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Hoklo Americans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hokkien/Hoklo Americans
河洛美國儂, 閩南美國儂
Hok ló bí kok lâng, Hok kiàn bí kok lâng
Total population
70,000–200,000 (Taiwanese) (2009)
Regions with significant populations
California, New York City
American English, Hokkien, Teochew, Mandarin
Buddhism, Taoism, Syncretism, Christianity, Confucianism, Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Hoklo people, Chinese Americans, Taiwanese Americans

Hokkien, Hoklo (Holo), and Minnan people are found in the United States. The Hoklo people are a Han Chinese subgroup with ancestral roots in Southern Fujian and Eastern Guangdong, particularly around the modern prefecture-level cities of Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, Xiamen and Chaoshan area.They are also known by various endonyms (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-ló-lâng / Hō-ló-lâng / Ho̍h-ló-lâng / Hô-ló-lâng), or other related terms such as Hoklo people (河洛儂), Banlam (Minnan) people (閩南儂; Bân-lâm-lâng), Hokkien people (福建儂; Hok-kiàn-lâng) or Teochew people (潮州人;Tiê-tsiu-lâng). These people usually also have roots in the Hokkien diaspora in Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia,[1] Indonesia, Singapore, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia.


Taiwan and Mainland China

Although around 70% of Taiwanese people in Taiwan are Hoklo, there are slightly more Taiwanese Americans who are Mainland Chinese (waishengren) most of whom are not Hoklo.[2][3] Furthermore, Hoklo and Hakka Han people who have roots in Taiwan from before 1945 (benshengren) are more likely to identify as "Taiwanese".[4] American Community Survey program of the United States Census Bureau reported that 200,000 Americans identify as "Taiwanese Hoklo people" and 70,000 speak Taiwanese Hokkien at home.

Southeast Asia

The first Indonesians to move to Southern California were Indos (Indonesians of mixed pribumi and European descent).[5] However, the majority of Indonesians who came in the 1960s were of Chinese descent.[6] Unofficial estimates suggest that as many as 50% of the Indonesians in Southern California are of Chinese descent, and around 50% of the ethnic Chinese population in Indonesia is Hoklo.[7]

Chinese Filipinos are one of the largest overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.[8] Sangleys—Filipinos with at least some Chinese ancestry—comprise 18-27% of the Philippine population, totaling up to 30 million people.[9][10] There are approximately 2 million Filipinos with pure Chinese ancestry, or around 2.5% of the population.[11] Minnan peoples are more popularly known as "Hokkienese", or "Southern Fujianese" in English, or Lan-nang, Lán-lâng, Bân-lâm, Minnan in Chinese. The Minnan form 98.7%of all unmixed ethnic Chinese in the Philippines. Of the Minnan peoples, about 75% are from Quanzhou prefecture (specifically, Jinjiang City), 23% are from Zhangzhou prefecture, and 2% are from Xiamen City.[12]

Teochew people and Hainanese people may occasionally be included as Minnan people.[13]


Some coolies and laborers in Hawaii during the 1800s were from southern Fukien.[14] There is a Hoklo cemetery in the Pauoa Valley in Honolulu.

Researchers have looked upon the patterns of immigration of Filipinos to the United States and have recognized four significant waves. The first was connected to the period when the Philippines was part of New Spain and later the Spanish East Indies; Filipinos, via the Manila galleons, would migrate to North America.

The second wave was during the period when the Philippines were a territory of the United States; as U.S. Nationals, Filipinos were unrestricted from immigrating to the US by the Immigration Act of 1917 that restricted other Asians. This wave of immigration has been referred to as the manong generation.[15][16][17] Filipinos of this wave came for different reasons, but the majority were laborers, predominantly Ilocano and Visayan. This wave of immigration was distinct from other Asian Americans, due to American influences, and education, in the Philippines; thefore they did not see themselves as aliens when they immigrated to the United States.[18] During the Great Depression, Filipino Americans were also affected, losing jobs, and being the target of race based violence.[19] This wave of immigration ended due to the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, which restricted immigration to 50 persons a year.

Some Hokkien people in the Philippines adopted Spanish-style surnames, many of which ended with "-co" (Chinese: 哥; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ko / koh), which means "older brother", a term used by Hokkien Filipinos to address each other. Some of these surnames were also brought to America.[20]

Hoklo Taiwanese people are about 70% of the population of Taiwan, but the first wave of Taiwanese immigrants to America were mostly Mainland Chinese, most of whom were not Hoklo. Hoklo people started immigrating in larger numbers after the 1960s.[21]

Notable people


  1. ^ Simon J. Bronner, Cindy Dell Clark (ed.). Youth Cultures in America [2 volumes]. p. 652.
  2. ^ Ng, Franklin (1998). The Taiwanese Americans. Greenwood.
  3. ^ Linda Gail Arrigo. "Patterns of Personal and Political Life Among Taiwanese-Americans" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  4. ^ Lai, Him Mark. Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. p. 245.
  5. ^ Cunningham 2009, p. 97
  6. ^ Yang 2001, p. 899
  7. ^ 2009, p. 95
  8. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  9. ^ "Sangley, Intsik und Sino : die chinesische Haendlerminoritaet in den Philippine". Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  10. ^ "The ethnic Chinese variable in domestic and foreign policies in Malaysia and Indonesia" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-23.
  11. ^ "Senate declares Chinese New Year as special working holiday". Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  12. ^ Ng, Maria; Philip Holden (1 September 2006). Reading Chinese transnationalisms: society, literature, film. Hong Kong University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-962-209-796-4.
  13. ^ "China Expat - Chinese Cultural Observations From The Western Perspective -". China Expat - Chinese Cultural Observations From The Western Perspective.
  14. ^ "The First Chinese Contract Laborers in Hawaii, 1852" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  15. ^ "Filipino American History". Northern California Pilipino American Student Organization. California State University, Chico. January 29, 1998. Retrieved June 7, 2011. These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines.
  16. ^ "Learn about our culture". Filipino Student Association. Saint Louis University. Retrieved June 7, 2011. These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines.
  17. ^ Jackson, Yo (2006). Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-4129-0948-8. Retrieved June 7, 2011. Included in this group were Pensionados, Sakadas, Alaskeros, and Manongs primarily from the Illocos and Visayas regions. "
  18. ^ Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 450. ISBN 978-0-19-515377-4. Retrieved April 27, 2011. They were, however, officially under the protection of the United States, which governed the Philippines, and herein they took a distinctive characteristics. First of all, they had been inculcated in the Philippines, through the American-sponsored education system and through the general point of view of a colonial society strongly under American influence, in the belief that all men were created equal, in fact and under the law, and that included them. Second, they spoke English, excellently in many cases, thanks once again to the American sponsored educational system in the Philippines. Filipino migrant workers did not see themselves as aliens. "
  19. ^ Austin, Joe; Michael Willard (1998). Generations of youth: youth cultures and history in twentieth-century America. New York: NYU Press. pp. 118–135. ISBN 978-0-8147-0646-6. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  20. ^ Woo Louie, Emma. Chinese American Names: Tradition and Transition. p. 41.
  21. ^ Lai, Him Mark. Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. p. 243
  22. ^ "Baiyu releases new EP - Asian American Press".
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ "Protected Blog › Log in".
  25. ^ a b Chua, Amy (2011). Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. Penguin Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59420-284-1.
  26. ^ "陈志坚当选美国科学院院士" (in Chinese). Fujian Association for Science and Technology. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  27. ^ "My life: Janet Hsieh". Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  28. ^ a b Chinese Americans: The History and Culture of a People


  • Yang, Eveline (2001), "Indonesian Americans", in Lehman, Jeffrey, Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, 2 (second ed.), Gale Group, pp. 897–905, ISBN 978-0-7876-3986-0
  • Barnes, Jessica S.; Bennett, Claudette E. (February 2002), The Asian Population: 2000 (PDF), U.S. Census 2000, U.S. Department of Commerce, retrieved 2009-09-30
  • Cunningham, Clark E. (2009), "Unity and Diversity among Indonesian Migrants to the United States", in Ling, Huping, Emerging Voices: Experiences of Underrepresented Asian Americans, Rutgers University Press, pp. 90–125, ISBN 978-0-8135-4342-0
  • Sukmana, Damai (January 2009), "Game of Chance: Chinese Indonesians Play Asylum Roulette in the United States", Inside Indonesia, 95, ISSN 0814-1185, retrieved 31 January 2010
  • Ding, Picus Sizhi, Southern Min (Hokkien) as a Migrating Language, Springer, 2016
  • Brown, Melissa J., Is Taiwan Chinese?: The Impact of Culture, Power, and Migration on Changing Identities (Berkeley Series in Interdisciplinary Studies of China), University of California Press, 2004
  • edited by Robin M Boylorn, Mark P Orbe, Critical Autoethnography: Intersecting Cultural Identities in Everyday Life, Routledge, 2013
This page was last edited on 15 June 2020, at 18:20
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