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House of Kastrioti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The House of Kastrioti (Albanian: Dera e Kastriotit) was an Albanian royal and noble family, active in the 14th and 15th centuries as the rulers of the Principality of Kastrioti. The first Kastrioti mentioned in historical documents was a kephale of Kaninë in 1368. At the beginning of the 15th century the family controlled the region around Debar (modern westernmost North Macedonia and easternmost Albania) at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century. The most notable member was Skanderbeg, a magnate and general, regarded as an Albanian national hero. After the fall of the Principality and Skanderbeg's death in 1468 the Kastrioti family gave their allegiance to the Kingdom of Naples and were given control over the Duchy of San Pietro in Galatina and the County of Soleto in the Province of Lecce, Italy,[1] Ferrante (-1561), son of Gjon Kastrioti II, Duke of Gelatina and Count of Spoleto is the direct ancestor of all male members of the Kastrioti family today. The family consists of two branches, one in Lecce and the other in Napoli

History

Origins

Kastrioti, who was a kephale of Kanina in 1368, was the first member of the Kastrioti family mentioned in historical documents.[2][3] In the 14th century, Kastrioti family was one of the less powerful noble families in Albania, whose power and influence was far less than those of Thopia, Dukagjini, Balšići or Arianiti.[4]

According to Kabashi, the Kastrioti were first mentioned in 1394.[5] Kabashi explains that Turkish sources say that the family originated from Kastrat in north Albania.[5] According to Malcolm, they originate from western Kosovo.[6][7] According to several historians, their surname has its origin in the Greek word kastro (κάστρο), from Latin castrum, pl. castra, "military camp" or "fortress").[8][9][10][11]

Elevation to nobility

The Kastrioti, unlike the Thopia and the Arianiti, did not have a long history as nobility.[5] The first nobleman mentioned in historical sources was either Pal Kastrioti (1394),[5] the lord of Sinë and Lower Gardi (Gardhi i Poshtëm),[5][12][13] or a kephale Kastrioti, who was the kephale of Kanina found in 1368 sources.[14]

Pal Kastrioti had three sons: Konstantin[A], Alexius and Gjon Kastrioti[15][16] who was Skanderbeg's father.[17][18] Aleksa Kastrioti controlled three villages.[19] Konstantin Kastrioti was protovestiar of Sina (Serina) near Durrazo.[20] According to Venetian document discovered by Karl Hopf his title was Lord of Cerüja castle (Latin: dominus Serinae).[21]

Pal held a small area of Sinja (in Arras) and Lower Gardi (Unknown location). His son, John (Gjon) Kastrioti († 1437), became the lord of Matia (Mat).[13] He managed to expand his territory but was ultimately subdued by the invading Ottomans. The most notable member was George Kastrioti Skanderbeg (1405–1468), declared an Albanian national hero, renowned in Albanian folklore for his fight against the Ottoman forces.

Titles

The list of titles used by Kastrioti family are:

Albania in the Middle Ages

In Ottoman Empire

In the Kingdom of Naples

Members

Italian period

After the fall of Albania to the Ottomans the Kingdom of Naples gave land and noble title to Skanderbeg's family, the Kastrioti.[26] His family were given control over the Duchy of San Pietro in Galatina and the County of Soleto in the Province of Lecce, Italy.[1] His son, Gjon Kastrioti II, married Jerina Branković, daughter of Serbian Despot Lazar Branković and one of the last descendants of the Palaiologos.[1] There are two patrilineal branches of the Kastrioti family that exist today: the branch of Lecce with two sub-branches and the branch of Napoli with one sub-branch. Both branches are patrilineally descended from the sons of Ferrante (-1561), Duke of Galatina and Count of Spoleto.[27]

Armorials

Footnotes

  1. ^
    According to Kastrioti genealogy written by Flavius Comnenus and quoted by du Cange Kostantin was Skanderbeg's great-grandfather and the name of Skanderbeg's grandfather was Georgius.[28] The later researches proved that Kostantin was in fact Skanderbeg's uncle while the correct name of Skanderbeg's grandfather is Pal.[29]

References

  1. ^ a b c Runciman 1990, pp. 183–185
  2. ^ Buda, Aleks (2002), Shkrime historike, 3, Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese 8 Nëntori, p. 239, ISBN 978-99927-1-651-9, OCLC 163395350, Dokumentet përmendin për herë të parë një Kastriot në vitin 1368 si kështjellar ose kefali në Kaninë të Vlorës.
  3. ^ von Thallóczy, Ludwig; Jireček, Konstantin; von Šufflay, Milan; Ippen, Theodor A; Sedlmayr, Ernst C (1916), Illyrisch-albanische forschungen (in German), München, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 80, 81, OCLC 35691167, Der erste bekannte Kastriot war 1368 nur Kastellan der Berg Kanina bei Valona.
  4. ^ Heinrich Kretschmayr (September 2012) [1920]. Geschichte von Venedig. BoD – Books on Demand. p. 375. ISBN 978-3-8460-0658-0. Retrieved 7 June 2013. Sein geschlecht, die Kastriota, die „Stadtbürger“, war eines der geringsten unter den vielfach mit Serbengeschlechtern verschwisterten Dynasten Albaniens gewesen, hatte weit hinter den Topia, Arianiti, Dukagin und Balša des vierzehnten Jahrhunderts zurückgestanden.
  5. ^ a b c d e Kabashi, August 2005, p. 12: "The Castriotas were first mentioned in sources in 1394 and 1410 when John, Scanderbeg’s father, notified the Republic of Venice of his decision to send his son over to the Turks as hostage.17 According to the Turkish sources, the Castriota family originated from the village of Kastrat in northeastern Albania. Unlike the Thopias and the Comnenis, the Castriotas did not have a long history as members of the aristocracy. In fact, their elevation of status began with Scanderbeg’s grandfather, Paul Castriota, who initially owned two villages named Sinja and Lower Gardi.18"
  6. ^ Malcolm, Noel (1998), Kosovo : a short history, New York: New York University Press, p. 88, ISBN 9780814755983, OCLC 37310785, Skanderbeg (meaning 'Lord Alexander'; Alb.: Skenderbeu) was the Turkish name given to an Albanian nobleman, Gjergj Kastriot, whose family, originally from Western Kosovo, controlled extensive lands in north-central Albania.
  7. ^ Akadémia, Magyar Tudományos (1985). Acta orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. Magyar Tudományos Akadémia. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  8. ^ Michaelides, Constantine E. (2003-11-30). The Aegean crucible: tracing vernacular architecture in post-Byzantine centuries. Delos Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-9729723-0-7. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  9. ^ Bulletin d'archéologie et d'histoire dalmate (in Croatian), 55—59, Split: Arheološki Muzej (Zadar); Arheološki Muzej (Split), 1953, p. 118, retrieved 30 November 2011, Još treba istaći Skenderbegovo prezime Kastriot... To je svakako grčka izvedenica ... etnikum od castra
  10. ^ Thallóczy 1916, p. 80 : "Kastriot, die einen griechischen Namen führten, „Stadtbürger", kastriotis von kastron, Stadt (aus lat. castrum ; polis war nur Konstantinopel allein)."
  11. ^ Schmitt 2009, : "Der Name des Stammes Kastrioti leitet sich laut Schmitt vermutlich vom griechischen Wort «kastron» (Festung) ab"[page needed]
  12. ^ Buda, p. 239: "Në fund të shek. XIV Pal Kastrioti kishte këtu dy fshatra. Sinjën dhe Gardhin e Poshtëm."
  13. ^ a b Noli 1947: "he had not more than two villages, called Signa and Lower Gardhi. Paul's son, John Castrioti, became Lord of Matia."
  14. ^ Buda, p. 239: "Dokumentet përmendin për herë të parë një Kastriot në vitin 1368 si kështjellar ose kefali në Kaninë të Vlorës."
  15. ^ Šufflay 2000, p. 148

    Njegov potomak, Ivan, "gospodin Ivan" u srpskim poveljama, "Ivan Castrioth" u mletačkim spomenicima...

  16. ^ Muzaka, Gjon (1873) [1515], Karl Hopf (ed.), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi. Per Giovanni Musachi, despoto d'Epiro, Berlin, archived from the original on 2010-09-10, You should know that the grandfather of Lord Scanderbeg was called Lord Paul Castriota. He ruled over no more than two villages, called Signa (Sina) and Gardi Ipostesi. To this Lord Paul was born Lord John Castriota who became Lord of Mat. And to him was born Lord Scanderbeg. The mother of the said Lord Scanderbeg, i.e. the wife of the said Lord John, was called Lady Voisava Tribalda who was of a noble family.
  17. ^ Dialogue, Volume 5, Issues 17-20. Dijalog. 1996. p. 77. Retrieved 27 March 2012. Njegov sin Pavle, gospodar od Sinje, imao je tri sina: Konstantina, Aleksu i Ivana... Ivan Kastriota, otac Skenderbegov, ozenio se Voislavom koja je
  18. ^ Hopf 1873, p. 533

    Constantino, Alessio, Giovanni

  19. ^ Friedrich Johann Hopf, Carl Hermann (1960) [1873], Geschichte Griechenlands vom Beginn des Mittelalters bis auf unsere Zeit (in German), II, B. Franklin, p. 97, OCLC 418936, ... Alexios Kastriota, der über drei Ortschaften gebot,...
  20. ^ Friedrich Johann Hopf, Carl Hermann (1960) [1873], Geschichte Griechenlands vom Beginn des Mittelalters bis auf unsere Zeit (in German), II, B. Franklin, p. 94, OCLC 418936, ... Auch KonstantinoS Kastriota, der den Titel Protovestiar führte und Serina unweit Durazzo ...
  21. ^ von Hahn, Johann Georg (1867), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin und Wardar : im Auftrage der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften unternommen im Jahre 1863, Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, p. 23, OCLC 220497422, Professor Hopf fand nämlich eine venetianische Urkunde, in welcher Constantin Kastriota, Skanderbegs Grossvater, „dominus Serinae" genannt wird.
  22. ^ Vuković, Novo (1996). Književnost Crne Gore od XII do XIX vijeka. Obod. p. 42. Његов други син звани Репош, брат Бурђа Кастриота, умро је 1430. или 1431. године у Хиландару и тамо је ...
  23. ^ a b c d [1] p. 96
  24. ^ Noli, Fan Stilian (1947), George Castrioti Scanderbeg (1405–1468), International Universities Press, p. 64, OCLC 732882, Vlajka me Stefan Stres Balshën
  25. ^ Gopčević, Spiridon (1914). Geschichte von Montenegro und Albanien (in German). Gotha: F.A. Perthes. p. 460. OCLC 9968504. Retrieved 29 March 2012. Bezüglich der Strez herrscht Verwirrung. Hopf macht Ivo und Gojko BalSid zu Söhnen des Stefan Strez, welcher Vlajka Kastriota geheiratet hätte und Sohn des Gjuragj Balšić gewesen wäre, eines Bastards des Gjuragj I.
  26. ^ Gibbon 1901, p. 467
  27. ^ "Official genealogical tree of the Kastrioti famly". Castriota-Scanderbeg.
  28. ^ du Fresne, sieur du Cange, Charles (1680), Historia Byzantina duplici commentario illustrata : Prior familias ... Imperatorum Constantinopol. ... complectitur alter descriptionem urbis Constantinopolis (in Latin), Lutetia Parisorum, p. 270, OCLC 166008975, retrieved 13 September 2012
  29. ^ Otadžbina, volume 21 (in Serbian). 1889. p. 193. Retrieved 10 September 2012. Да се види нетачност Флавијева родослова доста је навести ово. Према новијим истраживањима Костантин је био Кастриоту стриц, а не прадед, а по сведоџби његова сродника, дед му се звао Павле Кастриот и није имао више од два села.

Sources

External links

This page was last edited on 14 September 2020, at 15:08
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