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Ignacio Comonfort

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Ignacio Comonfort
Comonfort.png
Portrait made by José Carrillo in 1855,  oil on canvas, Museo de Historia Mexicana.
25th President of Mexico
In office
11 December 1855 – 17 December 1857
Preceded byJuan Álvarez
Succeeded byBenito Juárez
Secretary of War and Navy of Mexico
In office
10 October 1854 – 17 December 1857
PresidentJuan Álvarez
Preceded byManuel María de Sandoval
Succeeded byManuel María de Sandoval
In office
19 August 1861 – 13 November 1862
PresidentBenito Juárez
Preceded byFelipe Berriozábal
Succeeded byIgnacio Suárez Navarro
Governor of Tamaulipas
In office
16 March 1861 – 9 August 1862
Preceded byJesús de la Serna
Succeeded byAlbino López
Governor of Jalisco
In office
22 September 1854 – 30 August 1855
Preceded byManuel Gamboa
Succeeded bySantos Degollado
Personal details
Born(1812-03-12)12 March 1812
Amozoc de Mota, Puebla, New Spain
Died13 November 1863(1863-11-13) (aged 51)
Chamacueros, Guanajuato, Mexican Empire
(now Municipio de Comonfort)
NationalityMexican
Political partyLiberal Party

Ignacio Gregorio Comonfort de los Ríos (Spanish pronunciation: [iɣˈnasjo komoɱˈfoɾ ðe loz ˈri.os]; 12 March 1812 – 13 November 1863), known as Ignacio Comonfort, was a Mexican politician and soldier. He became President of Mexico in 1855 after the outbreak of the Revolution of Ayutla that overthrew Santa Anna.

Early life

He was born in 1812 in Puebla de los Ángeles, in the state of Puebla, New Spain (colonial Mexico). His father was of Irish descent; his lineage traced back to Callan, County Kilkenny, from where Comonfort's grandfather, Joseph Comerford, immigrated to Mexico (the surname would be later changed to "Comonfort"). He participated in the Mexican–American War.

Presidential term

Comonfort was president of Mexico from 11 December 1855 to 21 January 1858. During his term as president, Benito Juárez served as president of the Supreme Court of Mexico.

Constitution of 1857

He was a moderate liberal who tried to maintain an uncertain coalition, but the moderate liberals and the radical liberals were unable to resolve their sharp differences. During his presidency, the Constitution of 1857 was drafted creating the Second Federal Republic of Mexico. The new constitution restricted some of the Catholic Church's traditional privileges regarding land holdings, revenues and control over education. It granted religious freedom, and only stated that the Catholic Church was the favored faith. The anti-clerical radicals scored a major victory with the ratification of the constitution, because it weakened the Church and enfranchised all citizens.

War of the Reform

The constitution was unacceptable to the clergy and the conservatives, and they plotted a revolt. The country descended into the Reform War, a civil war launched by reactionaries against the Constitution of 1857 which, among other things, had abolished privileges for the Catholic Church.[1] Shortly after the adoption of the Constitution of 1857, a board of generals staged a coup d'état, proclaiming the Plan of Tacubaya, which decreed the nullification of the Constitution. President Comonfort, representing himself as a moderate, wavered but decided to go along with the generals. In exchange, the Catholic Church repealed the March 1857 excommunication decree for those who adhered to the new plan.

On 17 December 1857, anti-constitutional forces led by General Félix Zuloaga took control of the capital without firing a shot.[2] But defenders of the 1857 Constitution did not stay calm for long. President Comonfort then decreed himself extraordinary powers, an action which alienated both the reactionary rebels as well as the constitutionalists. As unrest grew, many opponents were imprisoned or shot. Even Benito Juárez was put behind bars for several days.

Resignation and return to Mexico

On 11 January 1858, General Zuloaga demanded the ouster of the President. Comonfort resigned, and according to the Constitution of 1857, Benito Juárez, President of the Supreme Court, assumed the presidency. In opposition, the board of generals and Catholic clergy selected General Zuloaga as their president.

After seeking asylum in the United States, Comonfort returned to act again as a general against the French invasion in 1862. He died the next year, on 13 November 1863, after being attacked by a group of bandits near Celaya, Guanajuato.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Knapp, Frank A. Jr. (1953). "Parliamentary Government and the Mexican Constitution of 1857: A Forgotten Phase of Mexican Political History". Hispanic American Historical Review. 33 (1): 65–87. doi:10.1215/00182168-33.1.65. JSTOR 2509622.
  2. ^ Hamnett, Brian (1996). "The Comonfort presidency, 1855–1857". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 15 (1): 81–100. JSTOR 3339405.
  3. ^ Brian Hamnett, Juárez, New York: Longman 1994, 270.

Further reading

  • Broussard, Ray F. "Mocedades de Comonfort," Historia Mexicana XII (Jan-March 1964), pp. 379–393.
  • Broussard, Ray F. "Comonfort y la revolución de Ayutla" in Humanitas (1967):511-528.
  • Broussard, Ray F. "El regreso de Comonfort del exilio," in Historia Mexicana 16, no. 4 (1967) 516-530.
  • Broussard, Ray F. "Vidaurri, Juárez, and Comonfort's Return from Exile" The Hispanic American Historical Review 49 (1969)268-280.
  • Hamnett, Brian (1996). "The Comonfort presidency, 1855–1857". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 15 (1): 81–100. JSTOR 3339405.
  • Hernández Rodríguez, Rosaura. Ignacio Comonfort: Trayetoría política, documentos. 1967.
  • Hernández Rodríguez, Rosaura. "Ignacio Comonfort y la Intervención Francesa" in Ángel Bassols Batalla, et al. Temas y figuras de la intervención. Mexico 1963.
  • Tena Ramírez, Felipe. "Comonfort, los moderados, y la Revolucíon de Ayutla," in Mario de la Cueva, et al. eds. Plan de Ayutla. Mexico 1964.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Juan Álvarez
President of Mexico
1855-1857
Succeeded by
Benito Juárez
This page was last edited on 25 May 2021, at 14:15
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