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How the West Was Won (film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

How the West Was Won
Original film poster by Reynold Brown
Directed by
Written byJames R. Webb
Story byLouis L'Amour
Based on"How the West Was Won"
in Life
Produced byBernard Smith
Starring
Narrated bySpencer Tracy
Cinematography
Edited byHarold F. Kress
Music byAlfred Newman
Production
companies
Distributed byMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release dates
  • November 1, 1962 (1962-11-01) (United Kingdom)
  • February 20, 1963 (1963-02-20) (United States)
Running time
164 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$14,483,000[1]
Box office$50 million

How the West Was Won is a 1962 American epic Western film directed by Henry Hathaway (who directs three out of the five chapters involving the same family), John Ford and George Marshall, produced by Bernard Smith, written by James R. Webb, and narrated by Spencer Tracy. Originally filmed in true three-lens Cinerama with the according three-panel panorama projected onto an enormous curved screen, the film features an ensemble cast formed by many cinema icons and newcomers, including (in alphabetical order) Carroll Baker, Lee J. Cobb, Henry Fonda, Carolyn Jones, Karl Malden, Gregory Peck, George Peppard, Robert Preston, Debbie Reynolds, James Stewart, Eli Wallach, John Wayne and Richard Widmark. The supporting cast features Brigid Bazlen, Walter Brennan, David Brian, Ken Curtis, Andy Devine, Jack Lambert, Raymond Massey as Abraham Lincoln, Agnes Moorehead, Harry Morgan as Ulysses S. Grant, Thelma Ritter, Mickey Shaughnessy, Harry Dean Stanton, Russ Tamblyn and Lee Van Cleef.

How the West Was Won is widely considered one of Hollywood's greatest epics.[2] The film received widespread critical acclaim and was a box office success, grossing $50 million on a budget of $15 million.[3] At the 36th Academy Awards it earned eight nominations, including Best Picture, and won three, for Best Story and Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen, Best Sound and Best Film Editing. In 1997 it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[4]

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Transcription

Plot

The Rivers (1839)

The settlers' raft is caught in rapids.

Zebulon Prescott and his family set out west for the frontier on the Erie Canal. They are pulled through the first section on a barge and then build rafts to continue on the Ohio River. Along the journey, they meet mountain man Linus Rawlings, who is traveling east, to Pittsburgh, to trade his furs. Rawlings and Zebulon's daughter, Eve, are attracted to each other, but he is not ready to settle down.

Rawlings stops at an isolated trading post, advertised as a "likker" store near the river. It is actually a front run by a clan of river pirates, headed by "Alabama Colonel" Jeb Hawkins. Acting in a seducing fashion, Jeb's daughter Dora Hawkins leads Linus into a cave, stabs him in the back and pushes him into a hole. The pirates then steal his furs and sink his canoe. Wounded, Rawlings follows them. When they are about to rob the Prescott party, Linus interferes. Aided by the Prescotts, he kills all of the pirates.

The settlers then continue down the river. When the lead raft is caught in rapids, Zebulon and his wife Rebecca drown. Linus encounters the survivors. Deciding he cannot live without Eve, he asks to marry her and take her to Pittsburgh. However, she insists on homesteading at the spot where her parents died.

The Plains (1851)

The wagon train is attacked by Cheyenne warriors.

Eve's sister Lilith chooses to go back East, and years later finds herself touring in St. Louis. While performing at the Music hall, she attracts the attention of professional gambler Cleve Van Valen. She later inherits a California gold mine. Cleve joins the wagon train taking her there and avoids paying debts in the process. Wagonmaster Roger Morgan and Cleve court her along the way, but she rejects them both.

Surviving an attack by Cheyennes, Lilith and Cleve arrive at the mine, only to find that it is worked out and worthless. Cleve leaves. Lilith returns to work in a camp town's dance hall, living out of a covered wagon. Morgan finds her and again proposes marriage, to no avail.

Later, Lilith sings on a riverboat. By chance, Cleve is a passenger. After hearing Lilith's voice, he leaves the poker table (and a winning hand), tells her he does not care that she is poor and proposes to her. He tells her of the business opportunities waiting in San Francisco. She accepts his proposal.

The Civil War (1861–1865)

American Civil War

Linus Rawlings has joined the Union army as a captain in the American Civil War. Despite Eve's wishes, their son Zeb enlists as well, looking for glory and an escape from farming. The bloody Battle of Shiloh shows Zeb that war is nothing like he imagined, and his father dies there. Zeb encounters a disillusioned Confederate who suggests deserting.

By chance, they bump into Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman. The Confederate realizes he has the opportunity to rid the South of two of its greatest enemies and tries to shoot them, leaving Zeb no choice but to kill him. Afterward, Zeb rejoins the army. Over the course of the war, he earns a battlefield commission.

When the war ends, he returns home as a lieutenant and learns his mother died, having lost the will to live after losing Linus. Zeb renounces his share of the family farm and leaves, wanting a different life.

The Railroad (1868)

The construction of railroads

In the late 1860s, two competing railroad lines, the Central Pacific Railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad, open up new territory.

Zeb becomes a lieutenant in the U.S. Cavalry, trying to maintain peace with the Native Americans with the help of buffalo hunter Jethro Stuart, an old friend of Linus'. When railroad man Mike King violates a treaty by building on Native American territory, the Arapahos retaliate by stampeding buffalo through his camp, killing many. Disgusted, Zeb resigns from the Army and leaves town.[5][6]

The Outlaws (1889)

The desperadoes who want to rob the train

In San Francisco, the widowed Lilith auctions off her possessions to pay Cleve's debts. She travels to Arizona, inviting Zeb and his family to oversee her one remaining asset, a ranch.

Zeb (now a marshal), his wife Julie, and their children meet Lilith at Gold City's train station. There, Zeb runs into outlaw Charlie Gant. Zeb had previously killed Gant's brother in a gunfight. When Gant makes threats against Zeb and his family, Zeb turns to his friend, local marshal Lou Ramsey. However, Gant is not wanted for anything in that territory, so Ramsey can do nothing.

Nonetheless, Zeb decides he has to act. Suspecting Gant plans to rob a train's gold shipment, he prepares an ambush with Ramsey's reluctant help. Gant and his gang are killed in the shootout and resulting train wreck. Lilith and the Rawlings family travel by wagon to their new home.

Cast

Introduced in "The Rivers"
Introduced in "The Plains"
Introduced in "The Civil War"
Introduced in "The Railroad"
Introduced in "The Outlaws"

The film marked then 66-year-old Raymond Massey's last appearance as Abraham Lincoln, a role that he previously played on stage (Abe Lincoln in Illinois and the stage adaptation of John Brown's Body), on screen (Abe Lincoln in Illinois) and on television (The Day Lincoln Was Shot, and two more productions of Abe Lincoln in Illinois).

Production

Development

MGM had enjoyed a great success with the big screen remake of Ben-Hur (1959) and initiated a number of spectacles, including remakes of Cimarron, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse and Mutiny on the Bounty.[7]

In 1960, MGM struck a deal to produce four films in the Cinerama process, and Bing Crosby approached the studio with a proposition. He was developing a television spectacular called How the West Was Won based on photographs of the Old West in Life, with profits earmarked for St. John's Hospital, along with an album inspired by the same article recorded with Rosemary Clooney. MGM purchased the film rights from Crosby.[8]

MGM announced the project in June 1960, originally titled The Great Western Story. The plan was to film a story of six segments featuring 12 stars, with a cohesive overall storyline. Among the historical figures to be featured were Buffalo Bill, the James brothers and Billy the Kid.[9][10] St. John's Hospital president Irene Dunne and others persuaded the film's stars to accept less than their usual fees. However, the hospital later sued for a share of the film's profits.[11]

Bernard Smith was assigned as producer, and he hired James Webb to write the script.[8] George Peppard was announced as the lead in October 1960, and Irene Dunne and Bing Crosby were originally announced as stars.[12] Laurence Harvey and John Wayne were also slated to appear in one sequence together.[13]

By April 1961, Wayne and Spencer Tracy had confirmed their plans to play Generals Sherman and Grant for a segment directed by John Ford, and James Stewart had been signed as well.[14] Other roles would go to Gregory Peck, Debbie Reynolds, Russ Tamblyn and Carroll Baker, while Henry Hathaway and George Marshall would also direct from a script by James Webb. Crosby was scheduled to provide narration.[15] Jim Hutton was intended to appear in the Civil War segment.[16] Eventually, Harry Morgan appeared as Grant when Tracy was unavailable.

Ultimately, the film contained five sections: the 1830s westward migration, the 1849 California gold rush, the Civil War, the construction of the transcontinental railroad, and the "taming" of the Wild West, with one family's story over three generations providing the bridge between each time period. The budget was set to at least $8 million. John Ford directed the Civil War segment, George Marshall the railroad segment and Henry Hathaway the rest.[8] "We wanted three old pros, no young geniuses," said Smith.[17]

Cinerama

How the West Was Won was one of only two dramatic feature films (along with The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm) produced with the three-strip Cinerama process. Although the picture quality when projected onto curved screens in theaters is stunning, attempts to convert the film to a smaller screen suffer. When the film is projected in letterbox format, the actors' faces are nearly indistinguishable in long shots.

Henry Fonda as a buffalo hunter

Shooting

Filming started in May 1961 by John Ford in Paducah, Kentucky. Producer Bernard Smith said, "It is essential for our purposes that virtually the whole movie be shot outdoors. Throughout the movie, one of the basic themes is to show little people against a vast country – huge deserts, endless plains, towering mountains, broad rivers. We want to capture the spirit of adventure, the restless spirit that led these men and women across the country in [the] face of many difficulties and dangers."[18]

After Ford finished his segment, Hathaway took over on location.[18] Hathaway called Ford's segment "a little stagey".[19]

Parts of the film were shot in Monument Valley, Utah[20] and in Wildwood Regional Park in Thousand Oaks, California.[21][22]

Ford complained about having to dress such huge sets, as Cinerama photographed a much wider view than did the standard single-camera process to which Hollywood directors were accustomed. Director Henry Hathaway was quoted as saying, "That damned Cinerama. Do you know a waist-shot is as close as you can get with that thing?"[23]

A more difficult problem was that filming required that the actors be artificially positioned out of dramatic and emotional frame and out of synchronization with one another. Only when the three-print Cinerama process was projected upon a Cinerama screen did the positions and emotions of the actors synchronize, such as normal eye contact or emotional harmony between actors in a dramatic sequence. Because of the nature of Cinerama, if the film were shown in flat-screen projection, it would appear as if the actors made no eye contact. One brief scene of Mexican soldiers was sourced by John Wayne from his 1960 version of The Alamo.

Stuntman Bob Morgan, husband of Yvonne De Carlo, was seriously injured and lost a leg during a break in filming a gunfight on a moving train while filming the Outlaws portion. Chains holding logs on a flatbed car broke, crushing Morgan as he crouched beside them.[24]

In a scene in which George Peppard's character reminisces about his late father, Peppard improvises with an imitation of James Stewart's voice. Ford initially objected, but Peppard felt that it was important in such a long, sprawling film to remind the audience which character his father was supposed to be.

Hathaway later said that making the film was "goddam trouble. They had an idiot for a producer and Sol Siegel was drunk most of the time. We spent so much money on the picture they almost decided not to do the last part. We had a meeting, and I said, 'You can't quit. You've got to show how the West was won. The West was won when the law took over'."[25]

Post-production

Filming was completed in January 1962. After the film was shot, MGM ordered a new ending that resolved the family story, which caused shooting to continue for another month and included George Peppard and Debbie Reynolds.[26] The budget eventually reached $12 million.[27]

For "The Civil War" segment, footage from MGM's 1957 Film "Raintree County" of the Civil War Battle of Chickamauga were used for combat scenes during the day, as the scenes with Peppard, Tamblyn, Wayne and Morgan were all at night.

For "The Railroad" segment, a subplot was cut featuring Hope Lange as Stuart's daughter, Julie, who becomes involved in a love triangle with Zeb and King; she ultimately marries and abandons Zeb.[5][6]

The film later inspired a television series of the same name.

Music

The film's music was composed and conducted by Alfred Newman. The soundtrack album was originally released by MGM Records. Dimitri Tiomkin, known for his Western film scores, was the first composer approached, but he became unavailable following eye surgery and Newman was hired as a replacement.

The score is widely considered[by whom?] as among Newman's best, and it appears on the AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores list. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Score, losing to the score for Tom Jones.

Debbie Reynolds sings three songs in the film: "Raise a Ruckus Tonight" starting a party around the camp fire, "What Was Your Name in the States?" and "A Home in the Meadow" to the tune of "Greensleeves", with lyrics by Sammy Cahn.[28] Her rendition is heard by Cleve (Gregory Peck), who is so moved that he proposes marriage. This scene ends the Plains segment.

Reception

Original trailer for How the West Was Won

Premiere

Surprisingly for such an American film, How the West Was Won had its world premiere in the United Kingdom at London's Casino Cinerama Theatre on November 1, 1962.[29] It had a $450,000 advance.[30] The film ran at the Casino for 123 weeks, ending in April 1965.

Critical reception

Harold Myers of Variety called it a "magnificent and exciting spectacle" and in relation to the Cinerama process noted that there had been "a vast improvement in the process. The print joins are barely noticeable, and the wobble, which beset earlier productions, has been eliminated."[30] Reviews from London were favorable but with reservations over the storyline. Alexander Walker of the Evening Standard called it "a super-epic which shucks away your sophistication. If ever I heard the sound of success it is this." The Times said "it has a kind of surge and splendour and extravagance not to be despised."[31]

Box-office performance

How the West Was Won was a massive commercial success. Produced on a large budget of $15 million, it grossed $46,500,000 at the North American box office,[32] making it the second-highest-grossing film of 1963. The film has grossed over $50 million worldwide.[3]

Accolades

The following people won Academy Awards for their work:[33][34]

The following were nominated for five other Academy Awards:

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Restoration

James Stewart as frontiersman Linus Rawlings

In 2000, Warner Bros. assigned Crest Digital the task of restoring the original Cinerama negative for How the West Was Won. As part of the process, Crest Digital built its own authentic Cinerama screening room.[36] Hewlett-Packard has led efforts[37] to combine the three image portions to make the Cinerama image look more acceptable on a flat screen. This has finally been accomplished on the latest DVD and Blu-ray disc release. Previously, the lines where the three Cinerama panels join were glaringly visible, but this has been largely corrected on the Warner Bros. DVD and Blu-ray releases. However, the joints remain visible in places, especially against bright backgrounds.

The restoration also corrects some of the geometric distortions inherent in the process. For instance, in the final shot, the Golden Gate Bridge appears to curve in perspective as the camera flies underneath it whereas in the Cinerama version, it breaks into three straight sections at different angles.

The Blu-ray disc also contains a "SmileBox" version simulating the curved-screen effect.

Though the aspect ratio of Cinerama is 2.59:1, Warner's new releases of the film offer an aspect ratio of 2.89:1, incorporating much information on both sides that was not intended to be seen when projected. The Blu-ray-exclusive SmileBox alternative contains the intended cropping intact.

In 2006, Warner Bros. Motion Picture Imaging performed digital restoration on How the West Was Won. The film was restored frame by frame at Prasad Corporation to remove dirt, tears, scratches and other damage, restoring the film's original appearance.[38] The restored version has been shown on television since October 2008 on the Encore Westerns channel.[39][40][41]

Adaptations

  • Gold Key Comics: How the West Was Won (July 1963)[42]
  • The novelization was written in 1962 by well-known Western author Louis L'Amour. According to his son Beau, his father had frequent clashes with the studio, both over elements of inauthenticity and inaccuracy in the film, and with the indecisiveness of the studio regarding the segments to be made, and thus, those that L'Amour would need to include in the novelization.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ Pryor, Thomas M (August 3, 1963). "Bernard Smith Clarifies Fiscal Facts As to 'How the West Was Won'". Variety. p. 3.
  2. ^ "How The West Was Won". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Box office / business for How the West Was Won". IMDb. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 1, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ "New to the National Film Registry | Librarian Names 25 More Films". Library of Congress. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  5. ^ a b Pylant, James (2012). In Morticia's Shadow: The Life and Career of Carolyn Jones. Jacobus Books. p. 116.
  6. ^ a b "HOW THE WEST WAS WON: DELETED SCENES". HOW THE WEST WAS WON: The Making of MGM's classic Cinerama epic movie.
  7. ^ Scheuer, P.K. (July 7, 1960). "Five pictures put on Bresler's S1ate". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 167665329.
  8. ^ a b c MURRAY, S. H. (May 21, 1961). "HOLLYWOOD EPIC". The New York Times. ProQuest 115262156.
  9. ^ R.S. (July 24, 1960). "PUTTING THE OLD WEST ON NEW DISKS". The New York Times. ProQuest 115179286.
  10. ^ "Screen news and notes". The New York Times. June 21, 1960. ProQuest 114942098.
  11. ^ Hopper, Hedda (August 7, 1964). "Illness Will Force Decision on 'Hush': Picture May Be Called Off; Loretta Young Refuses Lead". Los Angeles Times.
  12. ^ Hopper, H. (October 1, 1960). "Metro sets three cinerama movies". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 167807467.
  13. ^ A.H. WEILER. (March 5, 1961). "VIEW FROM A LOCAL VANTAGE POINT". The New York Times. ProQuest 115302712.
  14. ^ Hopper, H. (April 21, 1961). "Looking at Hollywood". Chicago Daily Tribune. ProQuest 182872487.
  15. ^ Scheuer, P.K. (April 28, 1961). "Big-names roster in 'west' growing". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 167862019.
  16. ^ Hopper, H. (May 6, 1961). "Entertainment". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 167896026.
  17. ^ Scheuer, P. K. (September 3, 1961). "Hollywood unlimbers big guns to win west". Los Angeles Times. ProQuest 167896925.
  18. ^ a b HOWARD, T. P. (June 18, 1961). "OUT 'WEST' IN CINERAMA". The New York Times. ProQuest 115280725.
  19. ^ Eyman, Scott (September–October 1974). "'I made movies' an interview with Henry Hathaway". Take One. p. 12.
  20. ^ D'Arc, James V. (2010). When Hollywood came to town: a history of moviemaking in Utah (1st ed.). Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith. ISBN 978-1-4236-0587-4.
  21. ^ "Locally filmed Westerns 'Butch Cassidy,' 'Gunsmoke' part of Conejo film fest". www.vcstar.com. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  22. ^ "Conejo film fest highlights Westerns". Thousand Oaks Acorn. November 12, 2015.
  23. ^ Take One. Unicorn Pub. 1976. p. 11. Retrieved September 14, 2018. That Goddamned Cinerama; do you know that a waist shot is as close as you can get with that thing?
  24. ^ "How the West Was Won". Snopes.com. August 19, 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  25. ^ Davis, Ronald L. (2005). Just Making Movies. University Press of Mississippi. p. 150. ISBN 9781578066902.
  26. ^ Hopper, H. (February 14, 1962). "Looking at hollywood". Chicago Daily Tribune. ProQuest 183099736.
  27. ^ Staff Reporter (April 9, 1962). "MGM and cinerama to release first joint movie this summer". The Wall Street Journal. ProQuest 132751362.
  28. ^ "How The West Was Won: the lyrics to the songs". Retrieved December 28, 2016.
  29. ^ "Lastfogel Calls London the Best Hard Ticket City in the World". Variety. November 7, 1962. p. 19.
  30. ^ a b Myers, Harold (November 7, 1962). "Film Reviews: How the West Was Won". Variety. p. 6.
  31. ^ "London Critics Rave Over 'West'". Variety. November 7, 1962. p. 19.
  32. ^ Box Office Information for How the West Was Won. The Numbers. Retrieved September 2, 2013.
  33. ^ "The 36th Academy Awards (1964) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
  34. ^ "NY Times: How the West Was Won". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. 2011. Archived from the original on March 11, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2008.
  35. ^ "AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved August 14, 2016.
  36. ^ "Cinerama Dome Moves Forward". Hollywoodheritage.org. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  37. ^ "HP Labs – Movie makeover : HP and Warner Bros. give old movies new life". www.hpl.hp.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2007.
  38. ^ From Grain to Pixel: The Archival Life of Film in Transition, note 189, By Giovanna Fossati
  39. ^ "economictimes, Strategic alliance for creation of digital intermediaries, Dec 17, 2007".
  40. ^ "Warner bros., Prasad Corp form strategic alliance | News". Glamsham. August 7, 2021.
  41. ^ "prasadgroup.org, Digital Film Restoration" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 13, 2014.
  42. ^ "Gold Key: How the West Was Won". Grand Comics Database.
  43. ^ L'Amour, Louis (September 2017). How The West Was Won. New York, NY: Bantam Books. pp. 371–386. ISBN 9780425286098.

External links

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