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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hromadas of Ukraine as of 2020
Hromadas of Ukraine as of 2020

Hromada (Ukrainian: громада) is a basic unit of administrative division in Ukraine. It is an enlarged community consisting of other territorial communities, formerly known as councils (miskrada, silrada, selyshchna rada), residents of which decided to unite. According to the Law of Ukraine adopted in 1997, a community, also known as "hromada", is composed of its residents who are united by living in village, settlement, city on permanent basis or voluntary association of residents of several villages that has one administrative center. The communities form raions, several raions form oblast. City communities of cities Kiev and Sevastopol[nb 1] have a special status and are not part of any raion or oblast.

At present, the term is applied as a "territorial commune" naming the population of any region. The Constitution of Ukraine and some other laws, including the "Law on local self-governance", delegate certain rights and obligations for "hromada". On 5 February 2015 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the law "On voluntary association of territorial communities" that creates united territorial communities meaning settlement councils, rural councils and a city of district significance can create a new administrative unit.[2] New local elections in these united territorial communities have since been held.[3]

However, hromada is not viewed as an actual local identity, but merely as an administrative unit. For example, the settlements names and not the names of hromadas are used primarily for the official address or place of birth information.

History

In history of Ukraine and Belarus such associations appeared first as peasant communes, which gathered their meetings for discussing and resolving current issues. In the 19th century there were number of political organization with the same name.

Active formation of these communities started in 2015 and is part of couple of reforms such as the decentralization reform and the administrative division reform. It is planned that they will replace all councils (local level territorial units).

Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko's June 2014 draft constitutional amendments proposed changing the administrative divisions of Ukraine, which should include regions, districts and "hromadas".[4]

On 5 February 2015 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the law "On voluntary association of territorial communities" that creates united territorial communities meaning settlement councils, rural councils and a city of district significance can create a new administrative unit.[5] Any amalgamated hromada with a city as an administrative centre is an urban hromada, any amalgamated hromada with an urban-type settlement as an administrative centre is a settlement hromada, and any amalgamated hromada with a village as an administrative centre is a rural hromada.[6] New local elections in these united territorial communities were then held.[7] 226 will be holding elections in 2018 and 2019.[8] The first 252 were held in 2017.[9]

The Law "On Local Self-Government in Ukraine" stipulates that local budgets should have enough money to be administered by local self-government bodies.[10] Because many of the small rural councils and cities of district significance could never hope to do this the new administrative unit united territorial community was created.[10] United territorial communities collect and spend more local taxes then the Raions of Ukraine were ever allowed to.[11]

United territorial communities are planned to replace the Raions according to December 2019 draft constitutional changes submitted to parliament by President Volodymyr Zelensky.[12]

On 6 March 2020 Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal stated that 1,045 united territorial communities had already been established in Ukraine, noting that 350 more had to be created.[13]

Notes

References

  1. ^ Gutterman, Steve (18 March 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty, will not seize other Ukraine regions". Reuters. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  2. ^ "Decentralization". The Reforms Guide. 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  3. ^ Batkivschyna party says it gets most votes at local elections, Interfax Ukraine (25 December 2017)
    Police investigate voter bribing cases as local elections held in 51 territorial communities, UNIAN (25 December 2017)
  4. ^ Poroshenko suggests granting status of regions to Crimea, Kyiv, Sevastopol, creating new political subdivision of 'community' Archived 2014-07-01 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (26 June 2014)
  5. ^ "Decentralization". The Reforms Guide. 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  6. ^ "Glossary". Decentralization Reform. Retrieved 2020-01-18.
  7. ^ Batkivschyna party says it gets most votes at local elections, Interfax Ukraine (25 December 2017)
    Police investigate voter bribing cases as local elections held in 51 territorial communities, UNIAN (25 December 2017)
  8. ^ Elections Are Around the Corner, and Ukraine’s Political Parties Are Not Ready, Atlantic Council (6 December 2017)
  9. ^ INTERIM REPORT ON OBSERVATION RESULTS OF THE FIRST LOCAL ELECTIONS IN UNITED TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES ON 29 October 2017 (19.10.2017 26.10.2017) Archived 28 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine, OPORA (31 October 2017)
    Ukraine holds elections in 51 UTCs today Archived 2017-12-26 at the Wayback Machine, OPORA (24 December 2017)
  10. ^ a b (in Ukrainian) Elections in the united territorial communities. What is this and what you need, Espreso TV (31 October 2017)
  11. ^ Where did 354 districts disappear to? Anatomy of loud reform, Glavcom (7 August 2020) (in Ukrainian)
  12. ^ "Zelensky's decentralization: without features of Donbass, but with districts and prefects". BBC Ukrainian (in Ukrainian). 16 December 2019.
  13. ^ Development strategies already approved in 19 regions of Ukraine, Ukrinform (7 April 2020)

See also

External links

This page was last edited on 23 August 2020, at 11:20
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