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Hurricane Michael

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hurricane Michael
Category 5 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Michael 2018-10-10 1715Z cropped.jpg
Hurricane Michael making landfall on the Florida Panhandle at peak intensity on October 10
FormedOctober 7, 2018
DissipatedOctober 16, 2018
(Extratropical after October 11)
Highest winds1-minute sustained: 160 mph (260 km/h)
Lowest pressure919 mbar (hPa); 27.14 inHg
Fatalities31 direct, 43 indirect
Damage$25.1 billion (2018 USD)
Areas affectedCentral America, Yucatán Peninsula, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Southeastern United States (especially the Florida Panhandle and Georgia), Eastern United States, Eastern Canada, Iberian Peninsula
Part of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Michael was a very powerful and destructive tropical cyclone that became the first Category 5 hurricane to strike the contiguous United States since Andrew in 1992. In addition, it was the third-most intense Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in the contiguous United States in terms of pressure, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille in 1969. It was the first Category 5 hurricane on record to impact the Florida Panhandle, the fourth-strongest landfalling hurricane in the contiguous United States, in terms of wind speed, and was the most intense hurricane to strike the United States in the month of October on record.

The thirteenth named storm, seventh hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2018 Atlantic hurricane season, Michael originated from a broad low-pressure area that formed in the southwestern Caribbean Sea on October 1. The disturbance became a tropical depression on October 7, after nearly a week of slow development. By the next day, Michael had intensified into a hurricane near the western tip of Cuba, as it moved northward. The hurricane strengthened rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico, reaching major hurricane status on October 9. As it approached the Florida Panhandle, Michael reached Category 5 status with peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h)[1] just before making landfall near Mexico Beach, Florida, on October 10, becoming the first to do so in the region as a Category 5 hurricane, and as the strongest storm of the season. As it moved inland, the storm weakened and began to take a northeastward trajectory toward Chesapeake Bay, weakening to a tropical storm over Georgia, and transitioning into an extratropical cyclone over southern Virginia late on October 11. Michael subsequently strengthened into a powerful extratropical cyclone and eventually impacted the Iberian Peninsula, before dissipating on October 16.

At least 74 deaths were attributed to the storm, including 59 in the United States and 15 in Central America. Michael caused an estimated $25.1 billion (2018 USD) in damages,[2] including $100 million in economic losses in Central America,[3] damage to U.S. fighter jets with a replacement cost of approximately $6 billion at Tyndall Air Force Base,[4] and at least $6.23 billion in insurance claims in the U.S.[5][6] Losses to agriculture alone exceeded $3.87 billion.[7][8] As a tropical disturbance, the system caused extensive flooding in Central America in concert with a second disturbance over the eastern Pacific Ocean. In Cuba, the hurricane's winds left over 200,000 people without power as the storm passed to the island's west. Along the Florida panhandle, the cities of Mexico Beach and Port St. Joe suffered the worst of Michael, with catastrophic damage reported due to the extreme winds and storm surge. Numerous homes were flattened and trees felled over a wide swath of the panhandle. A maximum wind gust of 139 mph (224 km/h) was measured at Tyndall Air Force Base before the sensors failed. As Michael tracked across the Southeastern United States, strong winds caused extensive power outages across the region.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale[nb 1]
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale[nb 1]

On October 1, a broad area of low pressure formed over the southwestern Caribbean Sea, absorbing the remnants of Tropical Storm Kirk by the next day.[1] Early on October 2, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began monitoring the system for tropical development.[9] On the same day, the disturbance experienced a burst of convection, possibly associated with a tropical wave moving into the region, which led to a small surface low forming to the southwest of Jamaica on October 3.[1] While strong upper-level winds initially inhibited development, the disturbance gradually became better organized as it drifted generally northward and then westward toward the Yucatán Peninsula. By October 6, the disturbance had developed well-organized deep convection, although it still lacked a well-defined circulation. The storm was also posing an immediate land threat to the Yucatán Peninsula and Cuba. Thus, the NHC initiated advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Fourteen at 21:00 UTC that day.[10][11] By the morning of October 7, radar data from Belize found a closed center of circulation, while satellite estimates indicated a sufficiently organized convective pattern to classify the system as a tropical depression.[12] The newly-formed tropical cyclone then quickly strengthened into Tropical Storm Michael at 12:00 UTC that day.[1] The nascent system meandered before the center of circulation relocated closer to the center of deep convection, as reported by reconnaissance aircraft that was investigating the storm.[13] Despite moderate vertical wind shear, Michael proceeded to strengthen quickly, becoming a high-end tropical storm early on October 8, as the storm's cloud pattern became better organized.[14] Continued intensification occurred, and Michael attained hurricane status later on the same day.[1]

Strongest U.S. landfalling tropical cyclonesdagger
Rank Storm Namedouble-dagger Season Wind speed
mph km/h
1 "Labor Day" 1935 185 295
2 Karen 1962 175 280
Camille 1969
Yutu 2018
5 Andrew 1992 165 270
6 "Okeechobee" 1928 160 260
Michael 2018
8 "Guam" 1900 155 250
Maria 2017
"Last Island" 1856 150 240
"Indianola" 1886
"Florida Keys" 1919
"Freeport" 1932
Charley 2004
Source: HURDAT,[15] Hurricane
Research Division,[16] NHC[17]
daggerStrength refers to maximum sustained wind speed
upon striking land.
double-daggerStorms landfalling on the US mainland are referred to as hurricanes.
Storms landfalling on the US Pacific Territories are referred to as typhoons.

Shortly afterwards, rapid intensification ensued and very deep bursts of convection were noted within the eyewall of the growing hurricane, as it passed through the Yucatán Channel into the Gulf of Mexico late on October 8, clipping the western end of Cuba at Category 2 intensity.[1] Meanwhile, a 35-nautical-mile-wide (65 km) eye was noted to be forming.[18] The intensification process accelerated on October 9, with Michael becoming a major hurricane at 18:00 UTC that day.[1] Rapid intensification continued throughout the day on October 10 as a well-defined eye appeared, culminating with Michael achieving its peak intensity at 17:30 UTC as a Category 5 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 919 millibars (27.1 inHg). In just under 24 hours, its central pressure had fallen by 42 mbar (1.2 inHg). Simultaneously, Michael made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States near Mexico Beach, Florida, ranking by pressure as the third-most intense Atlantic hurricane to ever make landfall in the United States,[1] and making it the first Category 5 hurricane to strike the contiguous United States since Hurricane Andrew in 1992. The storm was originally considered a high-end Category 4 hurricane, but post-season reanalysis (which the NHC routinely performs for every tropical cyclone in their area of responsibility) concluded that it was indeed a Category 5 hurricane at this point.[1][19]

The eye of Hurricane Michael near peak intensity, seen from the International Space Station on October 10
The eye of Hurricane Michael near peak intensity, seen from the International Space Station on October 10

Michael maintained Category 5 intensity for less than one hour; once inland, Michael began to rapidly weaken, as it moved over the inner Southeastern United States, with the eye dissipating from satellite view, weakening to a tropical storm roughly twelve hours after it made landfall.[1] Moving into the Carolinas early on October 11, the inner core of the storm collapsed as the storm's rainbands became prominent to the north of the center. Later that day, Michael began to show signs of becoming an extratropical cyclone, as it accelerated east-northeastward toward the Mid-Atlantic coastline, with cooler air beginning to wrap into the elongating circulation, due to an encroaching frontal zone;[20] it became extratropical at 00:00 UTC October 12.[1] Afterward, Michael began to restrengthen while moving off the coast, due to baroclinic forcing. Michael subsequently accelerated towards the east, strengthening into a powerful extratropical cyclone by October 14.[21] On October 15, Michael's extratropical remnant approached the Iberian Peninsula and turned sharply towards the southeast,[22] making landfall on Portugal early on October 16. Soon afterward, Michael's extratropical remnant absorbed the remnants of Hurricane Leslie to the east, following a brief Fujiwhara interaction.[23] Afterward, Michael's remnant quickly weakened, dissipating over Spain later on the same day.[24][23][25]



About 300 people were evacuated from the coast of western Cuba, due to the storm.[26]

United States

President Donald Trump holding a briefing in the Oval Office in advance of Hurricane Michael
President Donald Trump holding a briefing in the Oval Office in advance of Hurricane Michael

On October 7, Governor Rick Scott announced that he would be declaring a state of emergency for Florida if needed, advising residents to be prepared for the incoming storm.[27] That day, a state of emergency was declared for 26 counties, and then 9 additional counties were added on October 8. Governor Scott also requested that President Donald Trump issue an emergency disaster declaration for 35 counties, with Trump approving of the request on October 9.[28] Officials in Bay, Gulf, and Wakulla counties issued mandatory evacuation orders on October 8 for those living near the coast, in mobile homes, or in other weak dwellings.[29] Florida State University's main campus in Tallahassee and a satellite campus in Panama City, Florida, were closed from October 9 through October 12. Florida A&M University and Tallahassee Community College closed several campuses through October 14, while weekend classes and events were canceled at the former.[30] Public schools were closed in 26 counties, mainly in the Florida Panhandle.[28] On October 8, Hurricane and Tropical Storm Warnings and Watches were issued for the Gulf Coast.

Georgia Governor Nathan Deal declared a state of emergency for 92 counties in the southern and central portions of the state on October 9. Several colleges and universities in south Georgia were to close for a few days.[31] Atlanta Motor Speedway opened their campgrounds free of charge to evacuees of Hurricane Michael.[32]

375,000 people were asked to evacuate as the storm strengthened, with sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and storm surge up to 14 ft (4.3 m) expected.[33] Emergency Preparedness organizations like Direct Relief provided emergency medical packs throughout ten health facilities that were in Michael's path.[34]


Deaths by country
Country Deaths
United States 59[1][35]
Honduras 8
Nicaragua 4
El Salvador 3
Total 74

Central America

The combined effects of the precursor low to Michael and a disturbance over the Pacific Ocean caused significant flooding across Central America.[36] At least 15 fatalities occurred: eight in Honduras,[37] 4 in Nicaragua, and 3 in El Salvador.[36][38] In Honduras, torrential rain caused at least seven rivers to overtop their banks; nine communities became isolated. More than 1,000 homes sustained damage, of which 9 were destroyed, affecting more than 15,000 people. Nationwide, 78 shelters housed displaced persons and relief agencies procured 36 tonnes of aid.[37] Nearly 2,000 homes in Nicaragua suffered damage, and 1,115 people were evacuated. A total of 253 homes were damaged in El Salvador.[36] Damage across the region exceeded $100 million.[3]


About 70% of the offshore Isla de la Juventud lost power.[39] High winds left more than 200,000 people without power in the province of Pinar del Río.[26] Officials sent 500 power workers to the area to restore electricity.[26]

United States

According to the Edison Electric Institute, at one point 1.2 million electricity customers were without power in several east coast and southern states.[40] Estimated damage from Michael throughout the United States reached $25 billion.[2]


Hurricane Michael moving onshore near Tyndall Air Force Base as seen from National Weather Service Doppler radar station WSR-88D.
Hurricane Michael moving onshore near Tyndall Air Force Base as seen from National Weather Service Doppler radar station WSR-88D.

Michael made landfall as a Category 5 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h), at 12:30 CDT (17:30 UTC) on October 10, between Mexico Beach, Florida, and Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, Florida.[41] A wind gust of 139 mph (224 km/h) was recorded at Tyndall Air Force Base, along with sustained winds of 86 mph (138 km/h), before the station failed prior to the arrival of Michael's eyewall. The base sustained devastating wind damage after being directly impacted by the hurricane's violent eyewall. Every structure on the base sustained damage, and some were completely destroyed by the intense winds. Vehicles were tossed through parking lots and destroyed, large hangars were severely damaged, and an F-15 that was on display was flipped onto its roof. Large forests in the area were almost entirely flattened to the ground, while trees that remained standing on and around the base were completely stripped and denuded. Seventeen F-22 fighters were not able to be evacuated from the base; while there were early fears that they had been destroyed,[42] all were able to be flown off the base after minor repairs.[43]

Aerial view of catastrophic storm surge and wind damage in Mexico Beach, Florida, after Hurricane Michael. The powerful surge swept numerous homes clean off their foundations while violent winds caused extensive structural damage.
Aerial view of catastrophic storm surge and wind damage in Mexico Beach, Florida, after Hurricane Michael. The powerful surge swept numerous homes clean off their foundations while violent winds caused extensive structural damage.

In Mexico Beach, catastrophic and widespread destruction occurred as many homes were flattened or completely swept away by a 14 ft (4.3 m) storm surge and Category 5 winds. The remnants of many homes were scattered across U.S. Route 98, which had large sections of pavement washed away. Entire neighborhoods in Mexico Beach were reduced to nothing but bare foundation slabs, and numerous vehicles, businesses, apartment buildings, and hotels throughout the community were destroyed or severely damaged. Countless trees in the area were snapped and denuded, including a few that sustained some debarking.[44][45] The National Guard rescued about 20 people, while it was estimated that as many as 285 residents of the small town may have stayed. Severe damage from storm surge and intense winds also occurred at St. George Island, in Port St. Joe, and in Apalachicola, where a storm surge of 8.50 ft (2.59 m) was recorded. Downtown Port St. Joe sustained extensive damage, and the storm surge left boats and other debris deposited in yards, streets, and parking lots in town. Michael's intense eyewall caused major structural damage as far inland as Marianna, where buildings in the downtown area were severely damaged, leaving streets covered in bricks, lumber, and structural debris from collapsed roofs and walls. Homes and churches in town were heavily damaged, and countless trees and power lines were downed.[46] The hurricane also dropped torrential rainfall along its path, reaching 5.05 inches (128 mm) near Scotts Ferry. Debris on Interstate 10 resulted in the roadway being closed between Lake Seminole and Tallahassee, a distance of about 40 miles (64 km). In Tallahassee, many trees fell across the city and approximately 110,000 businesses and homes were left without electricity, while a sewer system failed. In Chattahoochee, the Florida State Hospital—the oldest and largest psychiatric hospital in the state—became isolated, forcing aid to be dropped by helicopter.[47][failed verification]

Numerous businesses in nearby Panama City sustained major structural damage or were destroyed by violent winds. Many restaurants, gas stations, shopping centers, office buildings, retail stores, and hotels were completely leveled to the ground. In residential areas, homes and apartment buildings lost their roofs and exterior walls, and many trees were toppled, snapped, or completely defoliated. Vehicles were flipped and overturned, Jinks Middle School sustained destruction of its gymnasium, and a freight train was derailed as well.[48]

Hurricane Michael damage as seen Oct. 21, 2018 in Panama City.
Hurricane Michael damage as seen Oct. 21, 2018 in Panama City.

The powerful winds knocked out several television and radio stations near Panama City. NBC affiliate WJHG-TV and CBS affiliate WECP-LD were the first broadcast outlets to be affected, as their studio/transmitter link tower and parts of the studio's roof was destroyed.[49] ABC affiliate WMBB lost its main power and backup generator around 12:15 p.m. CDT. WMBB provided live coverage from its Nexstar Media Group-owned sister stations WFLA-TV in Tampa and WDHN in Dothan, Alabama, the latter of which, alongside CBS affiliate WTVY, was knocked off the air as Michael passed over the Wiregrass Region. iHeartMedia's Panama City radio cluster—WDIZ (590 AM), WEBZ (99.3 FM), WFLF-FM (94.5), WFSY (98.5 FM) and WPAP (92.5 FM)—switched to programming from the company's Tallahassee cluster as Michael made landfall, before the STL tower at their facility was felled; station staff were reported trapped at the facility due to flooding that also crept into the building. Other radio stations knocked off the air included WASJ [105.1 FM], WKNK [103.5 FM], WPFM [107.9 FM], WRBA [95.9 FM], WILN [105.9 FM], WWLY [100.1 FM], WYOO [101.1 FM], WYYX [97.7 FM], and Gulf Coast State College-owned WKGC-AM-FM (1480 and 90.7.[49] WPAP and WFSY returned to the air during the evening of October 10 with locally originated coverage, with WKGC following suit with programming originating from the Bay County Emergency Operations Center and using WMBB staff.)[49] Due to "catastrophic damage" sustained to its broadcast facility on Panama City Beach after it received water damage when a collapsed portion of its 150-foot (46 m) STL tower punched a hole in the roof of the building, Powell Broadcasting announced on October 13 that it would cease the operations of all of its Panama City radio stations.[50]

Four deaths occurred in Gadsden County,[51] and another three deaths occurred in Marianna, Jackson County. A body was discovered by rescue crews in Mexico Beach on October 12.[52] By October 28, a total of 35 people were officially confirmed to have been killed by the hurricane in Florida, with hundreds still unaccounted for.[53] By January 11, 2019, the death toll in Florida had increased to 47.[35] The NHC assessed that Michael caused a total of 50 deaths in Florida, by the time they released Michael's Tropical Cyclone Report in April 2019.[1]

Approximately 3 million acres of timber was damaged or destroyed statewide, costing an estimated $1.3 billion. Total agricultural loss statewide were at $1.49 billion, while property loss reached almost $5 billion.[8] Insurance claims totaled $5.53 billion.[5]


Downed trees and power lines on State Route 253 near Seminole County, Georgia
Downed trees and power lines on State Route 253 near Seminole County, Georgia

Michael crossed into Georgia in Donalsonville, where significant damage to structures and trees occurred. Tropical storm force wind gusts were observed as far north as Athens and Atlanta. More than 400,000 electrical customers in Georgia were left without power. At least 127 roads throughout the state were blocked by fallen trees or debris.[54] In Albany, where wind gusts reached 74 mph (119 km/h),[47] 24,270 electrical customers lost power. Numerous trees fell on homes and roads, blocking about 100 intersections. Winds also ripped siding off of homes and shattered windows at the convention center. A tornado in Crawford County damaged seven homes.[55] An 11-year-old girl in Seminole County died after debris fell on her home.[54]

Agriculture across the state suffered tremendous losses. As of October 18, estimated damage in the agriculture industry alone reached $2.38–2.89 billion. Forestry experienced the greatest losses at $1 billion, with about 1 million acres of trees destroyed. Described as a "generational loss", pecan farms in many areas were wiped out. Farmers were still recovering from damage incurred by Hurricane Irma during the preceding year. The entire crop in Seminole County was lost and 85 percent was lost in Decatur. Initially expected to be a record harvest, a large portion of the cotton crop—worth an estimated $300–800 million—was wiped out. Four hundred and eighty million dollars' worth of vegetables were destroyed. In the poultry industry, more than 2 million chickens died due to the storm, and the loss were about $25 million.[7] The insurance claims throughout the state were about $700 million.[6]


As the storm passed through North Carolina, 490,000 Duke Energy customers were left without power late on October 11. 342,000 remained without power in the state 24 hours later.[56] A tree fell on a car in Statesville, killing the driver.[57] Two others died in Marion when they crashed into a tree that had fallen across a road.[52]

Tropical Storm Michael over South Carolina on the evening of October 11, with sustained winds of 50 mph (80 km/h).
Tropical Storm Michael over South Carolina on the evening of October 11, with sustained winds of 50 mph (80 km/h).

In Virginia, four people including a firefighter were washed away by floodwaters, and another firefighter was killed in a vehicle accident on Interstate 295.[58] A sixth fatality was discovered when the body of a woman was found on October 13.[59] At least 1,200 roads were closed, and hundreds of trees were downed. Up to 600,000 people were left without power at the height of the storm.[52]

In Maryland, the remnants of Michael dropped 7 inches (180 mm) of rain over a period of a few hours in Wicomico County on October 11. Flooding from the Rockawalkin Creek damaged a portion of Maryland Route 349, forcing the road to be closed.[60] The remnants of Michael flooded homes in the Canal Woods neighborhood in Salisbury.[61]


President Trump distributes water in Florida on October 15
President Trump distributes water in Florida on October 15

On October 9—a day before Hurricane Michael made landfall—President Donald Trump signed an emergency declaration for Florida, which authorized the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to coordinate disaster efforts, with Thomas McCool serving as Federal Coordinating Officer in the state. The declaration also authorized funding for 75% of the cost of emergency protective measures and the removal of storm debris in 14 Florida counties. The federal government also provided for 75% of the cost of emergency protective measures in an additional 21 counties.[62] On October 11, President Trump declared a major disaster in five counties: Bay, Franklin, Gulf, Taylor, and Wakulla. Residents in the county were able to receive grants for house repairs, temporary shelter, loans for uninsured property losses, and business loans.[63] In addition to FEMA, several private and non-profit organizations, including the DSA, PSL, and SRA. established the Hurricane Michael Relief Network which provided direct relief to residents that were affected by the disaster. [64]

Due to the storm damage in Georgia, President Trump also signed an emergency declaration for Georgia, where FEMA activity was coordinated by Manny J. Torro. The declaration authorized funding for 75% of the cost of emergency protective measures and the removal of storm debris in 31 Georgia counties, and 75% of the cost of emergency protective measures in an additional 77 counties.[65]

Florida Governor Ron DeSantis has since requested, with the storm's elevation to Category 5, the federal relief share be increased from 75% to 90%.[66] Either value awaits passage of a specific relief package being delayed in the United States House of Representatives.[67]


On March 20, 2019, at the 41st session of the RA IV hurricane committee, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Michael from its rotating name lists, due to the extreme damage and loss of life it caused along its track, particularly in the Florida Panhandle and southwest Georgia, and its name will never again be used for another Atlantic hurricane. It will be replaced with Milton for the 2024 season.[68]


Costliest U.S. Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Damage
1 Katrina 2005 $125 billion
Harvey 2017
3 Maria 2017 $90 billion
4 Irma 2017 $77.6 billion
5 Sandy 2012 $65 billion
6 Ike 2008 $30 billion
7 Andrew 1992 $27 billion
8 Michael 2018 $25 billion
9 Florence 2018 $24.2 billion
10 Ivan 2004 $20.5 billion
Source: National Hurricane Center[69][nb 2][70]

With top sustained winds of 160 mph (260 km/h) and a central pressure of 919 mbar (27.14 inHg) at landfall, Michael was the most intense landfalling mainland U.S. hurricane since Camille in 1969, which had a central pressure of 900 mbar (26.58 inHg), and the first landfalling Category 5 Atlantic hurricane in the U.S. since Andrew in 1992, which had 165 mph (270 km/h) winds.[41] Michael is tied with the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane for the sixth-strongest tropical cyclone by wind speed to impact the United States (including its overseas territories), and was the fourth strongest to impact the U.S. mainland.[71] Additionally, Michael was the second-most intense hurricane by pressure to make landfall in Florida, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane, and the third strongest by wind, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Andrew.[72]

Michael was the second-most intense hurricane to have made landfall during the month of October in the North Atlantic basin (including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea), behind the 1924 Cuba hurricane.[73] Michael was also the first recorded Category 4 or 5 hurricane to strike the Florida Panhandle since reliable records began in 1851.[74]

See also


  1. ^ The position of Michael's Category 5 peak is not depicted in this graphic as it is an asynoptic point (i.e. not at the 6-hour intervals of all other points) occurring at 17:30 UTC October 10.
  2. ^ All damage figures in this table are in nominal value in 2004 USD.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m John L. Beven II, Robbie Berg, and Andrew Hagan (April 19, 2019). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Michael" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. NOAA. Retrieved April 19, 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b "Assessing the U.S. Climate in 2018". National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Global Catastrophe Recap October 2018 (PDF). AON (Report). AON. November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  4. ^ "While Trump Calls Climate Change a Hoax, Hurricane Michael Damaged US Fighter Jets Worth $6 Billion". Democracy Now!. October 26, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Hurricane Michael insured losses near $5.53 billion". The News-Herald. The News Service of Florida. February 7, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  6. ^ a b Liz Fabian (October 23, 2018). "Georgia nears $700 million in Hurricane Michael insured losses as victims begin recovery". The Telegraph. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  7. ^ a b "Breaking down Michael's estimated $3 billion hit to Georgia agriculture". Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 18, 2018. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Hurricane Michael tally at $5 billion in property damage, $1.5 billion in crop loss". January 8, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  9. ^ Stewart, Stacy R. (October 2, 2018). "NHC Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook Archive". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  10. ^ Beven, Jack (October 6, 2018). "Potential Tropical Cyclone Fourteen Advisory Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  11. ^ Beven, John L. (October 6, 2018). "Potential Tropical Cyclone Fourteen Discussion Number 1". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  12. ^ Berg, Robbie (October 7, 2018). "Tropical Depression Fourteen Discussion Number 3". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  13. ^ Brown, Daniel P. (October 7, 2018). "Tropical Storm Michael Discussion Number 4". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  14. ^ Berg, Robbie (October 8, 2018). "Tropical Storm Michael Discussion Number 6". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  15. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. December 12, 2019.
  16. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (May 2018). "Continental United States Hurricanes (Detailed Description)". AOML. Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Office of Oceanic & Atmospheric Research. Retrieved February 16, 2020.
  17. ^ John L. Beven II; Robbie Berg; Andrew Hagen (April 19, 2019). Hurricane Michael (PDF) (Report). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  18. ^ Stewart, Stacy (October 8, 2018). "Hurricane Michael Discussion Number 10". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  19. ^ Feltgen, Dennis (April 19, 2019). "Hurricane Michael upgraded to a Category 5 at time of U.S. landfall". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  20. ^ Brown, Daniel P. (October 11, 2018). "Tropical Storm Michael Discussion Number 21". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  21. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2018-10-14". Free University of Berlin. October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  22. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2018-10-15". Free University of Berlin. October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  23. ^ a b Daniel Chaitin (October 16, 2018). "When Michael met Leslie: Ex-hurricanes dance, merge over Spain". Washington Examiner. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  24. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2018-10-16". Free University of Berlin. October 16, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  25. ^ "Europe Weather Analysis on 2018-10-17". Free University of Berlin. October 17, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  26. ^ a b c "Huracán Michael deja daños significativos en Cuba" (in Spanish). Conexión Capital. October 10, 2018. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
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