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Humboldt County, Iowa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Humboldt County
Clockwise from top: Humboldt County Courthouse, Fountain in Humboldt's John Brown Park, the Des Moines River at Gotch Park, Sumner Avenue in Humboldt, and Old Settler's Park in Livermore
Map of Iowa highlighting Humboldt County
Location within the U.S. state of Iowa
Map of the United States highlighting Iowa
Iowa's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 42°46′38″N 94°12′15″W / 42.777222222222°N 94.204166666667°W / 42.777222222222; -94.204166666667
Country United States
State Iowa
FoundedJanuary 28, 1857
Named forAlexander von Humboldt
SeatDakota City
Largest cityHumboldt
Area
 • Total436 sq mi (1,130 km2)
 • Land434 sq mi (1,120 km2)
 • Water1.3 sq mi (3 km2)  0.3%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total9,815
 • Estimate 
(2018)
9,547
 • Density23/sq mi (8.7/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district4th
Websitewww.humboldtcountyia.org

Humboldt County is a county in the U.S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,815.[1] The county seat is Dakota City.[2] The county was created in 1857 and named in honor of Alexander von Humboldt.

History

Founding

Iowa's entry to the union was approved by Congress on March 3, 1845, with statehood beginning on December 28, 1846, following approval of the state's constitution and boundaries. In order to establish county government across the state, the Iowa General Assembly passed an act on January 15, 1851 which created fifty counties in the half of the state where county government had not yet been established. Humboldt County was created by this act, containing its present area, as well as four townships in present-day Webster County: Jackson, Deer Creek, Badger, and Newark.[3] It was named after Alexander von Humboldt.[4] On January 21, 1855, an act merged the northern half of Humboldt County and Bancroft County into Kossuth County, with the southern half of Humboldt County merging into Webster County.[5]

The Sixth General Assembly passed another act, reestablishing Humboldt County. The act was passed on January 28, 1857 and went into effect on February 26.[5] However, an error omitted the lower four townships (Jackson, Deer Creek, Badger, and Newark) from returning to Humboldt County. The error was not caught until the next session of the general assembly, and the general assembly passed a bill redefining Humboldt County to include the four townships on March 11, 1858.[6] However, in the interceding time, the Constitution of Iowa came into effect, including the provision that "future laws altering county boundaries should be submitted to a vote of the people of the counties concerned and must be approved by them before going into effect".[7] In a court case originating in the disputed area, the Iowa Supreme Court was asked to decide which county court had original jurisdiction. In their clarification, they ruled the March 11, 1858 clarification of Humboldt County's boundaries unconstitutional, as it had not been submitted to a public vote in the counties involved. In his decision, Chief Justice Ralph P. Lowe wrote, "We are compelled to conclude that township 90, in ranges 27 to 30, west of the 5th principal meridian, is still in and forms a part of Webster county. Of course we can pay no attention to conjectural surmises and vague suspicions, which have been made and entertained in relation to some unfairness which may have been practiced in the final passage of the act of 1857, creating the county of Humboldt. If such was the case, no evidence of the fact has been presented to us."[8] The "vague suspicions" include a rumor that John Duncombe of Fort Dodge (namesake of Duncombe, Iowa and plaintiff in the lawsuit) had tricked Humboldt County into ceding the southern four townships to Webster County "on loan", or was otherwise responsible for the "error".[9]

In 1872, Humboldt College was opened and closed in 1916 because there was no agreement with the county about taxation.[10]

Geography

Humboldt County is divided into 12 townships.
Humboldt County is divided into 12 townships.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 436 square miles (1,130 km2), of which 434 square miles (1,120 km2) is land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2) (0.3%) is water.[11]

Unlike all counties to its east and west, Humboldt County has only 12 townships. Although founded with the standard 16 townships on January 15, 1851, the county was removed from existence in 1855.[12]

Adjacent counties

Ecology

Rolling topography along Indian Creek in southern Humboldt County
Rolling topography along Indian Creek in southern Humboldt County

Humboldt County is located entirely within the Des Moines Lobe of the Western Corn Belt Plains ecoregion, as defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One of the flattest regions in Iowa, the Des Moines Lobe ecoregion is a distinctive area naturally defined by Wisconsin glaciation but modified by humans for extensive agriculture. In general, the land is level to gently rolling with some areas of relief defined by glacial features like moraines, hummocky knobs, and kettles, and outwash deposits. The lobe does not have any loess deposits like the Loess Hills to the west.

The stream network is poorly developed and widely spaced, with major rivers carving valleys that are relatively deep and steep-sided. Almost all of the natural lakes of Iowa are found in the northern part of this region (the Iowa Great Lakes). Most of the region has been converted from wet prairie to agricultural use with substantial surface water drainage. Only a small fraction of the wetlands remain, and many natural lakes have been drained as a result of agricultural drainage projects via drainage tiles or ditches.[13]

Hydrology

Humboldt County is located within the Des Moines River watershed. The East and West Forks of the Des Moines River merge at Frank Gotch State Park in southern Humboldt County. The eastern part of Humboldt County is within the Boone River watershed, a tributary of the Des Moines.

Protected areas

The Rutland dam in Rose Mill Park.
The Rutland dam in Rose Mill Park.

While Humboldt County does not have any state parks, it has county parks. South of Humboldt is Frank A. Gotch County Park. It is named for Frank Gotch, a world-champion, undefeated wrestler from Humboldt. The park is near his childhood farm and is also home to the confluence of the East and West Forks of the Des Moines River. The park features campgrounds and a well-known converted railroad bridge used by the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway. The bridge is part of the Three Rivers Trail, a converted rail route that runs from Eagle Grove west to Rolfe.

Near Bradgate is the Willow Access Area. The terrain is very wooded. In south Rutland is Rose Mill Park. The area can be used for camping and also has access to the Rutland Dam and West Fork of the Des Moines River. The dam is being restored, and most of the park is new. The river is known for its forested limestone bluffs and grassy banks.

The lower portion of Joe Sheldon Park.
The lower portion of Joe Sheldon Park.

Further downriver near Humboldt is Oxbow Park, which contains boating access ramps and much scenic open space. The park's southern border is Iowa Highway 3, and south of that is Joe Sheldon County Park. The park is split into two sections, one mostly for camping and one focused on recreation. There is access to the West Fork of the Des Moines River from the lower part of the park.

Continuing along the river, the Lake Nokomis area begins, popular for its woods and small ponds. The Cottonwood Trail also runs through the area.

West of Livermore, Lott's Park allows access to Lott's Creek. The park has many benches and picnic tables. South of Ottosen is the Ottosen Marsh State Game Management Area, colloquially the Ottosen Potholes. East of Dakota City is the Dakota City River Park, near an old dam and the Humboldt County Historical Museum. Near the unincorporated community of Pioneer is the Pioneer Prairie Pothole Wildlife Area.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860332
18702,596681.9%
18805,341105.7%
18909,83684.2%
190012,66728.8%
191012,182−3.8%
192012,9516.3%
193013,2021.9%
194013,4591.9%
195013,117−2.5%
196013,1560.3%
197012,519−4.8%
198012,246−2.2%
199010,756−12.2%
200010,381−3.5%
20109,815−5.5%
2018 (est.)9,547[14]−2.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[15]
1790-1960[16] 1900-1990[17]
1990-2000[18] 2010-2018[1]
Population of Humboldt County from US census data
Population of Humboldt County from US census data

2010 census

The 2010 census recorded a population of 9,815 in the county, with a population density of 22.5939/sq mi (8.7235/km2). There were 4,684 housing units, of which 4,209 were occupied.[19]

2000 census

2000 Census Age Pyramid for Humboldt County
2000 Census Age Pyramid for Humboldt County

As of the census[20] of 2000, there were 10,381 people, 4,295 households, and 2,881 families residing in the county. The population density was 24 people per square mile (9/km2). There were 4,645 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile (4/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 98.63% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, and 0.47% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 4,295 households, out of which 29.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 6.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.90% were non-families. 29.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 16.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.94.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 24.90% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 24.60% from 25 to 44, 22.50% from 45 to 64, and 21.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,201, and the median income for a family was $46,510. Males had a median income of $31,004 versus $22,312 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,300. About 5.30% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.80% of those under age 18 and 5.10% of those age 65 or over.

Communities

Berkhimer Bridge, located northwest of Humboldt, was built in 1899.
Berkhimer Bridge, located northwest of Humboldt, was built in 1899.

Cities

Ghost town

Townships

Population ranking

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Humboldt County.[21]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2010 Census)
1 Humboldt City 4,690
2 Dakota City City 843
3 Livermore City 384
4 Bode City 302
5 Gilmore City (partially in Pocahontas County) City 288 (504 total)
6 Renwick City 242
7 Thor City 186
8 Rutland City 126
9 Bradgate City 86
10 Ottosen City 55
11 Hardy City 47
12 Lu Verne (partially in Kossuth County) City 36 (261 total)
13 Pioneer City 23

Politics

Presidential Elections Results
Presidential Elections Results[22]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2020 71.7% 3,819 27.1% 1,442 1.2% 66
2016 70.1% 3,568 24.6% 1,252 5.3% 267
2012 60.1% 3,099 38.2% 1,972 1.7% 87
2008 56.5% 2,895 42.2% 2,160 1.3% 68
2004 59.1% 3,162 40.1% 2,146 0.8% 42
2000 57.6% 2,846 39.5% 1,949 2.9% 145
1996 45.3% 2,236 42.2% 2,080 12.5% 617
1992 44.3% 2,299 34.0% 1,765 21.6% 1,121
1988 48.4% 2,594 50.6% 2,713 0.9% 50
1984 57.9% 3,396 41.0% 2,406 1.0% 61
1980 60.6% 3,575 31.2% 1,840 8.2% 484
1976 52.7% 3,075 45.8% 2,677 1.5% 89
1972 62.5% 3,622 35.6% 2,062 1.9% 108
1968 59.9% 3,239 35.9% 1,940 4.3% 231
1964 40.0% 2,250 60.0% 3,376 0.1% 4
1960 56.7% 3,537 43.3% 2,706 0.0% 0
1956 57.6% 3,747 42.4% 2,756 0.1% 4
1952 67.9% 4,534 31.8% 2,124 0.2% 16
1948 46.0% 2,498 52.6% 2,855 1.5% 79
1944 47.7% 2,525 52.0% 2,749 0.3% 16
1940 46.4% 2,853 53.2% 3,268 0.4% 22
1936 39.0% 2,262 59.0% 3,420 2.0% 115
1932 41.5% 2,028 57.4% 2,804 1.2% 57
1928 62.5% 2,828 37.1% 1,679 0.4% 16
1924 59.7% 2,841 7.8% 370 32.5% 1,547
1920 82.8% 3,577 15.8% 681 1.4% 61
1916 66.7% 1,676 32.2% 809 1.1% 28
1912 18.8% 477 24.9% 634 56.3% 1,432
1908 73.7% 1,818 23.8% 587 2.6% 63
1904 81.8% 1,950 15.5% 369 2.8% 66
1900 77.9% 2,214 20.9% 595 1.2% 34
1896 71.2% 2,010 27.7% 783 1.1% 31

Infrastructure

Major highways

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Webster" (1913), p. 73.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 163.
  5. ^ a b "Webster" (1913), p. 74.
  6. ^ "Webster" (1913), pp. 74-75.
  7. ^ "Webster" (1913), p. 75.
  8. ^ "Webster" (1913), pp. 75-76.
  9. ^ "About Humboldt County". 2011. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  10. ^ "City of Humboldt History." City of Humboldt. Online History. Archived September 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  12. ^ "Humboldt County Seat". Beaver Township, Dakota City. Humboldt County Historical Association. 2011. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  13. ^  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: Chapman, S.S., Omernik, J.M., Griffith, G.E.; et al. "Ecoregions of Iowa and Missouri" (PDF).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) (color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs)
  14. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  15. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  16. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  17. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  18. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 17, 2014.
  19. ^ "Population & Housing Occupancy Status 2010". United States Census Bureau American FactFinder. Retrieved May 17, 2011.[dead link]
  20. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  21. ^ "2010 U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  22. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 26, 2018.

External links

This page was last edited on 6 April 2021, at 22:26
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