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A large green person has his hand outstretched, obscuring his face.
Theatrical release poster
Directed byAng Lee
Screenplay by
Story byJames Schamus
Based on
Produced by
CinematographyFrederick Elmes
Edited byTim Squyres
Music byDanny Elfman
Distributed byUniversal Pictures[1]
Release date
  • June 20, 2003 (2003-06-20)
Running time
138 minutes[3]
CountryUnited States[1]
Budget$137 million[4]
Box office$245.4 million[4]

Hulk (also known as The Hulk) is a 2003 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, directed by Ang Lee and written by James Schamus, Michael France, and John Turman from a story by Schamus. Eric Bana stars as Bruce Banner/Hulk, alongside Jennifer Connelly, Sam Elliott, Josh Lucas, and Nick Nolte. The film explores Bruce Banner's origins. After a lab accident involving gamma radiation, he transforms into a giant green-skinned creature known as the "Hulk" whenever stressed or emotionally provoked. The United States military pursues him, and he clashes with his biological father, who has dark plans for his son.

Development for the film started as far back as 1990. At one point, Joe Johnston and then Jonathan Hensleigh were to direct the movie. Hensleigh, John Turman, Michael France, Zak Penn (who would later write The Incredible Hulk), J. J. Abrams, Michael Tolkin, David Hayter, Scott Alexander, and Larry Karaszewski wrote more scripts before Ang Lee and James Schamus' involvement. From March to August 2002, Hulk was primarily shot in California, mainly in the San Francisco Bay Area.

The film was released on June 20, 2003, and it grossed $245 million worldwide, becoming one of the highest-grossing films of 2003. Rotten Tomatoes' critical consensus calls it an ambitious and stylish film that focuses too much on dialogue at the cost of action. A planned sequel was repurposed as a reboot, titled The Incredible Hulk, and released on June 13, 2008, as the second film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.


David Banner is a genetics researcher for the government trying to improve human DNA. His supervisor, General Thaddeus "Thunderbolt" Ross, forbids human experimentation, so David experiments on himself. His wife, Edith, soon gives birth to their son, Bruce Banner. David realizes Bruce inherited his mutant DNA and attempts to find a cure. After discovering his dangerous experiments, Ross shuts down David's research; David rigs Desert Base's gamma reactor to explode as revenge. Believing Bruce is dangerous, David tries to kill him but accidentally murders Edith as she tries to protect Bruce; the trauma causes Bruce to suppress his early childhood memories. Ross arrests David, sending him to a mental hospital, and puts the 4-year-old Bruce into foster care. Mrs. Krenzler adopts him, and Bruce assumes the surname, growing up believing his birth parents are dead.

Thirty years later, Bruce is a brilliant scientist working at the Berkeley Lab with his girlfriend and Ross's estranged daughter, Betty Ross. Representing the private research company Atheon, the shady Glenn Talbot becomes interested in the scientists' nanomeds research to create regenerating soldiers for the military-industrial complex. David reappears, working as a janitor in the lab building to infiltrate Bruce's life. Ross investigates and becomes concerned for Betty's safety around Bruce.

Bruce saves his and Betty's colleague Harper from an accident with a malfunctioning gammasphere. Waking in a hospital bed, Bruce tells Betty he feels better than ever, but Betty can not fathom his survival since the nanomeds killed everything else; unknown to them, the radiation merged with Bruce's altered DNA. David meets him after hours, revealing their relationship and hinting at Bruce's mutation. He later uses samples of Bruce's DNA for animal experimentation. Bruce's increasing rage from the tensions mounting around him activates his gamma-radiated DNA; he becomes the Hulk and destroys the lab. Betty finds Bruce unconscious in his home the following morning, barely remembering last night. Ross arrives later to question Bruce before Betty locates David to investigate him. After hours of interrogation, Ross seizes the lab and places Bruce under house arrest. David calls Bruce that night, revealing he mutated his three dogs and sicced them on Betty, enraging him. Talbot attacks Bruce about the lab; Bruce transforms and injures Talbot and Ross's MPs. The Hulk finds Betty at her forest cabin, rescues her, and changes back.

Betty calls Ross the following day; the army sedates and takes Bruce to Desert Base. Deeming him damned to follow in David's footsteps, Ross doubts helping Bruce, but Betty persuades Ross to let her try. David subjects himself to the nanomeds and gammasphere, becoming able to meld with and absorb the properties of anything he touches. Talbot wrestles control from Ross, forcing Betty to return home. Seeking to profit from the Hulk's power, Talbot fails to provoke Bruce and puts him in an isolation tank. David confronts Betty at her house, offering to surrender himself and asking to speak to Bruce "one last time" in exchange. Talbot induces a nightmare from Bruce's repressed memories and triggers a transformation. Trapping the Hulk in sticky foam, Talbot tries taking a sample of him, but the Hulk's rage enlarges him, and he breaks free. Talbot fires an explosive round, but it rebounds into a back wall and explodes; Ross resumes command upon Talbot's death. The Hulk escapes the base, battles the army in the desert, and leaps to San Francisco to find Betty. She convinces Ross to take her to the Hulk, making Bruce return to normal.

Bruce and David talk at a base in the city while Ross watches, threatening to incinerate them. David has descended into megalomania, wanting Bruce's power to destroy his enemies. After Bruce refuses, David bites into a high-voltage cable when Ross powers it and absorbs the energy, mutating into a powerful electrical creature. Bruce becomes the Hulk and fights and overpowers him; they are presumed dead after Ross orders a Gamma Charge Bomb to end the battle. A year later, Ross has Betty under constant surveillance, and many Hulk sightings still occur since Bruce finds exile in the Amazon Rainforest as a medical camp doctor.


  • Eric Bana as Bruce Banner / Hulk:
    A gamma radiation research scientist. After exposure to elevated gamma radiation levels, he becomes an enormous green humanoid monster when enraged or agitated. He is legally known as "Bruce Krenzler" throughout the film. Bana was cast in October 2001, signing for an additional two sequels.[5] Ang Lee felt obliged to cast Bana upon seeing Chopper and first approached the actor in July 2001.[6] Other actors heavily pursued the role. Bana was also in heavy contention for Ghost Rider but lost out to Nicolas Cage.[5] Bana explained, "I was obsessed with the TV show. I was never a huge comic book reader when I was a kid but was completely obsessed with the television show."[7] It was widely reported Billy Crudup turned down the role. Johnny Depp and Steve Buscemi were reportedly under consideration for the lead.[8] David Duchovny and Jeff Goldblum auditioned for the role.[9] Edward Norton, who went on to play Bruce in The Incredible Hulk, expressed interest in the role but turned it down as he was disappointed with the script.[10][11] Tom Cruise was also offered the role but he turned it down.[9]
  • Jennifer Connelly as Betty Ross:
    Bruce's ex-girlfriend and colleague, General Ross's estranged daughter, and possibly the only one who can make the Hulk revert into Bruce. Director Ang Lee attracted Connelly to the role. "He's not talking about a guy running around in green tights and a glossy fun-filled movie for kids. He's talking along the lines of tragedy and psychodrama. I find it interesting, the green monster of rage and greed, jealousy and fear in all of us."[12]
  • Sam Elliott as Thaddeus "Thunderbolt" Ross:
    A four-star general and Betty's estranged father. Ross was responsible for prohibiting David Banner from his lab work after learning of his dangerous experiments. Elliot felt his performance was similar to his portrayal of Basil L. Plumley in We Were Soldiers.[13] Elliott accepted the role without reading the script, being only too excited to work with Ang Lee. Elliot also researched Hulk comic books for the part.[14]
    • Todd Tesen as Young Thaddeus Ross
  • Josh Lucas as Glenn Talbot:
    A ruthless and arrogant former soldier who has a history with Betty. He offers Bruce and Betty a chance to work for him at the research company Atheon and make self-healing super soldiers.
  • Nick Nolte as David Banner:
    Bruce's mentally unstable biological father who's also a genetics research scientist. He spent several years locked away for causing a gamma reactor explosion and accidentally killing his wife, Edith. David eventually gains absorbing powers, reminiscent of the comic book character Absorbing Man, which first appeared in the film's early scripts. At one point, he also becomes a towering creature composed of electricity, reminiscent of Zzzax, one of the Hulk's enemies in the comic series.[15] Nolte agreed to participate in the film when Lee described the project as a "Greek tragedy."[16][17]
  • Cara Buono as Edith Banner:
    Bruce's biological mother, whom he cannot remember. She is heard but mostly appears in Bruce's nightmares.
  • Celia Weston as Mrs. Krenzler:
    Bruce's adoptive mother, who cared for him after Edith's death and David's incarceration.
  • Kevin Rankin as Harper:
    Bruce's colleague, whom he saved from the gamma radiation.

Hulk co-creator/executive producer Stan Lee and former Hulk actor Lou Ferrigno made cameo appearances as security guards. Johnny Kastl and Daniel Dae Kim have small roles as soldiers.



Jonathan Hensleigh

Producers Avi Arad and Gale Anne Hurd began developing Hulk in 1990,[18] the same year the final TV movie based on the 1970s TV series aired. They set the property up at Universal Pictures in 1992.[19] Michael France and Stan Lee were invited into Universal's offices in 1993, with France writing the script. Universal's concept was to have the Hulk battle terrorists, an idea France disliked. John Turman, a Hulk comic book fan, was brought to write the script in 1994, getting Lee's approval. Heavily influenced by the Tales to Astonish issues, Turman wrote ten drafts and pitted the Hulk against General Ross and the military and [20] the Leader, also including Rick Jones and the atomic explosion origin from the comics[21] along with Brian Banner as the explanation for Bruce's inner anger.[22] Universal had mixed feelings over Turman's script, but future screenwriters would use many elements.[20][23]

Hurd brought her husband Jonathan Hensleigh as co-producer the following year, and Universal hired Industrial Light & Magic to create the Hulk with computer-generated imagery. Universal was courting France once more to write the screenplay[8] but changed their minds when Joe Johnston became the director in April 1997.[24] The studio wanted Hensleigh to rewrite the script due to his successful results on Johnston's Jumanji. Universal fired France before he wrote a single page but gave him a buy-off.[8] Johnston dropped out of directing in July 1997 in favor of October Sky, and Hensleigh convinced Universal to make the Hulk his directing debut. Universal brought Turman back a second time to write two more drafts. Zak Penn then rewrote it.[8][25] His script featured a fight between the Hulk and a school of sharks,[21] and two scenes he eventually used for the 2008 film: Banner realizing he cannot have sex and triggering a transformation by falling out of a helicopter.[26] Hensleigh rewrote from scratch, coming up with a brand new storyline[8] featuring Bruce Banner, who, before the accident which turns him into The Hulk, experiments with gamma-irradiated insect DNA on three convicts, transforming them into "insect men"[27] that cause havoc.[8][28]

Concept art for Jonathan Hensleigh's script
Concept art for Jonathan Hensleigh's script

Filming was to start in December 1997 in Arizona for a summer 1999 release date, but filming was pushed back for four months.[28][29] Hensleigh subsequently rewrote the script with J. J. Abrams. Scott Alexander and Larry Karaszewski were also brought on board to rewrite, with Hensleigh still attached as director.[8] In October 1997,[30][31][32] Hulk had entered pre-production with the creation of prosthetic makeup and computer animation already underway. Gregory Sporleder was cast as "Novak", Banner's archenemy, while Lynn "Red" Williams was cast as a convict who transforms into a combination of human, ant, and beetle.[29] In March 1998, Universal put Hulk on hiatus due to its escalating $100 million budget and worries of Hensleigh directing his first film. $20 million was already spent on script development, computer animation, and prosthetics work. Hensleigh immediately went to rewrite the script to lower the budget.[33]

Michael France

Hensleigh found the rewriting process too complicated and dropped out, feeling he "wasted nine months in pre-production".[34] It took another eight months for France to convince Universal and the producers to let him try to write a script for the third time. France claimed, "Someone within the Universal hierarchy wasn't sure if this was a science fiction adventure, or a comedy, and I kept getting directions to write both. I think that at some point when I wasn't in the room, there may have been discussions about turning it into a Jim Carrey or Adam Sandler movie."[8] France was writing the script on the fast track from July—September 1999. Filming for Hulk was to start in April 2000.[35][36]

France stated his vision of the film was different from the other drafts, which based Bruce Banner on his "amiable, nerdy genius" incarnation in the 1960s. France cited inspiration from the 1980s Hulk stories, which introduced Brian Banner, Bruce's abusive father who killed his mother. His script had Banner trying to create cells with regenerative capabilities to convince himself that he is not like his father.[8] However, he has anger management issues before the Hulk is born, which makes everything worse. The "Don't make me angry..." line from the TV series became the dialogue that Banner's father would say before beating his son.[37] Elements such as the "Gammasphere," Bruce and Betty's tragic romance, and the black ops made it to the final film. France turned in his final drafts in late 1999 – January 2000.[8]

Ang Lee

Michael Tolkin and David Hayter rewrote the script afterward, despite the producers' positive response over France's script. Tolkin was brought in January 2000, while Universal brought Hayter in September of that year. Hayter's draft featured The Leader, Zzzax, and the Absorbing Man as the villains, who are depicted as Banner's colleagues and get caught in the same accident that creates the Hulk.[8][15][38] Director Ang Lee and his producing partner James Schamus became involved with the film on January 20, 2001.[39] Lee was dissatisfied with Hayter's script and commissioned Schamus for a rewrite, merging Banner's father with the Absorbing Man.[8][40] Lee cited influences from King Kong, Frankenstein, Jekyll and Hyde, Beauty and the Beast, Faust, and Greek mythology to interpret the story.[41] Schamus said he had found the storyline that introduced Brian Banner, allowing Lee to write a drama that again explored father-son themes.[42]

Schamus was still rewriting the script in October 2001.[5] In early 2002, as filming was underway, Michael France read all the scripts for the Writers Guild of America to determine who would get final credit. France criticized Schamus and Hayter for claiming they were aiming to make Banner a more in-depth character, saddened they had denigrated his and Turman's work in interviews. Schamus elected to get solo credit. France felt, "James Schamus did a significant amount of work on the screenplay. For example, he brought in the Hulk dogs from the comics and he made the decision to use Banner's father as a real character in the present. But he used quite a lot of elements from John Turman's scripts and quite a lot from mine, and that's why we were credited."[8][43][44] France, Turman, and Schamus received final credit. In December 2001, a theatrical release date for June 20, 2003, was announced, with the film's title as The Hulk.[45]


Filming began on March 18, 2002, in Arizona and moved on April 19 to the San Francisco Bay Area. Locations included Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Oakland, Treasure Island military base, and the sequoia forests of Porterville, before several weeks in the Utah and California deserts. The penultimate battle scene between Hulk and his father used the real Pear Lake in Sequoia National Park as a backdrop. Filming then moved to the Universal backlot in Los Angeles, using Stage 12 for the water tank scene, before finishing in the first week of August. Filming of Hulk constituted hiring 3,000 local workers, generating over $10 million into the local economy.[46][47][48][49] Mychael Danna, who previously collaborated with Lee on Ride with the Devil and The Ice Storm, was set to compose the film score before dropping out. Then Danny Elfman was hired.[50]

Eric Bana commented that the shoot was "Ridiculously serious... a silent set, morbid in a lot of ways." Lee told him that he was shooting a Greek tragedy: he would be making a "whole other movie" about the Hulk at Industrial Light & Magic. An example of Lee's arthouse approach to the film was taking Bana to watch a bare-knuckle boxing match. Bana would later disfavorably reflect on his experience making the film as the majority of the time he was working indoors while the rest of the cast interacted with a cgi recreation of the Hulk, somewhat limiting his screen time.[42][51] Computer animation supervisor Dennis Muren was on the set every day.[18] One of the many visual images in the film that presented an acting challenge for Bana was Lee's split-screen technique to mimic comic book page panels cinematically. This technique required many more takes of individual scenes than usual.[52] Muren and other ILM animators used previous technology from Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (for the Dobby character) to create the Hulk with computer-generated imagery. Additional software used included PowerAnimator, Softimage Creative Environment, Softimage XSI, and Pixar's RenderMan. ILM started computer animation work in 2001 and completed it in May 2003, just one month before the film's release.[53] Lee provided some motion capture work in post-production.[6] Gary Rydstrom handled sound design at Skywalker Sound.[54][55]


Film score

Hulk: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Film score by
ReleasedJune 17, 2003
LabelDecca Records
Marvel Comics film series soundtrack chronology
X2: Original Motion Picture Score
Hulk: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
The Punisher: The Album

Danny Elfman composed the film score for Hulk after scoring Spider-Man the previous year. Frequent Ang Lee collaborator Mychael Danna was the film's original composer; however, studio executives rejected Danna's score for its non-traditional approach, which featured Japanese taiko, African drumming, and Arabic singing.[56] Then Elfman was approached by Universal's president of film music, Kathy Nelson. With 37 days to compose over two hours of music, Elfman agreed out of respect to Lee.[57] While instructing to retain much of the character of Danna's score, Lee pushed Elfman to write material that didn't sound like his previous superhero scores.[58] "They did leave some of my music in the movie," said Danna, "so the Arabic singing and some of the drumming is mine. What happened is that they panicked, they brought in Danny and he heard what I've been doing and I guess he liked it."[59]

A soundtrack album was released on June 17, 2003, by Decca Records.[60] It features the song "Set Me Free" by Velvet Revolver, which plays during the end credits.



Universal Pictures spent $2.1 million to market the film in a 30-second television spot during Super Bowl XXXVII on January 26, 2003.[61] And a 70-second teaser trailer was attached to Spider-Man on May 3, 2002. Just weeks before the film's release, several workprints leaked on the Internet. The public already criticized the visual and special effects, although it was not the film's final editing cut.[62] The film received a novelization written by Hulk comic writer Peter David.[63]

Home media

Hulk was released on VHS and DVD on October 28, 2003.[64] The DVD included behind-the-scenes footage, enhanced viewing options that allow users to manipulate a 3-D Hulk model, and cast and crew commentaries.[65] The film earned $61.2 million in DVD sales during 2003.[66] Hulk was released on HD DVD format on December 12, 2006, and it was later released on Blu-ray on September 16, 2008.[67] Hulk was released on Ultra HD Blu-ray on July 9, 2019.[68]


Critical response

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, Hulk holds a 62% approval rating based on 237 reviews and an average rating of 6.20/10. The website's critics' consensus reads, "While Ang Lee's ambitious film earns marks for style and an attempt at dramatic depth, there's ultimately too much talking and not enough smashing."[69] Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the film a score of 54 out of 100 based on 40 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[70] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B−" on an A+ to F scale.[71]

Roger Ebert gave a positive review, explaining, "Ang Lee is trying to actually deal with the issues in the story of the Hulk, instead of simply cutting to brainless visual effects." Ebert also liked how the Hulk's movements resembled King Kong.[72] Although Peter Travers of Rolling Stone felt Hulk should have been shorter, he heavily praised the action sequences, especially the climax and cliffhanger.[73] Paul Clinton of CNN believed the cast gave strong performances, but in an otherwise positive review, heavily criticized the computer-generated imagery, calling the Hulk "a ticked-off version of Shrek".[74]

Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle considered "the film is more thoughtful and pleasing to the eye than any blockbuster in recent memory, but its epic length comes without an epic reward."[75] Ty Burr of The Boston Globe felt "Jennifer Connelly reprises her stand-by-your-messed-up-scientist turn from A Beautiful Mind."[76] Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly stated, "a big-budget comic-book adaptation has rarely felt so humorless and intellectually defensive about its own pulpy roots."[77]

Hulk received retrospective praise from critics for its artistic difference from other superhero films by Marvel and DC comics, etc. In 2012, Matt Zoller Seitz cited the film as one of the few big-budget superhero films that "really departed from formula, in terms of subject matter or tone", writing that the film is "pretty bizarre... in its old-school Freudian psychology, but interesting for that reason".[78] In Scout Tafoya's 2016 video essay on another film directed by Ang Lee, Ride with the Devil, he mentioned Hulk as "Lee's ill-fated but quietly soulful and deeply sad adaptation of The Incredible Hulk comics".[79] In 2018, Peter Sobczynski of wrote that the film is "a genuinely great example of cinematic pop art that deserves a reappraisal".[80]

Box office

Hulk was released on June 20, 2003, earning $62.1 million in its opening weekend, which made it the 16th highest ever opener at the time. With a second weekend drop of 70%, it was the first opener above $20 million to drop over 65%.[81] The film grossed $132.2 million in North America on a budget of $137 million. It made $113.2 million in foreign countries, coming to a worldwide total of $245.4 million.[4] With a final North American gross of $132.2 million, it became the largest opener not to earn $150 million.[82]


Connelly and Danny Elfman received nominations at the 30th Saturn Awards with Best Actress and Best Music. The film was nominated for Best Science Fiction Film but lost out to X2, another movie based on Marvel characters. Dennis Muren, Michael Lantieri, and the special effects crew were nominated for Best Special Effects.[83] The film is notably the first to make the Hulk through CGI.

Award Category Nominee Result
30th Saturn Awards Best Science Fiction Film Nominated
Best Actress Jennifer Connelly Nominated
Best Music Danny Elfman Nominated
Best Special Effects Dennis Muren, Michael Lantieri Nominated


Cancelled sequel

In March 2002, during filming for Huk, producer Avi Arad targeted a May 2005 theatrical release date for a sequel.[84] Upon the film's release, screenwriter James Schamus started to plan a sequel featuring Hulk's Grey Hulk persona and considered using The Leader and the Abomination as villains.[85] Marvel asked for Abomination's inclusion to be an actual threat to Hulk, unlike General Ross.[86]

Marvel Cinematic Universe

In January 2006, Marvel Studios reacquired the film rights to the character, and writer Zak Penn began work on a sequel titled The Incredible Hulk.[87] However, Edward Norton rewrote Penn's script after signing on to star, retelling the origin story in flashbacks and revelations, to establish the film as a reboot; director Louis Leterrier agreed with this approach.[88] Leterrier acknowledged that the only remaining similarity between the two films was Bruce hiding in South America.[89]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "The Hulk (2003)". American Film Institute. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "Hulk (2002) – Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  3. ^ "HULK (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. June 11, 2003. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "Hulk (2003)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  5. ^ a b c Michael Fleming (2001-10-14). "Aussie has bulk for Hulk". Variety. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  6. ^ a b c Rob Worley (2003-06-19). "Countdown to Hulk: Ang Lee's new green destiny". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  7. ^ "Bana was TV Hulk Fan". Sci Fi Wire. 2001-12-27. Archived from the original on 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m David Hughes (2003). Comic Book Movies. London: Virgin Books. pp. 261–269. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
  9. ^ a b Dilley, Whitney Crothers (23 December 2014). The Cinema of Ang Lee: The Other Side of the Screen. ISBN 9780231538497.
  10. ^ Edward Douglas (2007-04-16). "Zak Penn on Norton as Hulk!". Superhero Hype!. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  11. ^ "Edward Norton talks Incredible Hulk". Total Film. 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
  12. ^ "Connelly Embraces The Hulk". Sci Fi Wire. 2001-12-10. Archived from the original on 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
  13. ^ Rob Worley (2002-02-28). "Elliott Talks Hulk". Comics2Film. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
  14. ^ Rob Worley (2003-06-11). "Countdown to Hulk: Sam Elliott: Hulkbuster". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  15. ^ a b KJB. "David Hater Talks Hulk". IGN. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
  16. ^ Bonin, Liane (19 June 2003). "Hulk 's Nick Nolte on rage, science, and Shakespeare". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
  17. ^ Lee, Alana (15 July 2003). "Nick Nolte: Hulk". BBC. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
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  21. ^ a b Harry Knowles (1997-11-10). "Make John Turman or Zack Penn's Hulk Drafts, not Hensleigh's!!!!!!". Ain't It Cool News. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
  22. ^ "HULK screenplay by John Turman" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 16, 2014.
  23. ^ Rob Worley (2003-06-01). "Countdown to Hulk: Screenwriter John Turman talks about Hulk and other heroes". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2008-06-14.
  24. ^ Michael Fleming (1997-04-14). "A Mania For Marvel". Variety. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  25. ^ Michael Fleming (1997-07-08). "Hoop duo go hip-hop". Variety. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  26. ^ Anne Thompson (2008-06-13). "Incredible Hulk: Setting the Record Straight". Variety. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
  27. ^ "HULK by Jonathan Hensleigh" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2016.
  28. ^ a b "U bulks up Hulk". Variety. 1997-08-11. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  29. ^ a b Paul Karon (1997-10-31). "U adds duo to Hulk cast". Variety. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
  30. ^ Concept art for the Hulk-vs.-Insect-Men movie that never was and Billy Crudup as the green guy
  31. ^ "See Green With Hensleigh's Lost 'Hulk' Concept Art << Film Sketchr". Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  32. ^ "bentonsblog: Hulk SMASH!". Retrieved December 6, 2020.
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