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Hugh Aloysius Drum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hugh Aloysius Drum (September 19, 1879 – October 3, 1951) was a career United States Army officer who served in World War I and World War II and attained the rank of lieutenant general. He was notable for his service as chief of staff of the First United States Army during World War I, and commander of First Army during the initial days of World War II.

Drum was attending Boston College when his father, Captain John Drum, was killed in action in Cuba on July 1, 1898, during the Spanish–American War. Offered a direct commission in the United States Army, Drum was appointed a second lieutenant of Infantry. He served in the Philippines during the Philippine–American War, took part in the Battle of Bayan, and received the Silver Star for heroism. He continued to advance through positions of more rank and responsibility in the early 1900s, and took part in the Veracruz and Pancho Villa Expeditions.

During World War I, Drum served as chief of staff for First United States Army, and led the planning for First Army's participation in the Saint Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives. He was promoted to temporary brigadier general and received the Army Distinguished Service Medal. After the war, Drum commanded 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, Fifth Corps Area, and the Hawaiian Department. Having served as the Army's deputy chief of staff and inspector general, Drum was a candidate for Army Chief of Staff in 1939 but the position went to George C. Marshall.

Drum received promotion to lieutenant general in August 1939, and commanded the Eastern Defense Command during the early years of World War II. He reached the mandatory retirement age of 64 in 1943, after which he was commander of the New York Guard (1943–1948), and president of Empire State, Inc., the company that managed the Empire State Building (1944–1951).

Drum died in New York City on October 3, 1951. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

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Transcription

Narrator: Fifteen United Nations heroes arrive in New York to help launch a nationwide drive for the sale of war bonds. Up Broadway, men of England’s R.A.F., men of America’s Navy, men who have met their enemies and defeated them, respond to the cheers of New York’s millions. Eager for a glimpse of the men they’d read about, enthusiastic thousands gather in City Hall plaza. The triumphal procession roars its way uptown. In its most uproarious reception of the war, New York pays tribute to fighting men of the United Nations. Narrator: Training motorcycle dispatch riders for the U.S. Army, one of the toughest most grueling courses in the service. After six weeks of basic instruction, they send them on cross-country trips like this. A terrific test for men and machines, they take the bumps in high gear. Now they’re real veterans of the saddle. Narrator: The world’s mightiest bomber plant is rolling. Henry Ford welcomes British and U.S. war supply heads Oliver Lyttelton and Donald Nelson. The schedule: one bomber every hour. Second stop on their tour of inspection is the assembly line of a huge tank plant. Six months ago sleek, shiny automobiles were rolling through the grounds. Today grim, heavy weapons of war are being readied for service at the front. In Washington, China’s foreign minister, T.V. Soong, concludes a lend-lease agreement with Secretary of State Hull. China will get more and more tanks and bombers to help Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. American promises all aid to her gallant eastern ally. On the Pacific coast, workers in a bomber plant get a visit from America’s hero of the hour, General James Doolittle, the man who led the first United States bombing raid on Tokyo. Addressing the men who built the ships that rained bombs on Japan, the general said “Thanks for some great airplanes.” Narrator: America, traditionally a maritime nation, mobilizes its mechanical and its industrial genius to build the largest fleet of cargo ships ever to sail the seven seas. The method is unique in all the annals of shipbuilding. Ordering prefabricated ready-made parts from some 500 factories scattered throughout the country, the yards apply mass-production technique and the results are breaking all records. Average time to build a ship during the First World War: 11 months. Record time: 7 ½ months. Now they’re completing them in 46 days. Hailing the victory of production, the nation celebrates Maritime Day with a mass decoration of merchant seaman. In New York, Mayor LaGuardia awards medals to men who have been victims of Axis submarines off the Atlantic coast. There’s no downing the spirits of these brave sailormen. Torpedoed two and three times, they’re ready to sail again. Victory ships they call them now. And there they go, eager for the sea. Two vessels are being delivered every day, three a day by the end of the year. Recently in one 24-hour working day, 27 brand-new ships slid down the ways. Nowhere else in all the world is such production possible. The goal for 1943: 23 million tons of shipping. No sooner is one launched, than they swing a new keel into place for another. Not a minute is wasted. Workmen working night and day, seven days a week, to produce the ships America’s enormous war effort demands. Narrator: New York’s colorful Belmont Park dedicates its greatest day of racing to the Army-Navy Relief Fund. Thirty thousand fans, including U.S. General Hugh Drum and Admiral Adolphus Andrews, head the host of servicemen here for the big turf classic, the $53,000 Belmont Stakes. The nation’s champion three-year-olds all away together. Betting nearly $2 million for the day, the crowd now sees their favorite, Alsab, running second. Shut Out, the Kentucky Derby winner, is in front and there to stay. No matter which one wins, America’s servicemen collect the profits. That’s a real sporting gesture. Narrator: Military experts from 17 South and Central American nations see an impressive demonstration of the United States’ great air-training program in action. Sixty thousand flyers every year. Their motors roaring defiance, this graduating class of young American eagles are now ready to man the fighting ships of the Army and Navy Air Corps. Narrator: More troops for the American expeditionary force in Australia. Armed convoys winning the game of hide-and-seek with enemy fleets to deliver the men and material to the Land Down Under. Girls of the Army Nurses Corps, American women going to war fronts around the globe with the men. Here is a Japanese flyer rescued from the Pacific by an American sergeant whose own plane made a forced landing on the sea. The Jap was floating nearby in the wreckage of his Zero fighter. The sergeant took him in tow and both were picked up by a passing transport. Once ashore, the Army nurses make themselves right at home in this strange new world. At an advance base, they take over a completely equipped hospital and dressing station. Overnight, medical and surgical facilities are established to care for the physical needs of the troops. The girls, all rated as officers and trained to rigorous Army standards, work long hours. But it’s not all grim. At the local zoo, they meet Australia’s famous koala bears, seldom seen outside the continent. And Mister Kangaroo jumps at the chance to meet some pretty American girls. Always on the alert, U.S. anti-aircraft units report on the double-quick to gun emplacements well-camouflaged from enemy scouting planes. This coastal area has been hammered for months, suspected prelude to invasion. But the American marksmen are ready and waiting. From nearby airdromes, United Nations pilots take to the sky in fast fighting pursuit ships. Scouring the area, these are the men who are defending the aerial approaches to Australia. And here’s real action. Jap plane spotted; in a matter of seconds the anti-aircraft crews are letting’em have it!

Early life

Born at Fort Brady, Chippewa County, Michigan, on September 19, 1879, Hugh A. Drum was the son of Margaret (Desmond) Drum (1846-1927) of Boston and Captain John Drum (1840–1898), a career army officer who was killed in Cuba while serving with the 10th Infantry Regiment during the Spanish–American War.[1]

In 1894, Drum graduated from Xavier High School in New York City, which he had attended while his father was an instructor at the school.[2] Initially intent upon a career as a Jesuit priest, he enrolled at Boston College.[3] Under the provisions of a recently passed law allowing recognition for sons of officers who displayed exceptional bravery during the Spanish–American War, Drum was offered a direct commission as a second lieutenant on September 9, 1898, which he accepted.[4] (He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Boston College in 1921.)[1][5][6][7][8][9]

Start of military career

Drum in 1902.

Joining the United States Army while the Spanish–American War and subsequent insurrections and conflicts were ongoing, he served with the 12th Infantry Regiment in the Philippines, and then with the 25th Infantry Regiment.[10] He participated in the Battle of Bayan in 1899, for which he received the Silver Citation Star, which was converted to the Silver Star when that decoration was created in 1932.[11]

Drum later served as aide-de-camp to Frank Baldwin before returning to a series of assignments in the United States.[10] He completed the School of the Line (precursor to the Officer Basic and Advanced Courses) in 1911 as an honor graduate.[10] He graduated from the United States Army Command and General Staff College in 1912,[10] and later served there as an instructor.[1][12]

In 1914 he was an assistant chief of staff for the force commanded by Frederick Funston during the Veracruz Expedition.[13] Drum served at Fort Bliss and Fort Sam Houston in Texas during 1915 and 1916 as part of the Pancho Villa Expedition.[14] It was serving at these locations that brought Drum into contact with Major General John J. Pershing, who thought highly of him, and "saw that he had talent as a staff officer".[15]

World War I

Brigadier General Drum as First Army chief of staff in November 1918

At the start of America's involvement in World War I, Pershing named Drum an assistant chief of staff of the First Army, commanded first by Pershing and later by Lieutenant General Hunter Liggett.[10] In 1918, he was promoted to colonel and became First Army chief of staff. He was promoted to temporary brigadier general[10] in the last weeks of the war.[16] Drum was commended for his work to assemble and organize First Army's staff, and for the planning of the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne offensives in September 1918, for which he received the Army Distinguished Service Medal and awards from several foreign countries.[17][18][19][20] The citation for his Army DSM reads:

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Brigadier General Hugh Aloysius Drum, United States Army, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I. Upon General Drum, as Chief of Staff of the 1st Army, devolved the important duty of organizing the headquarters of this command and of coordinating the detailed staff work in its operations in the St. Mihiel and Argonne-Meuse offensives. His tact, zeal, and high professional attainments had a marked influence on the success that attended the operations of the 1st Army.[21]

Between the World Wars

Major General John L. Hines, Brigadier General Hugh A. Drum and Major Francis B. Wilby at Capitol Hill, 1925.

After the war, Drum served as the director of training and assistant commandant for the School of the Line at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and commandant of the Command and General Staff College, where he taught the doctrine of open warfare—stressing maneuver and marksmanship over frontal attacks and firepower, using experienced troops, and supported by large artillery barrages—that the American Expeditionary Forces had attempted to practice in France.[22][23]

From there he went to the Army staff at the War Department in Washington, D.C., where he publicly clashed with General Billy Mitchell about the disposition of the U.S. Army Air Service.[24] During their repeated confrontations, which stretched over several years, Drum successfully lobbied Congress not to have the Air Service organized separately from the army.[24]

From 1926 to 1927, Drum commanded 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, and he was the division commander from May 1926 to May 1927.[25] He served again as commander of the 1st Infantry Division from September 1927 to January 1930.[10] From 1930 to 1931, Drum was the Inspector General of the US Army.[10] Drum was promoted to major general when he assumed his duties as inspector general on January 29, 1930.[26][27][28]

In 1931 Drum was assigned as commander of the Fifth Corps Area, based at Fort Hayes, Ohio.[29] Drum returned to Washington in 1933 to serve as deputy to the Army's Chief of Staff, Douglas MacArthur.[10] He headed a board of senior officers that again sought to suppress advocates of an independent air force by setting the ceiling on Air Corps requirements for numbers of aircraft and tying any funding for expansion of the Air Corps to prior funding of the other branches first.[30] In 1934, all the members of the Drum Board also sat on the presidential-initiated Baker Board, again setting its agenda to preclude any discussion of air force independence.[31]

In 1935, Drum was a candidate for chief of staff, but Malin Craig was selected.[32] From 1935 to 1937, Drum commanded the Hawaiian Department.[10] It was during Drum's posting in Hawaii that he renewed acquaintance with another ambitious officer, George S. Patton, who served as his assistant chief of staff for intelligence (G2), and with whom he had a contentious professional relationship.[33][34] At a polo match in which Patton was playing, Drum was among the spectators and rebuked Patton for his use of angry profanity during the game.[35] The civilian players, who were members of Hawaii's wealthy elite on friendly terms with the equally wealthy and elite Patton, humiliated Drum by standing up for Patton.[35]

In 1938, Drum succeeded James K. Parsons as commander of First Army and assumed command of Second Corps Area headquartered at Fort Jay, Governors Island, New York.[10] When Craig retired in 1939, Drum was again a candidate for chief of staff.[32][35] He wanted the position badly enough to set aside his feud with Patton and ask Patton to intercede with the retired but still influential John J. Pershing, their old mentor.[32][35] Despite these efforts, Drum was passed over in favor of George C. Marshall.[32][35] Though disappointed at not being selected, Drum was still highly enough regarded that he received promotion to lieutenant general in August 1939.[36]

Drum's former residence (right) in Washington, D.C.

World War II

With the onset of preparations for World War II, Drum assumed command of the Eastern Defense Command, responsible for domestic defense along the Atlantic seaboard.[10] During the 1941 Carolina Maneuvers, Drum commanded First Army.[37] He was embarrassed and became the subject of mockery when he was captured on the first day by troops of the 2nd Armored Division under Patton's command.[38] After soldiers from Isaac D. White's battalion detained Drum,[39] the exercise umpires ruled that the circumstances would not have transpired in combat, so he was allowed to return to his headquarters, enabling the exercise to continue and Drum to save face.[40] Despite the umpires' actions, the incident indicated to senior leaders that Drum might not be prepared to command large bodies of troops under the modern battlefield conditions the Army would face in World War II, so he was not considered for field command.[40][a]

Retirement

After the Carolina Maneuvers, Drum was disappointed with an offer from Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson to go on what he perceived to be a low-profile assignment as chief of staff for the Chinese army of Chiang Kai-Shek.[42] After declining the China mission, Drum continued as head of the Eastern Defense Command, which was expanded into the Eastern Military Area with the inclusion of U.S. bases in Bermuda and Newfoundland.[43] He remained in this assignment until reaching the mandatory retirement age in September 1943.[44][45] At his retirement, Drum received a second award of the Army Distinguished Service medal; the award was presented by Stimson, and the citation was read by Marshall.[46]

As Commander of the First Army and Eastern Defense Command, Lieutenant General Hugh A. Drum has, by his leadership, judgment and high professional attainments, rendered exceptionally meritorious service during the period of the declared national emergency and the present war. He amalgamated the military and civilian elements in his theater into a smoothly operating organization, providing adequate defense for this critical area, with a minimum expenditure of military means. He directed large-scale maneuvers conspicuous for their reality and well-conceived execution, and participated as a commander in such maneuvers to the advantage of the troops concerned, whose training was reflected in their subsequent successes in battle. General Drum’s service in the exercise of his high command has made a material contribution to the development of the Army of the United States and the measures for the security of the eastern frontier of this continent.
GENERAL ORDERS: War Department, General Orders No. 69 (1943)[47]

Post military career

Drum was the commander of the New York Guard from 1943 to 1948.[48][49] During the war, the New York Guard took on many responsibilities normally performed by the National Guard, in addition to internal security measures such as protecting key facilities from saboteurs and developing plans to respond if such an event occurred.[50] When Drum retired from command in September 1948, Governor Thomas E. Dewey promoted him to general (four stars) on the New York Guard's retired list.[51] From 1944 until his death, he was the president of Empire State, Inc., the company that managed the Empire State Building.[52]

Drum's gravestone at Arlington National Cemetery.

Drum died in New York City on October 3, 1951.[53] His funeral mass was celebrated at St. Patrick's Cathedral by Cardinal Francis Spellman.[54] Drum was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Section 3, Site 1447-R.[55]

Family

In 1903, Drum married Mary Reaume (1877–1960).[56] They were the parents of a daughter, Anna Carroll Drum (1916–1996), nicknamed "Peaches," who was the wife of Army officer Thomas H. Johnson Jr.[57][58]

Legacy

The Hugh A. Drum Papers collection includes correspondence, diaries, newspaper clippings, memorandums and other official documents.[59] It is maintained at the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.[60]

In 1951 Pine Camp, an Army training site near Watertown, New York, was renamed Camp Drum in General Drum's honor.[61] The post is now known as Fort Drum, and is home to the Army's 10th Mountain Division.[62]

Major assignments

  • Commander, 1st Infantry Division - May 1926 to May 1927
  • Commander, 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division - May 1927 to September 1927
  • Commander, 1st Infantry Division - September 1927 to January 11, 1930
  • Inspector General, U.S. Army - January 12, 1930 to November 30, 1931
  • Commander, Fifth Corps Area - December 1, 1931 to 1933
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, U.S. Army - 1933 to 1935
  • Commander, Hawaiian Department - 1935 to 1937
  • Commander, Second Corps Area and First Army Area - 1938 to March 17, 1941
  • Commander, First Army and Eastern Defense Command - March 18, 1941 to October 7, 1943
  • Commander, New York Guard - October 19, 1943 to September 30, 1948

Awards and honors

United States military decorations and medals

Foreign orders and decorations

His foreign decorations included the French Croix de Guerre, French Legion of Honor (Commander), Belgium's Order of the Crown (Commander), and Italy's Order of the Crown.[65][66]

Other honors

Drum was inducted into the Xavier High School Hall of Fame in 1931.[67]

Drum was a member of the Scabbard and Blade Society.[68][69]

In 1940, he received the Laetare Medal, awarded by the University of Notre Dame annually to recognize individuals who have contributed to the goals of the Roman Catholic church.[70]

Drum received honorary degrees from Boston College, St. Lawrence University, Fordham University, Loyola University of New Orleans, Columbia University, Rutgers University, New York University, Manhattan College, Pennsylvania Military College, and Georgetown University.[71]

Dates of rank

Drum's effective dates of rank were:[72]

No insignia in 1898 Second lieutenant, Regular Army: September 9, 1898
First lieutenant, Regular Army: January 15, 1900
Captain, Regular Army: March 23, 1906
Major, Regular Army: May 15, 1917
Lieutenant colonel, National Army: August 5, 1917
Colonel, National Army: July 30, 1918
Brigadier general, National Army: October 1, 1918
Reverted to permanent rank of major on July 31, 1919.
Major, Regular Army: July 31, 1919
Date of rank May 25, 1917.
Lieutenant colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1920
Brigadier general, Regular Army: September 21, 1920
Lieutenant colonel, Regular Army: March 4, 1921
Colonel, Regular Army: May 9, 1921
Brigadier general, Regular Army: December 6, 1922
Major general, Temporary: January 29, 1930
Major general, Regular Army: December 1, 1931
Lieutenant general, Temporary: August 5, 1939
Lieutenant general, Retired List: October 16, 1943
Lieutenant general, New York Guard: October 19, 1943
General, New York Guard (Retired): September 30, 1948

Notes

  1. ^ Drum's capture was the inspiration for a scene in the 1967 film The Dirty Dozen.[41]

References

  1. ^ a b c Davis, Henry Blaine Jr. (1998). Generals in Khaki. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, Inc. p. 112. ISBN 1571970886.
  2. ^ Johnson, Elliott L. (1975). The Military Experiences of General Hugh A. Drum from 1898–1918. Vol. 1. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin—Madison. pp. 24–28.
  3. ^ "Boston College Marks". The Boston Globe. Boston, MA. June 14, 1898. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.
  4. ^ "Brave Soldier's Boy Honored: Hugh A., Son of Late Capt. John Drum, Made a Lieutenant in the Regular Army by Pres. McKinley". The Boston Globe. Boston, MA. September 18, 1898. p. 4 – via Newspapers.com.
  5. ^ Anne Cipriano Venzon, editor, The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia, 2013, pages 205–206
  6. ^ Xavier College (New York), A History of the Xavier Military Program, 2002, page 1
  7. ^ James J. Cooke, Billy Mitchell, 2002, page 66
  8. ^ "Death Notice, Captain John Drum". The Journal of the American-Irish Historical Society. Vol. 5. New York, NY: American-Irish Historical Society. 1905. p. 142.
  9. ^ United States War Department, General Orders, Department of the Army, General Order Number 4, January 10, 1899, page 6
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tucker, Spencer C. (2014). World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 495. ISBN 978-1-85109-964-1.
  11. ^ James R. Arnold, The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902–1913, 2011, pages 35–39
  12. ^ Elliott L. Johnson, The Military Experiences of General Hugh A. Drum from 1898–1918, Volume 1, 1975, page 117
  13. ^ Marquis Who's Who, Who Was Who in American History: The Military, 1975, page 143
  14. ^ U.S. Army Publicity Bureau, Life of the Soldier and the Airman, Volumes 20–21, 1938, page 10.
  15. ^ Zabecki & Mastriano 2020, p. 177.
  16. ^ Zabecki & Mastriano 2020, p. 181.
  17. ^ Mark E. Grotelueschen, The AEF Way of War, 2010, page 206
  18. ^ Chicago Daily News, The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year Book, Volume 35, 1918, page 497
  19. ^ United States Army Adjutant General, Congressional Medal of Honor, The Distinguished Service Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal Issued by the War Department Since April 6, 1917, 1920, page 885
  20. ^ Zabecki & Mastriano 2020, p. 177−181.
  21. ^ "Valor awards for Hugh Aloysius Drum".
  22. ^ U.S. Army Adjutant General, The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States, 1950, page 357
  23. ^ Jörg Muth, Command Culture: Officer Education in the U.S. Army and the German Armed Forces, 2011, page 126
  24. ^ a b Miller, Roger G. (2004). Billy Mitchell: Stormy Petrel of the Air. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 38–39, 43. ISBN 9781437912845.
  25. ^ Army and Navy Journal, Inc., Army and Navy Journal, Volume 75, Issues 1–26, 1937, page 168
  26. ^ James A. Hoyt, Cases Decided in the United States Court of Claims, Volume 127, 1954, page 400
  27. ^ James J. Cooke, Billy Mitchell, 2002, page 66
  28. ^ John B. Wilson, Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades, 1999, page 110
  29. ^ Charles Scribner's Sons, Scribner's Magazine, Volume 105, 1939, page 36
  30. ^ Cooke, James J. (2002). Billy Mitchell. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. p. 268. ISBN 978-1-58826-082-6.
  31. ^ Herman S. Wolk, Office of Air Force History, Planning and Organizing the Postwar Air Force, 1943–1947, 1984, page 12
  32. ^ a b c d Frye, William (2005). Marshall: Citizen Soldier. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. pp. 341–343. ISBN 978-1-4179-9503-5.
  33. ^ Carlo D'Este, Patton: A Genius for War, 1995, page 360
  34. ^ Alan Axelrod, Patton's Drive: The Making of America's Greatest General, 2010, page 257
  35. ^ a b c d e Holt, Thaddeus (December 1, 1992). "Relax—It's Only a Maneuver". HistoryNet. Leesburg, VA: World History Group.
  36. ^ Jean Edward Smith, FDR, 2008, page 432
  37. ^ David W. Hogan, U.S. Army Center of Military History, A Command Post at War: First Army Headquarters in Europe, 1943–1945, 2000, page 13
  38. ^ Keane, Michael (2012). Patton: Blood, Guts, and Prayer. Washington, DC: Regnery History. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-59698-326-7.
  39. ^ Morton, Matthew Darlington (2009). Men on Iron Ponies: The Death and Rebirth of the Modern U.S. Cavalry. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8758-0397-5 – via Google Books.
  40. ^ a b Patton: Blood, Guts, and Prayer, p. 111.
  41. ^ Hanson, Victor Davis (February 11, 2020). "George S. Patton: American Ajax". YouTube. Hillsdale, MI: Hillsdale College. 15:35. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved August 25, 2020. 1940 in war games in Louisiana, he captured the senior general Hugh Drum. You may have seen The Dirty Dozen, that old movie about how they played dirty. That was based on Patton's war maneuvers, about how he went on a 400-mile goose chase, they thought, and ended up capturing the red general. He was on the blue team.
  42. ^ Yenne, Bill (2016). When Tigers Ruled the Sky: The Flying Tigers: American Outlaw Pilots over China in World War II. New York, NY: Berkley Caliber. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-425-27419-4.
  43. ^ Connole, Dennis A. (2008). The 26th "Yankee" Division on Coast Patrol Duty, 1942–1943. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-7864-3142-7.
  44. ^ Hannah Pakula, The Last Empress: Madame Chiang Kai-shek and the Birth of Modern China, 2009, page 372
  45. ^ Robert Paul Fuller, Last Shots for Patton's Third Army, 2003, page 13
  46. ^ "Oak Leaf Cluster Awarded to Lt. Gen. Hugh Drum". The Evening Star. Washington, DC. Associated Press. September 7, 1943. p. 6 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ Scabbard and Blade Journal. Stillwater, OK: National Society of Scabbard and Blade. 1943. p. 6 – via Google Books.
  48. ^ National Guard Association of the United States, Annual Meeting Proceedings, 1946, page 176
  49. ^ "Gen. Drum to Retire as Head of N.Y. Guard". The News. Paterson, NJ. United Press International. September 16, 1948. p. 13 – via Newspapers.com.
  50. ^ "Inspection Due of Binghamton Guard Tonight". Binghamton Press. Binghamton, NY. January 5, 1944. p. 13 – via Newspapers.com.
  51. ^ "Hauser and Drum Promoted by Governor". Buffalo Evening News. Buffalo, NY. Associated Press. October 2, 1948. p. 37 – via Newspapers.com.
  52. ^ Thomas Edmund Dewey, Public Papers of Thomas E. Dewey, Volume 11, 1946, page 570
  53. ^ Newport Daily News, Gen. Hugh A. Drum Dies: Pershing Aide In World War I, October 3, 1951
  54. ^ "Gen. Hugh A. Drum Dies; Gave War I 'Cease Fire'". The Catholic Advocate. Wichita, KS. October 12, 1951. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com.
  55. ^ Arlington National Cemetery Grave Site Locator
  56. ^ Logansport Pharos, City News: Wedding announcement, Hugh A. Drum and Mary Reaume, October 8, 1903
  57. ^ Buffalo Courier-Express, General Drum's Daughter Weds, December 13, 1941
  58. ^ Ruth Ellen Patton Totten, The Button Box: A Daughter's Loving Memoir of Mrs. George S. Patton, 2005, page 248
  59. ^ Drum, Hugh A. The Hugh A. Drum Papers, 1898–1951. Dublin, OH: Online Computer Library Center. OCLC 47163959.
  60. ^ "The Hugh A. Drum Papers, 1898–1951".
  61. ^ "Fort Drum Collection". Stlawu.edu. Canton, NY: St. Lawrence University. Archived from the original on June 24, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
  62. ^ Robert E. Brennan, Jeannie I. Brennan, Fort Drum, 2002, page 8
  63. ^ Scabbard and Blade Society, Scabbard and Blade Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1, 1943, page 6
  64. ^ "New York State Record of Awards 1920–1991, Conspicuous Service Cross Entry for Hugh A. Drum". Ancestry.com. Lehi, UT: Ancestry.com LLC. November 4, 1948. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  65. ^ Army and Navy Register, Inc., Army and Navy Register, September 23, 1922, page 291
  66. ^ Elliott L. Johnson, The Military Experiences of General Hugh A. Drum from 1898–1918, Volume 2, 1975, page 360
  67. ^ "The Xavier Hall of Fame" (PDF). XavierhsAlumni.org. New York, NY: Xavier High School Alumni Association. 2012. p. 2. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  68. ^ Scabbard and Blade Journal, Volume 28, Issue 1, 1943, page 6
  69. ^ H.W. Wilson Company, Current Biography, 1941, page 239
  70. ^ Delphos Daily Herald, Lt.-Gen. Hugh A. Drum is the 1940 Recipient of the Laetare Medal, March 4, 1940
  71. ^ New York Sun, Drum Gets Hemisphere Post, August 24, 1943
  72. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army. 1948. Vol. 2. pg. 2166.

Bibliography

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
William Ottman
Commanding General of the New York Guard
19 October 1943– 11 September 1948
Succeeded by
None (organization disbanded)
Preceded by
None (position created)
Commanding General of the Eastern Defense Command
18 March 1941– 8 October 1943
Succeeded by
Preceded by Commanding General of the First United States Army
4 November 1938 – 8 October 1943
Succeeded by
Preceded by Deputy Chief of Staff of the United States Army
23 February 1933 – 1 February 1935
Succeeded by
Preceded by
William C. Rivers
Inspector General of the U. S. Army
January 12, 1930 – November 30, 1931
Succeeded by
John F. Preston
Preceded by Commanding General of the 1st Infantry Division
September 1927 – January 1930
Succeeded by
William P. Jackson
Preceded by Commanding General of the 1st Infantry Division
May 1926 – May 1927
Succeeded by
Preceded by Commandant of the Command and General Staff College
September 1920 – July 1921
Succeeded by
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