destruction of America. If done by people who hate America they could shut down Wall Street, they could shut down hospitals; we have to figure that out. And that's what we do in the Intelligence Committee, we try to find them and stop them and we do a lot of them.   Jay: Is there a way in your mind.   Narrator: Rockefeller joined the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 2001, chaired the committee from 2007 to 2009 and remained its vice chair until he retired from public office.   Joseph Biden: As a former chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee and a member, Jay has been one of the most important, consistent, intelligent and capable voices improving our nation's intelligencecapabilities.   Narrator: As Chairman, Rockefeller sponsored legislation that reworked national intelligence operations following 9/11. It was controversial then and remains so today.   Jay: There's been a big controversy about the National Security Agency listening in on Americans. By a law which I got passed, called the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, you cannot listen to what's said on a telephone call, the NSA people, you cannot read an email. All you have is the fact that a telephone call was made to so and so and then you track other telephone calls and maybe this person talked to that person who talked to that person who talked to that person, all of a sudden you have the making potentially of a plot against America. So you have to do that. You have to do that. Keeping America safe is worth everything.   Biden: No one's ever gonna know the real story of how big a part you played. No one has been more clear-eyed, no one has let out more of a clarion call over the last 6 to 8 years about the cyber threats we face and how we have to combat it than Jay Rockefeller. I promise you, you and America are a much safer nation because of Jay Rockefeller of WV.   Applause   Narrator: In January 2013, Jay Rockefeller announced he would not seek another term in the US Senate. He addressed fellow members on the Senate floor, for the last time, December 4, 2014.   Jay: This work demands and deserves nothing less than everything that we have to give. I will miss the Senate. Some days, I don't want to leave, but it's time.   Jay: I'm looking forward to the retirement. I mean, I don't like leaving the Senate because I hate leaving public policy. So my trick is, post Senate, is to keep involved in public policy but being able to spend more time being a grandparent, being a husband, being a father. And that's the price you pay in public service. You never get enough sleep and you never have time for your own and you never spend enough time with your children.   Applause   Reporter: What would you like your legacy to be?   Jay: That I was an honorable and honest and hardworking public servant and that everything I did was for the people; that's what got me up in the morning, that's what allowed me to sleep at night, even when I failed, which I often did. It's the fight that counts and I love the fight.   Narrator: Jay and Sharon Rockefeller quietly support a long list of philanthropic endeavors, both nationally and in WV. Some of the most visible include the Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute in Morgantown, dedicated to Alzheimer's research and named after Jay's mother, who lived with the disease for many years.   Jay: So now we're gonna have a system of rehab programs.   Narrator: Another significant gift by the Rockefellers helped make the Grace Anne Dorney Pulmonary Rehabilitation Center at Cabin Creek Health Systems in southern WV a reality. The effort is named after the wife of journalist Ted Koppel.   Ted Koppel: When you see sincerity and when a man actually has it, it carries you a long way. He could have been anywhere, done anything and he chose to give his life in service. And if spending 50 years doing that is not evidence of sincerity, I don't know what is.   Narrator: In the final weeks of Jay Rockefeller's tenure in the US Senate, WVU President E Gordon Gee announced that WVU will serve as the "forever home" of the John D Rockefeller IV Senatorial Archives, Gallery and School of Policy and Politics.   E Gordon Gee: The establishment of the Rockefeller School of Policy and Politics will enable WVU to have a much greater impact on policy development implementation at local, state, national and international levels. It will also provide improved, academic and experiential opportunities for our students and for our faculty.   Stephen Scott: I was in complete awe --.   Narrator: Among those honoring Rockefeller at WVU: Student Stephen Scott, who served as an intern on the Senator's staff in the summer of 2014.   Scott: I know West Virginians like myself will dearly miss Senator Rockefeller and his countless contributions to the state. When I left the office on August 1st, I knew I was not only saying goodbye to the time I spent in DC, but I was saying goodbye to one of the last times anyone will be able to visit Senator Rockefeller in his office. I was, too, saying goodbye to a West Virginian who I had recently just met, but has always had my best interests at heart my entire life. We appreciate you dearly and we will miss you greatly. Thank you.   Applause   Sharon: People can serve in many, many different ways. And maybe his elected career is over, but that doesn't mean in any way that his dedication or commitment to WV is any the less.   Jessica Lynch: Thank you Senator for coming out --.   Jay: Public service is basically about helping other people and maybe other people who aren't just like you. I don't know of anything more honorable, more satisfying than helping people. But being in public life, being elected to public life, having people measure you, you measuring yourself, in a state which was new to me back in 1964 and gradually accepted me has been the highest honor of my life. I've loved it. I've absolutely loved it.   §   Announcer: From WV Public Broadcasting  


Republican primary



Eliminated from primary

Democratic candidate


Third parties



  • Jessie Fields, internist


1990 gubernatorial election, Illinois[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Jim Edgar 1,653,126 50.75 -1.92
Democratic Neil Hartigan 1,569,217 48.17 +41.53
Solidarity Jessie Fields 35,067 1.08 -38.89
Majority 83,909 2.58 -10.12
Turnout 3,257,410
Republican hold Swing


  1. ^ Schmidt, William E. (March 12, 1990). "New Faces in Primary For Governor of Illinois". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  2. ^ "1990 Gubernatorial General Election Results - Illinois". Retrieved 2015-04-04.
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