To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Horn of Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Horn of Africa
4 sovereign states[1]
1 unrecognised state
Population140,683,144 (2020 est.)
Area1,882,757 km2

The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula,[2][3][4] is a large peninsula and geopolitical region in East Africa.[5] Located on the easternmost part of the African mainland, it is the fourth largest peninsula in the world. It is composed of Somalia (incl. Somaliland), Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Eritrea.[6] Although not common, broader definitions include parts or all of Kenya and Sudan.[7][8][9] It has been described as a region of geopolitical and strategic importance, since it is situated along the southern boundary of the Red Sea; extending hundreds of kilometres into the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel, and Indian Ocean, it also shares a maritime border with the Arabian Peninsula.[10][11][12][13]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    86 754
    13 415
  • Will the Ethiopia-Somaliland Pact Upend the Horn of Africa? - Straight Talk Africa
  • OFFICIAL TRAILER: 'Youre Going Where' - Horn of Africa Documentary



This peninsula has been known by various names. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to it as Regio Aromatica or Regio Cinnamonifora due to the aromatic plants found there, or as Regio Incognita owing to its uncharted territory. In ancient and medieval times, the Horn of Africa was referred to as the Bilad al Barbar ("Land of the Berbers").[14][15][16] It is also known as the Somali peninsula or, in the Somali language, Geeska Afrika, Jasiiradda Soomaali or Gacandhulka Soomaali.[17] In other local languages, it is called "the Horn of Africa" or "the African Horn": in Amharic የአፍሪካ ቀንድ yäafrika qänd, in Arabic القرن الأفريقي al-qarn al-'afrīqī, in Oromo Gaaffaa Afriikaa, and in Tigrinya ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ q’ärnī afīrīqa.[18][19]


The Horn of Africa Region consists of the internationally recognized countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.[15][16][20][21]

Geographically the protruding shape that resembles a "Horn" consists of the "Somali peninsula" and eastern part of Ethiopia. But the region encompasses also the rest of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti.[22][23][24][25] Broader definitions include Kenya and Sudan.[26] The term Greater Horn Region (GHR) can additionally include South Sudan and Uganda.[27] The term Greater Horn of Africa is sometimes used to be inclusive of neighbouring southeast African countries to distinguish the broader geopolitical definition of the Horn of Africa from narrower peninsular definitions.[19][28][29]

The Greater Horn of Africa consists of more than the typical four countries, including also Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and South Sudan.[30][31]

The name Horn of Africa is sometimes shortened to HoA. Quite commonly it is referred to simply as "the Horn", while inhabitants are sometimes colloquially termed Horn Africans.[18][19] Regional studies on the Horn of Africa are carried out in fields of Ethiopian studies and Somali studies. This peninsula has been known by various names. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to it as Regio Aromatica or Regio Cinnamonifora due to the aromatic plants or as Regio Incognita owing to its uncharted territory.



Deka rock art in Deka Arbaa, Debub region of Eritrea

Some of the earliest Homo sapiens fossils, the Omo remains (from ca. 233,000 years ago) and the Herto skull (from ca. 160,000 ago) have been found in the region, both in Ethiopia.[32]

The findings of the Earliest Stone Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift dated to more than 279,000 years ago "in combination with the existing archaeological, fossil and genetic evidence, isolate East Africa as a source of modern cultures and biology."[33][34][35]

According to the Southern Dispersal scenario, the Southern route of the Out of Africa migration occurred in the Horn of Africa through the Bab el Mandeb. Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits, the Red Sea is about 12 miles (19 kilometres) wide, but 50,000 years ago it was much narrower and sea levels were 70 meters lower. Though the straits were never completely closed, there may have been islands in between which could be reached using simple rafts. Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea,[36] indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing.

Ethiopian and Eritrean agriculture established the earliest known use of the seed grass teff (Poa abyssinica) between 4000 and 1000 BCE.[37] Teff is used to make the flatbread injera/taita. Coffee also originated in Ethiopia and has since spread to become a worldwide beverage.[38]

Historian Christopher Ehret, cited genetic evidence which had identified the Horn of Africa as a source of a genetic marker "M35/215" Y-chromosome lineage for a significant population component which moved north from that region into Egypt and the Levant. Ehret argued that this genetic distribution paralleled the spread of the Afrasian language family with the movement of people from the Horn of Africa into Egypt and added a new demic component to the existing population of Egypt 17,000 years ago.[39]

Ancient history

The area comprising Somalia, Djibouti, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea and Sudan is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru", meaning god's land), whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE.[40]

Dʿmt was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, which existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. With its capital probably at Yeha, the kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, and made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BCE, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the 1st century, the Aksumite Kingdom, which was able to reunite the area.[41]

King Ezana's Stela at Aksum, symbol of the Aksumite civilization.

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient state located in the Eritrea and Ethiopian highlands, which thrived between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. A major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India, Aksum's rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency. The state also established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and regularly entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula, eventually extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom. Under Ezana (fl. 320–360), the kingdom of Aksum became the first major empire to adopt Christianity, and was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time, along with Persia, Rome and China.

Ancient trading centers in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

Somalia was an important link in the Horn, connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense, myrrh and spices, all of which were valuable luxuries to the Ancient Egyptians, Phoenicians, Mycenaeans, Babylonians and Romans.[42][43] The Romans consequently began to refer to the region as Regio Aromatica. In the classical era, several flourishing Somali city-states such as Opone, Mosylon and Malao also competed with the Sabaeans, Parthians and Axumites for the rich Indo-Greco-Roman trade.[44]

The birth of Islam opposite the Horn's Red Sea coast meant that local merchants and sailors living on the Arabian Peninsula gradually came under the influence of the new religion through their converted Arab Muslim trading partners. With the migration of Muslim families from the Islamic world to the Horn in the early centuries of Islam, and the peaceful conversion of the local population by Muslim scholars in the following centuries, the ancient city-states eventually transformed into Islamic Mogadishu, Berbera, Zeila, Barawa and Merka, which were part of the Barbara civilization.[45][46] The city of Mogadishu came to be known as the "City of Islam"[47] and controlled the East African gold trade for several centuries.[48]

Middle Ages and Early Modern era

The expansion of the Habesha Kingdom during the campaigns of Amde Seyon I
The Adal Sultanate at its peak in 1540

During the Middle Ages, several powerful empires dominated the regional trade in the Horn, including the Adal Sultanate, the Ajuran Sultanate, the Ethiopian Empire, the Zagwe dynasty, and the Sultanate of the Geledi.

The Sultanate of Showa, established in 896, was one of the oldest local Islamic states. It was centered in the former Shewa province in central Ethiopia. The polity was succeeded by the Sultanate of Ifat around 1285. Ifat was governed from its capital at Zeila in Somaliland and was the easternmost district of the former Shewa Sultanate.[49]

The Adal Sultanate was a medieval multi-ethnic Muslim state centered in the Horn region. At its height, it controlled large parts of Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti and Eritrea. Many of the historic cities in the region, such as Amud, Maduna, Abasa, Berbera, Zeila and Harar, flourished during the kingdom's golden age. This period that left behind numerous courtyard houses, mosques, shrines and walled enclosures. Under the leadership of rulers such as Sabr ad-Din II, Mansur ad-Din, Jamal ad-Din II, Shams ad-Din, General Mahfuz and Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Adalite armies continued the struggle against the Solomonic dynasty, a campaign historically known as the Conquest of Abyssinia or Futuh al Habash.

The citadel in Gondershe, an important city in the medieval Ajuran Sultanate

Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuran Sultanate successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the west and a Portuguese incursion from the east during the Gaal Madow and the Ajuran-Portuguese wars. Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were also strengthened or re-established, and the state left behind an extensive architectural legacy. Many of the hundreds of ruined castles and fortresses that dot the landscape of Somalia today are attributed to Ajuran engineers,[50] including a lot of the pillar tomb fields, necropolises and ruined cities built during that era. The royal family, the House of Gareen, also expanded its territories and established its hegemonic rule through a skillful combination of warfare, trade linkages and alliances.[51]

The Zagwe dynasty ruled many parts of modern Ethiopia and Eritrea from approximately 1137 to 1270. The name of the dynasty comes from the Cushitic-speaking Agaw people of northern Ethiopia. From 1270 onwards for many centuries, the Solomonic dynasty ruled the Ethiopian Empire.

In 1270, the Amhara nobleman Yekuno Amlak, who claimed descent from the last Aksumite king and ultimately the Queen of Sheba, overthrew the Agaw Zagwe dynasty at the Battle of Ansata, ushering his reign as Emperor of Ethiopia. While initially a rather small and politically unstable entity, the empire managed to expand significantly during the crusades of Amda Seyon I (1314–1344) and his successors, becoming the dominant force in East Africa.[52][53]

The Lalibela churches carved by the Zagwe dynasty in the 12th century

In the early 15th century, Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives.[54] In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfonso V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries who failed to complete the return trip.[55]

The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father.[56] This proved to be an important development, for when Abyssinia was subjected to the attacks of the Adal Sultanate General and Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (called "Gurey" or "Grañ", both meaning "the Left-handed"), Portugal assisted the Ethiopian emperor by sending weapons and four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule.[57] This Ethiopian–Adal War was also one of the first proxy wars in the region as the Ottoman Empire, and Portugal took sides in the conflict.

Engraving of the 13th century Fakr ad-Din Mosque built by Fakr ad-Din, the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu

When Emperor Susenyos converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed resulting in thousands of deaths.[58] The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians. On 25 June 1632, Susenyos's son, Emperor Fasilides, declared the state religion to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.[59][60]

During the end of 18th and the beginning of 19th century the Yejju dynasty (more specifically, the Warasek) ruled north Ethiopia changing the official language of Amhara people to Afaan Oromo, including inside the court of Gondar which was capital of the empire. Founded by Ali I of Yejju several successive descendants of him and Abba Seru Gwangul ruled with their army coming from mainly their clan the Yejju Oromo tribe as well as Wollo and Raya Oromo.[61]

The port of Massawa, Eritrea, founded by the Arabs and later modernized and expanded by the Italians, in a 19th-century engraving
The Sultanate of Hobyo's cavalry and fort

The Sultanate of the Geledi was a Somali kingdom administered by the Gobroon dynasty, which ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was established by the Ajuran soldier Ibrahim Adeer, who had defeated various vassals of the Ajuran Empire and established the House of Gobroon. The dynasty reached its apex under the successive reigns of Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, who successfully consolidated Gobroon power during the Bardera wars, and Sultan Ahmed Yusuf, who forced regional powers such as the Omani Empire to submit tribute.

The Isaaq Sultanate was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries. It spanned the territories of the Isaaq clan, descendants of the Banu Hashim clan,[62] in modern-day Somaliland and Ethiopia. The sultanate was governed by the Reer Guled branch of the Eidagale sub-clan established by the first sultan, Sultan Guled Abdi. The sultanate is the pre-colonial predecessor to the modern Somaliland.[63][64][65]

According to oral tradition, prior to the Guled dynasty the Isaaq clan-family were ruled by a dynasty of the Tolje'lo branch starting from, descendants of Ahmed nicknamed Tol Je'lo, the eldest son of Sheikh Ishaaq's Harari wife. There were eight Tolje'lo rulers in total, starting with Boqor Harun (Somali: Boqor Haaruun) who ruled the Isaaq Sultanate for centuries starting from the 13th century.[66][67] The last Tolje'lo ruler Garad Dhuh Barar (Somali: Dhuux Baraar) was overthrown by a coalition of Isaaq clans. The once strong Tolje'lo clan were scattered and took refuge amongst the Habr Awal with whom they still mostly live.[68][69]

The Majeerteen Sultanate (Migiurtinia) was another prominent Somali sultanate based in the Horn region. Ruled by King Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, it controlled much of northeastern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.[70][71] Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northern Somalia.[72]

The Sultanate of Hobyo was a 19th-century Somali kingdom founded by Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid. Initially, Kenadid's goal was to seize control of the neighboring Majeerteen Sultanate, which was then ruled by his cousin Boqor Osman Mahamuud. However, he was unsuccessful in this endeavor, and was eventually forced into exile in Yemen. A decade later, in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to establish the kingdom of Hobyo, which would rule much of northern and central Somalia during the early modern period.[73]

Modern history

A 1909 map of Africa; the Horn of Africa is the easternmost projection of the African continent.
The Dervish State in 1900 after takeover of the Area of Jigjiga

In the period following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, when European powers scrambled for territory in Africa and tried to establish coaling stations for their ships, Italy invaded and occupied Eritrea. On 1 January 1890, Eritrea officially became a colony of Italy. In 1896 further Italian incursion into the horn was decisively halted by Ethiopian forces. By 1936 however, Eritrea became a province of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana), along with Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland. By 1941, Eritrea had about 760,000 inhabitants, including 70,000 Italians.[74] The Commonwealth armed forces, along with the Ethiopian patriotic resistance, expelled those of Italy in 1941,[75] and took over the area's administration. The British continued to administer the territory under a UN Mandate until 1951, when Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia, per UN resolution 390 A (V) adopted December 1950.

The strategic importance of Eritrea, due to its Red Sea coastline and mineral resources, was the main cause for the federation with Ethiopia, which in turn led to Eritrea's annexation as Ethiopia's 14th province in 1962. This was the culmination of a gradual process of takeover by the Ethiopian authorities, a process which included a 1959 edict establishing the compulsory teaching of Amharic, the main language of Ethiopia, in all Eritrean schools. The lack of regard for the Eritrean population led to the formation of an independence movement in the early 1960s (1961), which erupted into a 30-year war against successive Ethiopian governments that ended in 1991. Following a UN-supervised referendum in Eritrea (dubbed UNOVER) in which the Eritrean people overwhelmingly voted for independence, Eritrea declared its independence and gained international recognition in 1993.[76] In 1998, a border dispute with Ethiopia led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War.[77]

Eritrean Ascaris, colonial troops of the Italian Army, in a 1898 wood engraving
Porta di Giardini (Gate Gardens) at Mogadishu market, Italian Somaliland
British camel troopers in British Somaliland
Somali engineers repair a captured Ethiopian T-34/85 Model 1969 tank for use by the Western Somali Liberation Front during the Ogaden War, March 1978
United Nations soldiers, part of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea, monitoring Eritrea–Ethiopia boundary (2005)

From 1862 until 1894, the land to the north of the Gulf of Tadjoura situated in modern-day Djibouti was called Obock and was ruled by Somali and Afar Sultans, local authorities with whom France signed various treaties between 1883 and 1887 to first gain a foothold in the region.[78][79][80] In 1894, Léonce Lagarde established a permanent French administration in the city of Djibouti and named the region Côte française des Somalis (French Somaliland), a name which continued until 1967.

In 1958, on the eve of neighboring Somalia's independence in 1960, a referendum was held in the territory to decide whether to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France. The referendum favoured continued association with France, partly due to a combined yes vote by the sizable Afar ethnic group and resident Europeans.[81] There was also reports of widespread vote rigging, with the French expelling thousands of Somalis before the polls.[82] The majority of those who voted no were Somalis who were strongly in favour of joining a united Somalia, as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi, Vice President of the Government Council. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later.[81] Djibouti finally gained its independence from France in 1977. Hassan Gouled Aptidon, a Somali politician who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, became the nation's first president (1977–1999).[81] In early 2011, the Djiboutian citizenry took part in a series of protests against the long-serving government, which were associated with the larger Arab Spring demonstrations. The unrest eventually subsided by April of the year, and Djibouti's ruling People's Rally for Progress party was re-elected to office.

The Dervish existed for 25 years, from 1895 until 1920. The Turks named Hassan Emir of the Somali nation,[83] and the Germans promised to officially recognize any territories the Dervishes were to acquire.[84] After a quarter of a century of holding the British at bay, the Dervishes were finally defeated in 1920 as a direct consequence of Britain's new policy of aerial bombardment.[85] As a result of this bombardment, former Dervish territories were turned into a protectorate of Britain. Italy faced similar opposition from Somali Sultans and armies, and did not acquire full control of modern Somalia until the Fascist era in late 1927. This occupation lasted until 1941, and was replaced by a British military administration. Former British Somaliland would remain, along with Italian Somaliland, a trusteeship of Italy, between 1950 and 1960. The Union of the two countries in 1960 formed the Somali Republic. A civilian government was formed, and on 20 July 1961, through a popular referendum, the constitution drafted in 1960 was ratified.[86]

Due to its longstanding ties with the Arab world, the Somali Republic was accepted in 1974 as a member of the Arab League.[87] During the same year, the nation's former socialist administration also chaired the Organization of African Unity, the predecessor of the African Union.[88] In 1991, the Somali Civil War broke out, which saw the dissolving of the union and Somaliland regaining its independence, along with the collapse of the central government and the emergence of numerous autonomous polities, including the Puntland administration in the north.[89] Somalia's inhabitants subsequently reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, Islamic or customary law, with a provision for appeal of all sentences. A Transitional Federal Government was subsequently created in 2004.[90] The Federal Government of Somalia was established on 20 August 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate.[91] It represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.[91] The Federal Parliament of Somalia serves as the government's legislative branch.[92]

Modern Ethiopia and its current borders are a result of significant territorial reduction in the north and expansion in the east and south toward its present borders, owing to several migrations, commercial integration, treaties as well as conquests, particularly by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena.[93] From the central province of Shoa, Menelik set off to subjugate and incorporate 'the lands and people of the South, East and West into an empire.'[93][94] He did this with the help of Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia, began expanding his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into areas that had not been held since the invasion of Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, and other areas that had never been under his rule, resulting in the borders of Ethiopia of today.[95] Menelik had signed the Treaty of Wichale with Italy in May 1889, in which Italy would recognize Ethiopia's sovereignty so long as Italy could control a small area of northern Tigray (part of modern Eritrea).[96] In return, Italy was to provide Menelik with arms and support him as emperor.[97] The Italians used the time between the signing of the treaty and its ratification by the Italian government to further expand their territorial claims. Italy began a state funded program of resettlement for landless Italians in Eritrea, which increased tensions between the Eritrean peasants and the Italians.[97] This conflict erupted in the Battle of Adwa on 1 March 1896, in which Italy's colonial forces were defeated by the Ethiopians.[98]

The early 20th century in Ethiopia was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. In 1935, Haile Selassie's troops fought and lost the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, after which Italy annexed Ethiopia to Italian East Africa.[99] Haile Selassie subsequently appealed to the League of Nations, delivering an address that made him a worldwide figure and 1935's Time magazine Man of the Year.[100] Following the entry of Italy into World War II, British Empire forces, together with patriot Ethiopian fighters, liberated Ethiopia during the East African Campaign in 1941.[101]

Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet-backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the Derg led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state, which was called the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. In July 1977, the Ogaden War broke out after the Somalia government of Siad Barre sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia. By September 1977, the Somali army controlled 90 percent of the Ogaden, but was later forced to withdraw after Ethiopia's Derg received assistance from the USSR, Cuba, South Yemen, East Germany[102] and North Korea, including around 15,000 Cuban combat troops.

In 1989, the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) merged with other ethnically based opposition movements to form the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), and eventually managed to overthrow Mengistu's dictatorial regime in 1991. A transitional government, composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution, was then set up. The first free and democratic election took place later in 1995, when Ethiopia's longest-serving Prime Minister Meles Zenawi was elected to office. As with other nations in the Horn region, Ethiopia maintained its historically close relations with countries in the Middle East during this period of change.[103] Zenawi died in 2012, but his Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) party remains the ruling political coalition in Ethiopia.


Geology and climate

The Horn of Africa as seen from the NASA Space Shuttle in May 1993. The orange and tan colors in this image indicate a largely arid to semiarid climate.

The Horn of Africa is almost equidistant from the equator and the Tropic of Cancer. It consists chiefly of mountains uplifted through the formation of the Great Rift Valley, a fissure in the Earth's crust extending from Turkey to Mozambique and marking the separation of the African and Arabian tectonic plates. Mostly mountainous, the region arose through faults resulting from the Rift Valley.

Geologically, the Horn and Yemen once formed a single landmass around 18 million years ago, before the Gulf of Aden rifted and separated the Horn region from the Arabian Peninsula.[104][105] The Somali Plate is bounded on the west by the East African Rift, which stretches south from the triple junction in the Afar Depression, and an undersea continuation of the rift extending southward offshore. The northern boundary is the Aden Ridge along the coast of Saudi Arabia. The eastern boundary is the Central Indian Ridge, the northern portion of which is also known as the Carlsberg Ridge. The southern boundary is the Southwest Indian Ridge.

Extensive glaciers once covered the Simien and Bale Mountains but melted at the beginning of the Holocene.[citation needed] The mountains descend in a huge escarpment to the Red Sea and more steadily to the Indian Ocean. Socotra is a small island in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia. Its size is 3,600 km2 (1,400 sq mi) and it is a territory of Yemen.

The lowlands of the Horn are generally arid in spite of their proximity to the equator. This is because the winds of the tropical monsoons that give seasonal rains to the Sahel and the Sudan blow from the west. Consequently, they lose their moisture before reaching Djibouti and northern part of Somalia, with the result that most of the Horn receives little rainfall during the monsoon season.[citation needed]

The Horn of Africa. NASA image

In the mountains of Ethiopia, many areas receive over 2,000 mm (79 in) per year, and even Asmara receives an average of 570 mm (22 in). This rainfall is the sole source of water for many areas outside Ethiopia, including Egypt. In the winter, the northeasterly trade winds do not provide any moisture except in mountainous areas of northern Somalia, where rainfall in late autumn can produce annual totals as high as 500 mm (20 in). On the eastern coast, a strong upwelling and the fact that the winds blow parallel to the coast means annual rainfall can be as low as 50 mm (2.0 in).

The climate in Ethiopia varies considerably between regions. It is generally hotter in the lowlands and temperate on the plateau. At Addis Ababa, which ranges from 2,200 to 2,600 m (7,218 to 8,530 ft), maximum temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F) and minimum 4 °C (39.2 °F). The weather is usually sunny and dry, but the short (belg) rains occur from February to April and the big (meher) rains from mid-June to mid-September. The Danakil Desert stretches across 100,000 km2 of arid terrain in northeast Ethiopia, southern Eritrea, and northwestern Djibouti. The area is known for its volcanoes and extreme heat, with daily temperatures over 45 °C and often surpassing 50 °C. It has a number of lakes formed by lava flows that dammed up several valleys. Among these are Lake Asale (116 m below sea level) and Lake Giuletti/Afrera (80 m below sea level), both of which possess cryptodepressions in the Danakil Depression. The Afrera contains many active volcanoes, including the Maraho, Dabbahu, Afdera and Erta Ale.[106][107]

In Somalia, there is not much seasonal variation in climate. Hot conditions prevail year-round along with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 28 to 43 °C (82 to 109 °F), except at higher elevations along the eastern seaboard, where the effects of a cold offshore current can be felt. Somalia has only two permanent rivers, the Jubba and the Shabele, both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands.[108]


Oryx beisa beisa is found throughout the Horn of Africa

About 220 mammals are found in the Horn of Africa. Among threatened species of the region, there are several antelopes such as the beira, the dibatag, the silver dikdik and the Speke's gazelle. Other remarkable species include the Somali wild ass, the desert warthog, the hamadryas baboon, the Somali pygmy gerbil, the ammodile, and the Speke's pectinator. The Grevy's zebra is the unique wild equid of the region. There are predators such as spotted hyena, striped hyena and African leopard. The endangered painted hunting dog had populations in the Horn of Africa, but pressures from human exploitation of habitat along with warfare have reduced or extirpated this canid in this region.[109]

Some important bird species of the Horn are the black boubou, the golden-winged grosbeak, the Warsangli linnet, and the Djibouti spurfowl.

The Horn of Africa holds more endemic reptiles than any other region in Africa, with over 285 species total and about 90 species which are found exclusively in the region. Among endemic reptile genera, there are Haackgreerius, Haemodracon, Ditypophis, Pachycalamus and Aeluroglena. Half of these genera are uniquely found on Socotra. Unlike reptiles, amphibians are poorly represented in the region.

There are about 100 species of freshwater fish in the Horn of Africa, about 10 of which are endemic. Among the endemic, three cavefishes, Somali blind barb, Phreatichthys andruzzii and Uegitglanis zammaranoi can be found.

Myrrh, a common resin in the Horn

It is estimated that about 5,000 species of vascular plants are found in the Horn, about half of which are endemic. Endemism is most developed in Socotra and northern Somalia. The region has two endemic plant families: the Barbeyaceae and the Dirachmaceae. Among the other remarkable species, there are the cucumber tree found only on Socotra, the Bankoualé palm, the yeheb nut, and the Somali cyclamen.

Due to the Horn of Africa's semi-arid and arid climate, droughts are not uncommon. They are complicated by climate change and changes in agricultural practices. For centuries, the region's pastoral groups have observed careful rangeland management practices to mitigate the effects of drought, such as avoiding overgrazing or setting aside land only for young or ill animals. However, population growth has put pressure on limited land and led to these practices no longer being maintained. Droughts in 1983–85, 1991–92, 1998–99 and 2011 have disrupted periods of gradual growth in herd numbers, leading to a decrease of between 37 and 62 percent of the cattle population. Initiatives by ECHO and USAID have succeeded in reclaiming hundreds of hectares of pastureland through rangeland management, leading to the establishment of the Dikale Rangeland in 2004.[110]

As of 2023, the Horn of Africa is affected by a severe ongoing drought and famine that has been going on for six consecutive years, especially in Somalia and in the months from March to May during which 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs. It is estimated that the lives of a number of people ranging from 22[111] to 58 million[112] are at risk.

Demographics, ethnicity and languages

Map of the ethnic groups who speak Cushitic languages

Besides sharing similar geographic endowments, the countries of the Horn of Africa are, for the most part, linguistically and ethnically linked together,[20] evincing a complex pattern of interrelationships among the various groups.[113] The two main macro groups in the Horn are the Cushitic-speaking Cushitic peoples traditionally centered in the lowlands and the Ethiosemitic-speaking Habesha peoples who inhabit the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands.

According to Ethnologue, there are 10 individual languages spoken in Djibouti (two native), 14 in Eritrea, 90 in Ethiopia, 15 in Somalia (Somali being the only native).[114] Most people in the Horn speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic, Semitic, or Omotic branches. The Cushitic branch includes Oromo, spoken by the Oromo people in Ethiopia, and Somali, spoken by the Somali people in Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya; the Semitic branch (specifically the Ethiosemitic sub-branch) includes Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people of Ethiopia, and Tigrinya spoken by the Tigrayan people of Ethiopia and the Tigrinya people of Eritrea. Other Afroasiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Afar, Saho, Hadiyya, Sidamo and Agaw languages, the Semitic Tigre, Arabic, Gurage, Harari, Silt'e and Argobba tongues[115] as well as Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic communities inhabiting Ethiopia's southern regions. Among these languages are Aari, Dizi, Gamo, Kafa, Hamer and Wolaytta.[116]

Saho women in traditional attire.
Somali men and women in front of a traditional house

Languages belonging to the Nilo-Saharan language family are also spoken in some areas by Nilotic ethnic minorities mostly in Ethiopia and Eritrea. These tongues include the Nilo-Saharan Me'en and Mursi languages used in southwestern Ethiopia, and Kunama and Nara idioms spoken in parts of southern Eritrea.

Languages belonging to the Niger-Congo language family are also spoken in some areas by Bantu ethnic minorities in Somalia. In the riverine and littoral areas of southern Somalia, Bajuni, Barawani, and Bantu groups also speak variants of the Niger-Congo Swahili and Mushunguli languages.[117][118]

The Horn has produced numerous indigenous writing systems. Among these is Ge'ez script (ግዕዝ Gəʿəz) (also known as Ethiopic), which has been written in for at least 2000 years.[119] It is an abugida script that was originally developed to write the Ge'ez language. In speech communities that use it, such as the Amharic and Tigrinya, the script is called fidäl (ፊደል), which means "script" or "alphabet". For centuries, Somali sheikhs and Sultans used wadaad's writing (a version of the Arabic alphabet) to write. In the early 20th century, in response to a national campaign to settle on a writing script for the Somali language (which had long since lost its ancient script[120]), Osman Yusuf Kenadid, a Somali poet and remote cousin of the Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid of the Sultanate of Hobyo, devised a phonetically sophisticated alphabet called Osmanya (also known as far soomaali; Osmanya: 𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘) for representing the sounds of Somali.[121] Though no longer the official writing script in Somalia, the Osmanya script is available in the Unicode range 10480-104AF [from U+10480 – U+104AF (66688–66735)]. A number of ethnic minority groups in southern Ethiopia and Eritrea also adhere to various traditional faiths. Among these belief systems are the Nilo-Saharan Surma people's acknowledgment of the sky god Tumu.[122]


Coffee beans from Ethiopia

According to the IMF, in 2010 the Horn of Africa region had a total GDP (PPP) of $106.224 billion and nominal of $35.819 billion. Per capita, the GDP in 2010 was $1061 (PPP) and $358 (nominal).[123][124][125][126]

Over 95 percent of cross-border trade within the region is unofficial and undocumented, carried out by pastoralists trading livestock.[127] The unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep and goats from Ethiopia sold to other countries in the Horn and the wider Eastern Africa region, including Somalia and Djibouti, generates an estimated total value of between US$250 and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official figure), with the towns of Burao and Yirowe in Somaliland being home to the largest livestock markets in the Horn of Africa, with as many as 10,000 heads of sheep and goats sold daily from all over the Horn of Africa, with many of whom shipped to Gulf states via the port of Berbera.[127][128][129][130] This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions and promote regional integration.[127] However, the unregulated and undocumented nature of this trade runs risks, such as allowing disease to spread more easily across national borders. Furthermore, governments are unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues.[127]

See also



  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, inc, Jacob E. Safra, The New Encyclopædia Britannica, (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.61: "The northern mountainous area, known as the Horn of Africa, comprises Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia."
  2. ^ Christy A. Donaldson (2014). Encyclopedia of World Geography – Horn of Africa. Infobase Publishing. pp. 422–424. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3. This area is also known as the Somali Peninsula, because within it lies the countries of Somalia and eastern Ethiopia.
  3. ^ "Rethinking Pastoralism and African Development: a case study of the Horn of Africa" (PDF). October 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2022. Retrieved 13 December 2021. The Horn of Africa (or, Somali Peninsula) is a peninsula of Eastern Africa.
  4. ^ Brock Millman (2013). British Somaliland An Administrative History, 1920–1960. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-317-97544-1.
  5. ^ Robert Stock, Africa South of the Sahara, Second Edition: A Geographical Interpretation, (The Guilford Press; 2004), p. 26
  6. ^ "The Horn of Africa - Its Strategic Importance for Europe, the Gulf States, and Beyond". CIRSD. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  7. ^ John I. Saeed, Somali – Volume 10 of London Oriental and African language library, (J. Benjamins: 1999), p. 250.
  8. ^ Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1: "The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia. These countries share similar peoples, languages, and geographical endowments."
  9. ^ "Horn of Africa". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  10. ^ "Three important oil trade chokepoints are located around the Arabian Peninsula - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Archived from the original on 2 April 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  11. ^ "Red Sea chokepoints are critical for international oil and natural gas flows - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Archived from the original on 5 April 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  12. ^ "Horn of Africa | Countries, Map, & Facts | Britannica". Archived from the original on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  13. ^ "the Chairman of DPFZA and CEO of Red Sea Bunkering signed an investment with Afreximbank | DPFZA". Archived from the original on 2 April 2024. Retrieved 22 January 2024.
  14. ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, (Cambridge University Press: 1977), p.190
  15. ^ a b George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, Agatharchides, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhidēs "On the Erythraean Sea", (Hakluyt Society: 1980), p.83
  16. ^ a b John I. Saeed, Somali – Volume 10 of London Oriental and African language library, (J. Benjamins: 1999), p. 250.
  17. ^ Ciise, Jaamac Cumar. Taariikhdii daraawiishta iyo Sayid Maxamad Cabdille Xasan, 1895–1920. JC Ciise, 2005.
  18. ^ a b Teklehaimanot, Hailay Kidu. "A Mobile Based Tigrigna Language Learning Tool." International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM) 9.2 (2015): 50–53.
  19. ^ a b c Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbaek; Kimathi, Leah; Owiso, Michael Omondi (13 May 2019). Refugees and Forced Migration in the Horn and Eastern Africa: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities. Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-03721-5.
  20. ^ a b Sandra Fullerton Joireman, Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa, (Universal-Publishers: 1997), p.1: "The Horn of Africa encompasses the countries of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia. These countries share similar peoples, languages, and geographical endowments."
  21. ^ Felter, Claire (1 February 2018). "Somaliland: The Horn of Africa's Breakaway State". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2021. It covers approximately two million square kilometers (770,000 square miles) and is inhabited by roughly 115 million people (Ethiopia: 110 million, Somalia: 15.8 million, Eritrea: 6.4 million, and Djibouti: 921.8 thousand).
  22. ^ Aweis A Ali (May 2021). "A Brief History of Judaism in the Somali Peninsula". Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 13 August 2022 – via ResearchGate.
  23. ^ "Horn of Africa". 4 June 2021. Archived from the original on 25 October 2022. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  24. ^ "Britannica School". Archived from the original on 25 October 2022. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  25. ^ Eliezer Wangulu (6 September 2007). "Somalia: Africa Insight – Why Talk in Hotels Won't Yield Long Term Peace". The Nation. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2022 – via AllAfrica.
  26. ^ "Horn of Africa". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Archived from the original on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  27. ^ Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa. Boydell & Brewer. 2012. ISBN 978-1-84701-058-2. JSTOR 10.7722/j.ctt1x73f1. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  28. ^ Schreck, Carl J., and Fredrick HM Semazzi. "Variability of the recent climate of eastern Africa." International Journal of Climatology 24.6 (2004): 681–701.
  29. ^ "Somalia | Election, President, News, Capital, & Economy | Britannica". Archived from the original on 22 January 2022. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  30. ^ Regional Integration, Identity and Citizenship in the Greater Horn of Africa. Boydell & Brewer. 2012. ISBN 9781847010582. JSTOR 10.7722/j.ctt1x73f1. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  31. ^ "Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya)". Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
  32. ^ Vidal, Celine M.; Lane, Christine S.; Asfawrossen, Asrat; et al. (January 2022). "Age of the oldest known Homo sapiens from eastern Africa". Nature. 601 (7894): 579–583. Bibcode:2022Natur.601..579V. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04275-8. PMC 8791829. PMID 35022610.
  33. ^ Sahle, Yonatan; Hutchings, W. Karl; Braun, David R.; Sealy, Judith C.; Morgan, Leah E.; Negash, Agazi; Atnafu, Balemwal (13 November 2013). "Earliest Stone-Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift Date to >279,000 Years Ago". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e78092. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...878092S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078092. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3827237. PMID 24236011.
  34. ^ Cavalazzi, B.; Barbieri, R.; Gómez, F.; Capaccioni, B.; Olsson-Francis, K.; Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.P.; Hickman-Lewis, K.; Agangi, A.; Gasparotto, G.; Glamoclija, M. (1 April 2019). "The Dallol Geothermal Area, Northern Afar (Ethiopia)—An Exceptional Planetary Field Analog on Earth". Astrobiology. 19 (4): 553–578. Bibcode:2019AsBio..19..553C. doi:10.1089/ast.2018.1926. ISSN 1531-1074. PMC 6459281. PMID 30653331.
  35. ^ Maslin, Mark (18 January 2017). The Cradle of Humanity: How the changing landscape of Africa made us so smart. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-100971-6. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  36. ^ Walter RC, Buffler RT, Bruggemann JH, et al. (May 2000). "Early human occupation of the Red Sea coast of Eritrea during the last interglacial". Nature. 405 (6782): 65–9. Bibcode:2000Natur.405...65W. doi:10.1038/35011048. PMID 10811218. S2CID 4417823.
  37. ^ David B. Grigg (1974). The Agricultural Systems of the World. C.U.P. p. 66. ISBN 9780521098434. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  38. ^ Engels, J. M. M.; Hawkes, J. G.; Worede, M. (21 March 1991). Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521384568. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2020 – via Google Books.
  39. ^ Ehret, Christopher (20 June 2023). Ancient Africa: A Global History, to 300 CE. Princeton University Press. pp. 97, 167. ISBN 978-0-691-24410-5. Archived from the original on 15 July 2023. Retrieved 22 December 2023.
  40. ^ Simson Najovits, Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2, (Algora Publishing: 2004), p.258.
  41. ^ Pankhurst, Richard K.P. Addis Tribune, "Let's Look Across the Red Sea I", 17 January 2003 ( mirror copy)
  42. ^ Phoenicia, pg. 199.
  43. ^ Rose, Jeanne, and John Hulburd, The Aromatherapy Book, p. 94.
  44. ^ Vine, Peter, Oman in History, p. 324.
  45. ^ David D. Laitin, Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, (Westview Press: 1987), p. 15.
  46. ^ I.M. Lewis, A modern history of Somalia: nation and state in the Horn of Africa, 2nd edition, revised, illustrated, (Westview Press: 1988), p.20
  47. ^ Brons, Maria (2003), Society, Security, Sovereignty and the State in Somalia: From Statelessness to Statelessness?, p. 116.
  48. ^ Morgan, W. T. W. (1969), East Africa: Its Peoples and Resources, p. 18.
  49. ^ Nehemia Levtzion; Randall Pouwels (2000). The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8214-4461-0. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  50. ^ Shaping of Somali Society pg 101
  51. ^ Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800–1900 (African Studies) by Pouwels, Randall L.. pg 15
  52. ^ Erlikh, Hagai (2000). The Nile Histories, Cultures, Myths. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 41. ISBN 9781555876722. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 19 December 2023.
  53. ^ Hassen, Mohammed. Oromo of Ethiopia with special emphasis on the Gibe region (PDF). University of London. p. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 4 November 2023.
  54. ^ Ian Mortimer, The Fears of Henry IV (2007), p. 111
  55. ^ Beshah & Aregay (1964), pp. 13–14.
  56. ^ Beshah & Aregay (1964), p. 25.
  57. ^ Beshah & Aregay (1964), pp. 45–52.
  58. ^ Beshah & Aregay (1964), pp. 91, 97–104.
  59. ^ Beshah & Aregay (1964), p. 105.
  60. ^ van Donzel, Emeri, "Fasilädäs" in Siegbert Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 500.
  61. ^ Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles, (London:Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 139–43.
  62. ^ I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p. 157.
  63. ^ "Taariikhda Beerta Suldaan Cabdilaahi ee Hargeysa |". Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  64. ^ Genealogies of the Somal. Eyre and Spottiswoode (London). 1896.
  65. ^ "Taariikhda Saldanada Reer Guuleed Ee Somaliland.Abwaan:Ibraahim-rashiid Cismaan Guure (aboor). | Togdheer News Network". Archived from the original on 11 January 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  66. ^ "Degmada Cusub Ee Dacarta Oo Loogu Wanqalay Munaasibad Kulmisay Madaxda Iyo Haldoorka Somaliland". Hubaal Media. 7 October 2017. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  67. ^ "Taariikhda Toljecle". Archived from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  68. ^ Taariikhda Boqortooyadii Axmed Sheikh Isaxaaq ee Toljecle 1787, archived from the original on 15 August 2021, retrieved 15 August 2021
  69. ^ NEW ISSUES IN REFUGEE RESEARCH Working Paper No. 65 Pastoral society and transnational refugees: population movements in Somaliland and eastern Ethiopia 1988 – 2000 Guido Ambroso, Table 1, pg.5
  70. ^ Horn of Africa, Volume 15, Issues 1–4, (Horn of Africa Journal: 1997), p.130.
  71. ^ Michigan State University. African Studies Center, Northeast African studies, Volumes 11–12, (Michigan State University Press: 1989), p.32.
  72. ^ Istituto italo-africano, Africa: rivista trimestrale di studi e documentazione, Volume 56, (Edizioni africane: 2001), p.591.
  73. ^ Helen Chapin Metz, Somalia: a country study, (The Division: 1993), p.10.
  74. ^ Tesfagiorgis, Gebre Hiwet (1993). Emergent Eritrea: challenges of economic development. The Red Sea Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-932415-91-2. Archived from the original on 16 February 2023. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  75. ^ Regions of Eritrea Archived 12 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine (accessed 17 November 2009)
  76. ^ "Eritrea – The spreading revolution". Encyclopædia Britannica Article. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
  77. ^ Eritrea orders Westerners in UN mission out in 10 days Archived 19 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. International Herald Tribune. 7 December 2005
  78. ^ Raph Uwechue, Africa year book and who's who, (Africa Journal Ltd.: 1977), p.209.
  79. ^ Hugh Chisholm (ed.), The encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information, Volume 25, (At the University press: 1911), p.383.
  80. ^ A Political Chronology of Africa, (Taylor & Francis), p.132.
  81. ^ a b c Barrington, Lowell, After Independence: Making and Protecting the Nation in Postcolonial and Postcommunist States, (University of Michigan Press: 2006), p.115
  82. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 360.
  83. ^ I.M. Lewis, The modern history of Somaliland: from nation to state, (Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 1965), p. 78
  84. ^ Thomas P. Ofcansky, Historical dictionary of Ethiopia, (The Scarecrow Press, Inc.: 2004), p.405
  85. ^ Samatar, Said Sheikh (1982). Oral Poetry and Somali Nationalism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 131& 135. ISBN 978-0-521-23833-5.
  86. ^ Greystone Press Staff, The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, (Greystone Press: 1967), p.338.
  87. ^ Benjamin Frankel, The Cold War, 1945–1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World, (Gale Research: 1992), p.306.
  88. ^ Oihe Yang, Africa South of the Sahara 2001, 30th Ed., (Taylor and Francis: 2000), p.1025.
  89. ^ Lacey, Marc (5 June 2006). "The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia". New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
  90. ^ "Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  91. ^ a b "Somalia: UN Envoy Says Inauguration of New Parliament in Somalia 'Historic Moment'". Forum on China-Africa Cooperation. 21 August 2012. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  92. ^ "Guidebook to the Somali Draft Provisional Constitution". Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  93. ^ a b John Young. "Regionalism and Democracy in Ethiopia" Third World Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2 (June 1998) pp. 192
  94. ^ the people subjugated and incorporated were the Oromo, Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta and other groups. International Crisis Group. "Ethiopia: Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents" Africa Report No. 153, (4 September 2009) pp. 2
  95. ^ Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897–1910: Competition for Empire Edward C. Keefer, International Journal of African Studies Vol. 6 No. 3 (1973) page 470
  96. ^ Negash (2005), pp. 13–14.
  97. ^ a b Negash (2005), p. 14.
  98. ^ Negash (2005), p. 14, and ICG "Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents" pp 2; Italy lost over 4.600 nationals in this battle.
  99. ^ Clapham, Christopher, "Ḫaylä Śəllase" in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pp. 1062–3.
  100. ^ "Man of the Year". TIME. 6 January 1936. Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  101. ^ Clapham, "Ḫaylä Śəllase", Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, p. 1063.
  102. ^ Dagne, Haile Gabriel (2006). The commitment of the German Democratic Republic in Ethiopia: a study based on Ethiopian sources. Münster, London: Lit; Global. ISBN 978-3-8258-9535-8.
  103. ^ "Core Principles of Ethiopia's Foreign Policy: Ethiopia-Yemen relations". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  104. ^ "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Range Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  105. ^ "Oil and Gas Exploration and Production – Playing a Better Hand" (PDF). Range Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  106. ^ Marco Stoppato, Alfredo Bini (2003). Deserts. Firefly Books. pp. 160–163. ISBN 978-1552976692. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  107. ^ Facts On File, Incorporated (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1438126760. Archived from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  108. ^ Hadden, Robert Lee. 2007. "The Geology of Somalia: A Selected Bibliography of Somalian Geology, Geography and Earth Science." Engineer Research and Development Laboratories, Topographic Engineering Center
  109. ^ [email protected] (31 January 2009). "Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus,, ed. N. Stromberg". Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  110. ^ Sara Pantuliano and Sara Pavanello (2009) Taking drought into account Addressing chronic vulnerability among pastoralists in the Horn of Africa Archived 7 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Overseas Development Institute
  111. ^ "22 million people at risk of hunger in horn of Africa due to drought". Africanews. 31 January 2023. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  112. ^ "Horn of Africa. Death grip" (in Italian). L'Osservatore Romano. 17 January 2023. Archived from the original on 23 February 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  113. ^ Katsuyoshi Fukui; John Markakis (1994). Ethnicity & Conflict in the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-85255-225-4.
  114. ^ "Languages – Summary by country". 19 February 1999. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  115. ^ "Languages of Ethiopia". Ethnologue. SIL International. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  116. ^ "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  117. ^ "Ethnologue – Mushungulu". 19 February 1999. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  118. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and customs of Somalia. Greenwood. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-313-31333-2.
  119. ^ Rodolfo Fattovich, "Akkälä Guzay" in Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p. 169.
  120. ^ Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somalia, The writing of the Somali language, (Ministry of Information and National Guidance: 1974), p.5
  121. ^ Dictionary of African Biography: Abach – Brand, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. 2012. p. 357. ISBN 978-0195382075. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  122. ^ Aparna Rao; Michael Bollig; Monika Böck (2007). The Practice of War: Production, Reproduction and Communication of Armed Violence. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-280-3. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  123. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 14 September 2006. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  124. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 14 September 2006. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  125. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 14 September 2006. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  126. ^ "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  127. ^ a b c d Pavanello, Sara 2010. [1] Archived 12 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas Development Institute
  128. ^ Regulating the Livestock Economy of Somaliland. Academy for Peace and Development. 2002. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  129. ^ Project, War-torn Societies; Programme, WSP Transition (2005). Rebuilding Somaliland: Issues and Possibilities. Red Sea Press. ISBN 978-1-56902-228-3. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  130. ^ A Self-portrait of Somaliland: Rebuilding from the Ruins. Somaliland Centre for Peace and Development. 1999. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 1 September 2021.


  • Beshah, Girma; Aregay, Merid Wolde (1964). The Question of the Union of the Churches in Luso-Ethiopian Relations (1500–1632). Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar and Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos.
  • Cana, Frank Richardson (1911). "Somaliland" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). pp. 378–384.
  • Negash, Tekeste (2005). Eritrea and Ethiopia: the Federal Experience. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Archived from the original on 22 May 2024. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  • Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African History. CRC Press.

External links

09°N 48°E / 9°N 48°E / 9; 48

This page was last edited on 2 June 2024, at 16:14
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.