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Howard County, Maryland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Howard County
Howard County
The Howard County Courthouse in May 2008
The Howard County Courthouse in May 2008
Flag of Howard County

Official seal of Howard County

Map of Maryland highlighting Howard County
Location within the U.S. state of Maryland
Map of the United States highlighting Maryland

Maryland's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 39°15′N 76°56′W / 39.25°N 76.93°W / 39.25; -76.93
Country United States
State Maryland
FoundedMay 13, 1838
Named forJohn Eager Howard
SeatEllicott City
Largest communityColumbia
 • Total253 sq mi (660 km2)
 • Land251 sq mi (650 km2)
 • Water2.7 sq mi (7 km2)  1.0%%
 • Total287,085
 • Estimate 
 • Density1,100/sq mi (440/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts2nd, 3rd, 7th

Howard County is a county in the central part of the U.S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 287,085.[1] Its county seat is Ellicott City.[2]

Howard County is included in the Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area. However, recent development in the south of the county has led to some realignment towards the Washington, D.C. media and employment markets. The county is home to Columbia, a major planned community of approximately 100,000 founded by developer James Rouse in 1967.

Howard County is frequently cited for its affluence, quality of life, and excellent schools. With an estimated median household income of $120,194 in 2016, Howard County had the second-highest median household income of any U.S. county in 2016.[3] Many of the most affluent communities in the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area, such as Clarksville, Dayton, Glenelg, Glenwood, and West Friendship, are located along the Route 32 corridor in Howard County. The main population center of Columbia/Ellicott City was named second among Money magazine's 2010 survey of "America's Best Places to Live."[4]

In 2010, the center of population of Maryland was located in the Howard County town of Jessup.[5]


Howard County is named for Governor John Eager Howard
Howard County is named for Governor John Eager Howard

The name of the county honors Colonel John Eager Howard,[6] an officer in the "Maryland Line" of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, commander notably at the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina in 1781, among others. He was the fifth governor of Maryland from 1788 to 1791.[7]


1860 Martenet's Map of Howard County, Maryland
1860 Martenet's Map of Howard County, Maryland

The lands of prehistoric Howard County were populated by Native Americans. The Maryland Historical Trust has documented sites along the Patapsco, Patuxent, Middle and Little Patuxent River valleys.[8] In 1652, the Susquehannock tribes signed a peace treaty with Maryland, giving up their provenance over the territory that is now Howard County.[9] In 1800, the mean center of U.S. population as calculated by the US Census Bureau was found in what is now Howard County.[10]

In 1838, Dr. William Watkins of Richland Manor proposed the "Howard District" of Anne Arundel County.[11] After several adjournments, the area of western Anne Arundel County was designated the Howard District in 1839.[12] The district had the same status as a county except that it was not separately represented in the Maryland General Assembly. In 1841, the county built its first courthouse in Ellicott City.[13] At the January 1851 constitutional convention, Thomas Beale Dorsey submitted a petition led by James Sykes. A committee was formed with Dorsey, Bowie, Smith, Harbine and Ricaud. After several postponements, the district was erected officially as Howard County on March 7, 1851.[14]

The plantations of modern Howard County used slave labor as early as 1690. At the time of the Underground Railroad, some Howard County residents assisted slaves who were escaping to freedom. This was particularly risky, as many prominent plantation families were Confederate sympathizers during the Civil War, contributing militiamen to the South to protect local interests.[15] Maryland was exempt from the Emancipation Proclamation, later abolishing slavery in the update of the Maryland Constitution in November 1864.[16]

On May 1, 1883 Howard County joined Anne Arundel County and Harford County in liquor prohibition.[17]

By 1899, Howard County contained 400 miles (640 km) of dirt and 48 miles (77 km) of stone roads, including three paid turnpikes maintained by 118 men. Most traffic consisted of loads delivered to rail crossings.[18] In 1909, County Commissioners Hess, Werner and O'Neil were charged with malfeasance regarding contract bids.[19]

In 1918, a deadly flu pandemic swept the county starting with an early outbreak in Camp Meade in adjacent Anne Arundel County.[20][21] The 1930s saw a shift from one-room schoolhouses to centralized schools with bus service. By 1939 wheat harvesting fell to just 18,800 acres (7,600 ha).[22] In 1940, local newspaper owner Paul Griffith Stromberg led a five-county commission to study a superhighway between Baltimore and Washington through Howard County.[23] The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 eventually led to the construction of Interstate 70 across northern Howard County and Interstate 95 across the eastern part of the county.[24] The sparsely populated county hosted population centers in Ellicott City, Elkridge, Savage, North Laurel and Lisbon with W.R. Grace and Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab as the largest new employers. Residents elected officials that campaigned to keep the county rural while planners prepared public works to support a quarter million residents by the year 2000. Race relations and desegregation became major issues of the time.[25]

From 1963 to 1966 the Rouse Company bought 14,000 acres (5,700 ha) of land and rezoned it for the Columbia Development. In 1972, the Marriott company proposed to build a regional theme park on Rouse-owned land but was denied zoning.[26]

The county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places.[27]


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 253 square miles (660 km2), of which 251 square miles (650 km2) is land and 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) (1.0%) is water.[28] It is the second-smallest county in Maryland by land area and smallest by total area.

Daucus carota (Queen Anne's Lace) was designated as the official flower of Howard County in 1984.[29]
Daucus carota (Queen Anne's Lace) was designated as the official flower of Howard County in 1984.[29]

Howard County is located in the Piedmont Plateau region of Maryland, with rolling hills making up most of the landscape. It is bounded on the north and northeast by the Patapsco River, on the southwest by the Patuxent River, and on the southeast by a land border with Anne Arundel County. Both the Patapsco and Patuxent run largely through publicly accessible parkland along the county borders. The Patuxent border includes the Triadelphia and Rocky Gorge reservoirs.

Adjacent counties


Howard County lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. As one travels west in the county away from the Baltimore area, the winter temperatures get lower and winter snow is more common. Annual rainfall is about 45 inches (1,100 mm) throughout the county.[30] Over a 60-year period from 1950 to 2010, there were 394 National Climatic Data Center reportable events causing 617 injuries, and 99 fatalities. There were 9 reported tornadoes, reaching a maximum of F2, with no recorded fatalities.[31]


Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 2018323,196[32]12.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[33]
1790-1960[34] 1900-1990[35]
1990-2000[36] 2010–2018[1]

2000 census

As of the census[37] of 2000, there were 247,842 people, 90,043 households, and 65,821 families residing in the county. The population density was 983 people per square mile (380/km2). There were 92,818 housing units at an average density of 368 per square mile (142/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 74.33% White, 14.42% Black, 0.24% Native American, 7.68% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.11% from other races, and 2.19% from two or more races. 3.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.1% were of German, 11.0% Irish, 9.3% English, 6.6% Italian and 5.7% American ancestry.

There were 90,043 households out of which 40.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.50% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.90% were non-families. 20.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 4.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71, and the average family size was 3.18.

In the county, the population was spread out with 28.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, and 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $101,003, and the median income for a family was $117,186 in 2009. The per capita income was $44,120. About 2.70% of families and 4.00% of the population were below the poverty line.

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 287,085 people, 104,749 households, and 76,333 families residing in the county.[38] The population density was 1,144.9 inhabitants per square mile (442.0/km2). There were 109,282 housing units at an average density of 435.8 per square mile (168.3/km2).[39] The racial makeup of the county was 62.2% white, 17.5% Black or African American, 14.4% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.0% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.8% of the population.[38] In terms of ancestry, 17.7% were German, 13.9% were Irish, 10.6% were English, 7.0% were Italian, and 4.6% were American.[40]

Of the 104,749 households, 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families, and 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.72, and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 38.4 years.[38]

The median income for a household in the county was $103,273, and the median income for a family was $119,810. Males had a median income of $82,307 versus $59,128 for females. The per capita income for the county was $45,294. About 2.8% of families and 4.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over.[41]


The Howard County Public School System manages 71 schools and serves approximately 49,000 students. The graduation rate from this school district was 90.4% in 2009,[42] and the county's schools are ranked among the best in the state. Student test scores consistently top the list for all Maryland school districts. Howard High School is currently the largest school in the county with over 1,700 students.


In 2013 Howard County Library System was selected as the Library of the Year by Library Journal[43] and cited by editor-at-large, John N. Berry, as "a 21st-century library model, with a position, doctrine, purpose, and curriculum worthy of study and consideration by every library in America, if not the world." In 2015 the Howard County Library System was designated the top Star Library in its class.[44]

Under the library's sponsorship, a campaign called "Choose Civility" started in Howard County in 2006. According to its website, "Choose Civility is an ongoing community-wide initiative, led by Howard County Library, to position Howard County as a model of civility. The project intends to enhance respect, empathy, consideration and tolerance in Howard County." The campaign's distinctive green bumper stickers are often seen in Howard County and neighboring areas.

Politics and government

Howard County has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in every election from 1992 on. The less-populated western and northern parts of Howard County lean Republican. The more heavily populated southern and eastern parts are heavily Democratic. The county has voted for Democrats at the state and federal level, though it voted for Republican Bob Ehrlich in the 2002 gubernatorial election over Democrat Kathleen Kennedy Townsend and Larry Hogan over Democrat Anthony G. Brown in the 2014 gubernatorial election.

At the state level, Howard County is represented by six Democrats and three Republicans in the Maryland House of Delegates. It is represented by two Democrats and one Republican in the Maryland Senate. The one Republican state senator from the county represents a district that spills into heavily Republican Carroll County to the north, as do two of the three state delegates.

From 1914 to 1968, Howard County was governed by a system of three elected commissioners with four-year terms.[45] Prior to 1962, the only polling location in the county was located in Ellicott City. In May 1962, voters were offered a second location to vote, also in Ellicott City at the National Armory on Montgomery Road.[46] Senator James Clark proposed a five-person County Council and a County Executive in 1965.[47] In 1968, the county implemented a charter form of government.[48] In 1984 a councilmanic referendum was approved, switching council from at-large representation to district representation.[49] The County Council serves as the county's legislative branch; members also provide constituent service and sit as members of the Zoning Board and Liquor Board. The current Howard County Executive is Democrat Calvin Ball III, who was elected in November 2018 and took office on December 3, 2018.[50] Most of the county is in Maryland's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Elijah Cummings. A small portion is in Maryland's 3rd congressional district, represented by Democrat John Sarbanes.

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[51]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 29.3% 47,484 63.3% 102,597 7.5% 12,112
2012 37.7% 57,758 59.7% 91,393 2.6% 3,957
2008 38.1% 55,393 60.0% 87,120 1.9% 2,720
2004 44.6% 59,724 54.0% 72,257 1.4% 1,829
2000 44.2% 49,809 51.9% 58,556 3.9% 4,414
1996 42.8% 40,849 49.8% 47,569 7.4% 7,090
1992 38.7% 38,594 44.9% 44,763 16.5% 16,441
1988 56.2% 44,153 43.3% 34,007 0.5% 370
1984 57.8% 35,641 41.7% 25,713 0.5% 334
1980 47.0% 24,272 40.1% 20,702 12.8% 6,625
1976 50.8% 21,200 49.2% 20,533
1972 63.6% 19,265 35.2% 10,668 1.3% 383
1968 53.8% 9,957 31.1% 5,752 15.1% 2,796
1964 45.5% 6,833 54.5% 8,185
1960 56.6% 7,051 43.4% 5,412 0.0% 2
1956 64.5% 6,534 35.5% 3,599
1952 59.1% 5,497 39.7% 3,693 1.2% 112
1948 51.6% 3,113 45.2% 2,725 3.2% 190
1944 51.6% 3,344 48.4% 3,140
1940 43.6% 3,082 56.0% 3,957 0.4% 30
1936 38.7% 2,638 60.6% 4,138 0.7% 49
1932 31.8% 1,970 67.2% 4,161 1.0% 59
1928 51.4% 3,296 48.1% 3,088 0.5% 33
1924 38.5% 1,989 53.9% 2,786 7.6% 394
1920 51.5% 2,608 47.3% 2,397 1.2% 63
1916 40.5% 1,346 57.6% 1,913 1.9% 64
1912 33.9% 1,004 51.5% 1,523 14.6% 433
1908 41.2% 1,276 57.0% 1,764 1.8% 57
1904 39.0% 1,258 59.3% 1,914 1.7% 54
1900 47.6% 1,800 50.3% 1,904 2.1% 79

County Council

The County Council adopts ordinances and resolutions, and has all of the County's legislative powers. There are five council districts throughout the county.[52] The current County Council as of December 2018 includes 4 Democrats and 1 Republican.

Howard County Council
District Name Party Representing
  District 1 Elizabeth Walsh Democratic Ellicott City, Elkridge
  District 2 Opel Jones Democratic East Columbia, Elkridge
  District 3 Christiana Rigby Democratic North Laurel, Jessup
  District 4 Deb Jung Democratic Columbia, Fulton
  District 5 David Yungmann Republican Western Howard County

County Commissioners


Chairman name Affiliation Term Commissioner name Affiliation Term Commissioner name Affiliation Term
George Howard[54] 1840 Zedekiah Moore 1840 Charles Worthington Dorsey 1840
William H. Worthington 1841–1845 Wesley Linthicum 1841–1845 Perry Gaither 1841
William H. Worthington 1841–1845 Wesley Linthicum 1841–1845 George W. Hobbs 1842–1845
William H. Worthington 1841–1845 Wesley Linthicum 1841-1845 George W. Hobbs, Perry Gaither, William Welling 1845
Samuel Brown 1846 William Hughes 1846 Reuben P. Hammond 1846
William H. Worthington 1847 William Hughes 1847 George W. Hobbs, Charles R. Simpson 1847
William Hughes 1848–1849 George Howard 1848 Charles R. Simpson, John Hood, Theodore Tubman 1848
William Hughes 1848–1849 Theodore Tubman 1848–1853 Littleton Maclin, Thomas Burgess 1849
Littleton Maclin 1850 Theodore Tubman 1848-1853 David E. Hopkins, David Feelemyer, Samuel Brown 1850
Thomas B. Hobbs[55] 1851 Theodore Tubman 1848–1853 Samuel Nichols, Samuel Brown, David Clark, David Feelemyer 1851
Theodore Tubman 1848–1853 David Clark 1853 David Feelemyer, George Bond 1853
Slingsby Linthicum 1854 George Bond 1854 Steven B. Dorsey 1854
George Bond 1855 Slingsby Linthicum 1855 Steven B. Dorsey, Theodore Tubman 1855
  Samuel Hopkins[56] Republican 1865
John T. Ridgely[57] 1885–1888 Ephraim Collins 1885– B. C. Sunderland 1885–
Benjamin C. Sunderland 1889–1892 Benjamin F. Hess 1889–1892 Edmund Dorsey[58] Republican 1889–1892
Benjamin F. Hess[59] 1901–1904 Thomas O' Neill 1901–1904 Jacob J. Werner 1901–1904
Jacob J. Werner[60] 1905–1907 Benjamin F. Hess 1905–1907 Henry A Penny[55] 1905–1911
Benjamin F. Hess[61] 1908–1909 Amos Howard Earp 1908–1911 Jacob J. Werner 1908–1913
Amos Howard Earp[62][63] 1911–1917 Grosvenor Hanson 1911–1915 William H. Davis 1911–1915
Amos Howard Earp[64] 1915–1917 Grosvenor Hanson 1915–1917 De Wilton C. Partlett 1915–1917
Amos Howard Earp[65] 1917–1919 John H. Shaab 1917–1919 De Wilton C. Partlett 1917–1919
Amos Howard Earp[66] 1920–1926 Daniel H. Gaither 1920–1926 De Wilton C. Parlett 1920–1926
  DeWilton C. Parlett[67] 1926–1930 H. Thomas Glimes 1926–1930 Daniel H. Gaither 1926–1930
  H. Grafton Penny[68] Democrat 1930–1934 J. Frank Curtis 1930–1934 Daniel H. Gaither 1930–1934
  H. Grafton Penny[69] Democrat 1935–1938 Robert H. Mercer Democrat 1935–1938 Hart B. Noll Republican 1935–1938
  Charles E. Miller Republican 1938–1942
  James Franklin Curtis Republican 1942–1949 Charles E. Miller Republican 1942–1949
  Norman E. Moxley Democrat 1949–1957 Roby H. Mullinix Democrat 1949–1954 E. Walter Scott Democrat 1949–1954
  Norman E. Moxley[70] Democrat 1958–1959 Howard W. Clark Democrat 1957–1958 Charles E. Harman Democrat 1957–1958
  Charles M. Scott[71] Democrat 1959–1962 Norman E. Moxley Democrat 1959–1962 Arthur K. Pickett Democrat 1959–1962
  Charles E. Miller Republican 1962–1966 J. Hubert Black Republican 1962–1966 David W. Force Republican 1962–1966
  Charles E. Miller Republican 1966–1970 J. Hubert Black Republican 1966–1970 Ridgley Jones Democrat 1968–1970

County Executives and Council Members

Name Affiliation Term Council (Districts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
  Omar J. Jones Democrat 1969–1973 Alva S. Baker, Edward L. Cochran, J. Hugh Nichols, Charles E. Miller, William S. Hanna[72]
  Edward L. Cochran Democrat 1974–1978 Richard Anderson (Elizabeth Bobo - appointed),[73] Ruth Keeton, Lloyd Kowles, Virginia Thomas, Thomas Yeager[74]
  J. Hugh Nichols[75] Democrat 1978–1982 Ruth U. Keeton, Elizabeth Bobo, Lloyd G. Knowles, Virginia M. Thomas, Thomas M. Yeager
  J. Hugh Nichols Democrat 1982–1986 Ruth U. Keeton, Elizabeth Bobo, James C. Clark, C. Vernon Gray, Lloyd G. Knowles
  William E. Eakle[76][77] Democrat 1986 Ruth U. Keeton, Elizabeth Bobo, James C. Clark, C. Vernon Gray, Lloyd G. Knowles
  Elizabeth Bobo Democrat 1986–1990 Angela Beltram, C. Vernon Gray, Shane Pendergrass, Ruth Keeton, Charles Feaga
  Charles I. Ecker[78] Republican 1990–1994 Darrel E. Drown, C. Vernon Gray, Shane Pendergrass, Paul R. Farragut, Charles Feaga
  Charles I. Ecker Republican 1994–1998 Darrel E. Drown, C. Vernon Gray, Dennis R. Schrader, Mary C. Lorsung, Charles Feaga
  James N. Robey[79] Democrat 1998–2002 Christopher J. Merdon, C. Vernon Gray, Guy Guzzone, Mary C. Lorsung, Allan H. Kittleman
  James N. Robey Democrat 2002–2006 Christopher J. Merdon, David A. Rakes (Calvin Ball-appointed), Guy Guzzone, Ken Ulman, Allan H. Kittleman (Charles C. Feaga-appointed)[80][81]
  Kenneth Ulman Democrat 2006–2010 Courtney Watson, Calvin Ball, Jen Terrasa, Mary Kay Sigaty, Greg Fox
  Kenneth Ulman Democrat 2010–2014 Courtney Watson, Calvin Ball, Jen Terrasa, Mary Kay Sigaty, Greg Fox
  Allan H. Kittleman Republican 2014–2018 Jon Weinstein, Calvin Ball, Jen Terrasa, Mary Kay Sigaty, Greg Fox
  Calvin Ball III Democrat 2018–present Elizabeth Walsh, Opel Jones, Christiana Rigby, Deb Jung, David Yungmann


George Howard Building in 2014
George Howard Building in 2014
Howard County Health Department relocated to this office purchased from Ascend One in 2011
Howard County Health Department relocated to this office purchased from Ascend One in 2011
Department External link
Howard County government Howard County Official Website
Howard County Public School System Howard County Public Schools Official Website
Howard County Housing and Community Development Howard County Housing and Community Development Official Website
Howard County Board of Elections Howard County Board of Elections Official Website
Howard County Library Howard County Library Official Website
Howard County Fire and Rescue Howard County Fire Department Official Website
Howard County Police Howard County Police Official Website
Howard County Department of Corrections Department of Corrections Official Website
Howard Community College Howard Community College Official Website
Howard County Animal Control Howard County Animal Control Official Website
Howard County Office of Natural Resources Howard County Office of Natural Resources Official Website
Howard County Department of Parks & Recreation Howard County Parks & Recreation Official Website
Howard County Department Recycling Division Howard County Recycling Division Official Website
Howard County Department of Planning and Zoning Howard County Department of Planning and Zoning Website


Statistics for July 2014 indicate that Howard County's unemployment rate is at 5.2 percent (7,527 persons).[82]

Howard County Public School System employs 8,136 of which 4,670 are teachers.[83] The County Government employs 3,323 outside of the school system with 672 police, 482 public works, and 472 fire and rescue employees.[84] The top ten private sector employers in Howard County are as follows:[85]

# Employer # of Employees
1 Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 5,000
2 Verizon Wireless 2,028
3 Lorien Health Systems 2,000
4 Howard County General Hospital 1,777
5 Howard Community College 1,294
6 Leidos 1,195
7 Giant Food 1,050
8 The Columbia Association 900
9 Wells Fargo 842
10 Oracle Corporation subsidiary MICROS Systems 815


The American goldfinch is the official county bird of Howard County.[29]
The American goldfinch is the official county bird of Howard County.[29]

Awards and recognitions achieved by Howard County or locations within it include the following:

Culture and attractions

Bollman Truss Bridge in Savage
Bollman Truss Bridge in Savage
The Enchanted Forest gingerbread house at Clark's Elioak Farm
The Enchanted Forest gingerbread house at Clark's Elioak Farm



Howard County does not have any public or commercial airport facilities. A 1967 Airport Study Commission recommended a facility for 150–250 aircraft to provide economic development, but was not initiated.[108] With the closure of Haysfield Airport, there is one privately owned airstrip, Glenair Airport in Glenelg.[109] Commercial air service is provided by Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, and Washington Dulles International Airport.

Public transportation

Bus routes that operate in Howard County are managed by the Regional Transportation Agency of Central Maryland and the Maryland Transit Administration.

Major Highways

I-95 in Howard County
I-95 in Howard County


Howard County has no incorporated municipalities.

Census-designated places

The Census Bureau recognizes the following Census-designated places in the county:

Unincorporated communities

Unincorporated places not listed as Census-designated places but known in the area include:

See also


  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics: 2012 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates (DP03): All Counties Within United States". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  4. ^ "CNN Money Magazine: 2010 Best Places To Live". Archived from the original on August 6, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2010.
  5. ^ "Centers of Population by State: 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 3, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 162.
  7. ^ "Howard County History". Howard Life. Archived from the original on December 10, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2010.
  8. ^ M. Lee Preston, Jr. Archaeology In Howard County and Beyond. p. 21.
  9. ^ Ethan Allen, Libertus Van Bokkelen. History of Maryland. p. 36.
  10. ^ "Mean Center of Population of the United States" (PDF). Retrieved October 6, 2010.
  11. ^ Howard's Roads to the Past. p. 2.
  12. ^ "Maryland Legislature". The Baltimore Sun. January 19, 1839.
  13. ^ "Howard County Buildings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2013. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  14. ^ Joshua Dorsey Warfield. The founders of Anne Arundel and Howard Counties, Maryland. p. 522.
  15. ^ Seeking Freedom The History of the Underground Railroad in Howard County. p. 54.
  16. ^ Moss, Paulina C; Levirn Hill; Howard County Center of African American Culture (2002). Seeking freedom : a history of the underground railroad in Howard County, Maryland. Columbia, MD: Howard County Center of African American Culture. OCLC 50728274.
  17. ^ "Prohibition in Maryland". Christian Advocate: 312. May 17, 1883.
  18. ^ Maryland Geological Survey Report on the Highways of Maryland. 1899. p. 239.
  19. ^ "Commissioners are Indicted". Times Dispatch. September 15, 1907.
  20. ^ James A. Clark, Jr. Jim Clark Soldier Farmer Legislator. p. 11.
  21. ^ "Baltimore MD and the 1918 Flu". Retrieved September 14, 2014.
  22. ^ "From Greater Production to More Efficiency". March 31, 1965.
  23. ^ Vest, Louise (March 3, 2015). "Doctor receives distinct honor in 1970". The Baltimore Sun.
  24. ^ Weingroff, Richard F. "Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, Creating the Interstate System". Archived from the original on November 11, 2010. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
  25. ^ Joseph Rocco Mitchell, David L Stebenne. New City Upon a Hill. p. 55.
  26. ^ Edward Walsh (June 14, 1972). "Recreation Park Planners Woo Howard County". The Washington Post.
  27. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
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