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History of the Poles in Baltimore

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of the Poles in Baltimore dates back to the late 19th century. The Polish community is largely centered in the neighborhoods of Canton, Fell's Point, Locust Point, and Highlandtown. The Poles are the largest Slavic ethnic group in the city and one of the largest European ethnic groups.

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This RealLifeLore video is sponsored by the upcoming film, An Inconvenient Sequel. You've probably heard news, at some point in your life, that the Earth is warming, and as result is that the Arctic ice is melting. There is no debate that Earth is warming up. The planet's average temperature as increased 1.1 °C since 1880. And 16 out of the 17 of the hottest years, ever on record, have been since 2001. NASA estimates there is 95% probability that this current warming is a direct result of human activities since the mid 20th century And 97/100 active publishing climate scientists agree that human activity is extremely likely to blame As a result of this, ice around the world is melting and raising the planet's sea level The oceans already rose 6 cm during the course of the 19th century. But they rose by 19 cm during the 20th century, over 3 times faster than they rose in the previous century. NOAA estimates that global sea level could rise by up to 2.5 meters by the year 2100. Which would have devastating consequences. If this happens entire island countries like the Maldives, Marshall Islands Kiribati, and Tuvalu would be submerged beneath the ocean and cease to exist Their entire population has to be transplanted somewhere else And this will create a situation in which hundreds of thousands of state-less people would find a new home 150 million total climate refugees from around the world may exist by 2050, and by 2100 that number could rise to 2 billion people 18% of the global population at that time. But in an even worse case scenario than this, however what would happen if all the ice on earth melted? If all the ice on Antarctica, Greenland, and the world glaciers melted in to the ocean it would rise global sea level by an incredible 68.3 meters Such a catastrophe would take 5,000 years of the current rate of the ice melting to happen, but it would severely alter the geography of our planet, in North America, Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, and most of San Diego, and Los Angeles would be underwater. San Francisco would be an island and San Jose would be destroyed by the waves. The San Francisco Bay would greatly expand in size, to completely swallow Sacremento. The Gulf of California would expand so far North, that Palm Springs would become a coastal city. While on the Atlantic Coast, the ocean would expand to swallow the cities of Corpus Christi, Houston, New Orleans, the entire state of Florida, as well as the entire state of Delaware, almost all of Long Island, and the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington D.C., and Boston. South America would also be severely flooded with two new inland seas existing on the continent. And the cities of Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and Rio de Janeiro, would all be underwater. Europe would be one of the most devastated areas of the world. The entire country of the Netherlands would be underwater. And so would nearly all of Denmark and half of Belgium. The British Isles will become more of an archipelago. And London would be TOTALLY buried beneath the sea. And Northern Germany would also be entirely underwater including the city of Berlin. And Venice in Italy would be long since be claimed by the Adriatic Sea. Istanbul would also be underwater. The Crimean Peninsula would become the Crimean Island. And the Black and Caspian Seas would be connected with one another. Which would mean that Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan, would no longer be landlocked countries. Africa would be perhaps the least severely effected continent. But Egypt would be severely damaged by having both Alexandria and Cairo going underwater The Persian Gulf, meanwhile, would swallow the entire the entire countries of Qatar, and Bahrain, and the city of Baghdad. India and Pakistan would be badly damaged. But the entire country of Bangladesh would cease to exist in this catastrophe. Hundreds of millions of people would be underwater in China, including Beijing and Shanghai. In addition to the cities of Seoul, Pyongyang, and Tokyo. Australia would be home to a new inland sea. And finally, Antarctica would become more of an archipelago. But unlike the Antarctica of today, this Antarctica would likely be habitable and easily colonize-able by future humans. So what can we do to prevent this nightmare future from happening? Reducing humanity's usage of fossil fuels is perhaps the best way of mitigating our warming climate.These following countries produce At least 75% of their power from renewable energy resources, like solar, wind, hydro-power. Global investments in renewable energy rose by 57% between 2008 and 2015. The European Union alone more than doubled it's renewable energy production between 2000 and 2013. And recently 195 different countries signed the Paris Climate Accord in which they all agreed to cooperate in combating global warming. While the stakes have never been higher, we are close to seeing a true energy revolution. If you want to learn more about climate change, or want to take action yourself, then I strongly encourage you to go watch the upcoming film, "An Inconvenient Sequel". Watching the film is taking action, and it goes into far more depth than I ever could in a short YouTube video. The film will be released in New York and Los Angles on July 28th and will be released nation-wide on August 4th. Please go to the description below for more detail. Be inconvenient. *Narrator in trailer talking about global warming* If you enjoyed what you just watched, then I hope you'll subscribe to my channel for future videos by clicking here (windmill icon) You can visit my Patreon if you'd like to support my channel directly and receive some cool rewards And I hope to see you next Friday for another RealLifeLore video then

Contents

Demographics

In 1880, Poles made up a small portion of the foreign-born population of Baltimore at 1% of all foreign born residents. 16.9% (56,354) of Baltimore was foreign born, 563 of them Polish.[1]

In 1920, 11,083 foreign-born White people in Baltimore spoke the Polish language, making Polish the most widely spoken Slavic or Eastern European language in the city.[2]

In 1940, approximately 34,000 Polish-Americans lived in the state of Maryland, most of them in Baltimore.[3] In the same year, 8,862 immigrants from Poland lived in Baltimore. These immigrants comprised 14.2% of the city's foreign-born white population.[4] In total, 21,175 people of Polish birth or descent lived in the city, comprising 15.2% of the foreign-stock white population.[5]

The Polish community in the Baltimore metropolitan area numbered 122,814 as of 2000, making up 4.8 percent of the area's population.[6] In the same year Baltimore city's Polish population was 18,400, 2.8% of the city's population.[7]

In 2013, an estimated 15,828 Polish-Americans resided in Baltimore city, 2.5% of the population.[8]

As of September 2014, immigrants from Poland were the eighteenth largest foreign-born population in Baltimore and the Polish language was the eleventh most commonly spoken language, after English.[9]

History

19th century

Holy Rosary Church in Upper Fell's Point, January 2016.
Holy Rosary Church in Upper Fell's Point, January 2016.

The first Polish immigrants to Baltimore settled in the Fell's Point neighborhood in 1868. Polish mass immigration to Baltimore and other U.S. cities first started around 1870, many of whom were fleeing the Franco-Prussian War.[10] Many of the Polish immigrants came from agricultural regions of Poland and were often considered unskilled workers. Many worked as stevedores for Baltimore's International Longshoremen's Association. Other Polish immigrants worked in the canneries, some travelling to the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Mississippi to work in the seafood canneries during the winter months. After the abolition of slavery, farmers had lost their slaves and wanted a cheap source of labor. Following changes in U.S. immigration laws many Central and Eastern European migrants, particularly Polish and Czech, came to Maryland to fill this need. These changes also affected other nations.[11]

The majority of the Polish immigrants were Roman Catholics. The first Polish-Catholic parish to be formed was the St. Stanislaus Kostka church, which was organized in 1880. The Holy Rosary Church parish was founded in 1887. However, many were Polish Jews. Polish Jews helped found the B'nai Israel Synagogue in 1873.[12]

The first Polish language newspaper in Baltimore, titled Polonia, began publication in 1891.[13]

By 1893, the Polish population was starting to become the backbone of Baltimore's laboring class. 1,500 were arriving in Baltimore annually and by 1893 there were 23,000 Polish-Americans living in the city.[14]

20th century

Polish migrant berry pickers in Baltimore, 1909.
Polish migrant berry pickers in Baltimore, 1909.

The St. Casimir Church parish was established in 1902. St. Casimir's current building was constructed in 1927. Less than a year later, Holy Rosary Church built its current residence.

During the early years of the 20th century the Polish population became more established in Baltimore. The Polish community established ethnic clubs, Polish-language newspapers, and create their own savings and loans societies. By 1910, Eastern Avenue in Baltimore was known as the Polish Wall Street of Baltimore.[15]

In the years prior to World War I, the Polish population in Baltimore ranked seventh largest in the United States.[16]

Baltimore's Poles first gained political representation in 1923, when Edward I. Novak was elected to the Baltimore City Council for the city's 3rd ward.[17]

In 1925, the Polish community of Curtis Bay established the Polish Home Hall in order to serve as a community center for the Polish community.

In the census of 1960, Polish-Americans comprised 15.2% of Baltimore's population. The Polish-born was a percentage of the total foreign-born population was 62.6% in Fell's Point, 38.5% in Locust Point, and 74.7% in Southeast Baltimore.[18]

Ze Mean Bean Café in Fell's Point opened in 1995. It is a restaurant which offers Polish cuisine, as well as other Slavic and Eastern European fare.[19]

In 2000, Baltimore's Polish community funded the creation of the National Katyń Memorial at Inner Harbor East. The monument is meant to memorialize the victims of the Katyn massacre.

21st century

Krakus Polish Deli in Fell's Point, June 2014.
Krakus Polish Deli in Fell's Point, June 2014.

The Polish community has declined in numbers over the years, but there is still a strong Polish presence. The Polish National Alliance is located in Baltimore and maintains an archive of several thousand documents in the Polish language. There are a number of Polish delis and restaurants still in operation, such as Krakus Deli, Polock Johnny's, Ostrowski of Bank Street, and Ze Mean Bean Café.

In 2011, Baltimore's long-running Polish festival left Baltimore after 37 years of being held there; the festival was relocated to Lutherville-Timonium. According to The Baltimore Sun, the move was due to the shrinking size of the Polish community in Baltimore.[20] The organizers of the annual Polish festival in Baltimore, The Polish Community Association of Maryland (PCAM), provide an alternate reason for moving the festival out of the city: the city sharply increased fees for space rental and services, and mandated expensive insurance coverages be provided by the organizers.[21]

The National Slavic Museum opened in 2012. The museum focuses on the Slavic history of Baltimore, including Baltimore's Polish history.[22]

Little Poland

At the Polish Table in Joseph Lee, Baltimore, January, 2015.
At the Polish Table in Joseph Lee, Baltimore, January, 2015.

The Polish community is Southeast Baltimore is sometimes referred to affectionately as Little Poland.[23]

Notable Polish-Americans from Baltimore

Barbara Mikulski, the senior United States Senator from Maryland, a former United States Representative, the longest-serving female senator, and the longest-serving woman in the history of the U.S. Congress.
Barbara Mikulski, the senior United States Senator from Maryland, a former United States Representative, the longest-serving female senator, and the longest-serving woman in the history of the U.S. Congress.
  • Rafael Alvarez, an author based in Baltimore and Los Angeles.
  • Cecylia Barczyk, a Polish-born cellist.
  • Tzvi Berkowitz, an Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and lecturer at Yeshivas Ner Yisroel.
  • Mike Bielecki, a former professional baseball player who pitched in the Major Leagues for five different teams.
  • Dick Bielski, a former professional American football player and coach
  • Kendel Ehrlich, former First Lady of Maryland, having served from 2003 to 2007 during the administration of Maryland Gov. Robert Ehrlich.
  • Henry Einspruch, a Polish-born Messianic missionary affiliated with the Hebrew-Christian movement who translated the Christian New Testament into Yiddish.
  • Aharon Feldman, an Orthodox Jewish rabbi and rosh yeshiva (dean) of Yeshivas Ner Yisroel (Ner Israel Rabbinical College) in Baltimore.
  • Philip H. Goodman, 42nd Mayor of the City of Baltimore and a member of the Maryland Senate.
  • Arthur Hertzberg, a Conservative rabbi and prominent Jewish-American scholar and activist.
  • Hank Kazmierski, a retired American soccer forward.
  • Greg Kihn, a rock musician, radio personality, and novelist.
  • Carolyn J. Krysiak, a politician who represented the 46th legislative district in the Maryland House of Delegates.
  • Barbara Mikulski, the senior United States Senator from Maryland and a member of the Democratic Party, serving since 1987.
  • Ric Ocasek, a musician and music producer best known as lead vocalist for the rock band The Cars.
  • Joseph C. Palczynski, a spree killer in the suburbs of Baltimore who terrorized residents in March 2000.
  • William Rosenau, a leader of Reform Judaism in the beginning of the twentieth century in the United States.
  • Carroll Rosenbloom, a businessman who was owner of the Baltimore Colts and the Los Angeles Rams.
  • Edward Rowny, a U.S. Army general and an ambassador.
  • Mitchell T. Rozanski, a prelate of the Roman Catholic Church serving as the Bishop of the Diocese of Springfield, Massachusetts.
  • Maggie Sajak, a country singer.
  • Leon Uris, a novelist known for his historical fiction.
  • Albert Warner, a Polish-born Jewish-American film executive who was one of the founders of Warner Bros. Studios.
  • Harry Warner, a Polish-born Jewish-American studio executive, one of the founders of Warner Bros., and a major contributor to the development of the film industry.
  • Jack L. Warner, a Canadian-born Jewish-American film executive who was the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios.
  • Sam Warner, a Polish-born Jewish-American film producer who was the co-founder and chief executive officer of Warner Bros. Studios.
  • Carolyn Wasilewski, a 14-year-old victim of an unsolved murder that made national headlines.
  • Leo Wolman, a noted economist whose work focused on labor economics.

Fictional Polish-Americans from Baltimore

See also

References

  1. ^ "Baltimore East/South Clifton Park Historic District (B-5077)" (PDF). National Registry of Historic Places. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  2. ^ Carpenter, Niles (1927). Immigrants and their children, 1920. A study based on census statistics relative to the foreign born and the native white of foreign or mixed parentage. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. p. 380. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
  3. ^ American Guide Series (1940). Maryland: A Guide to the Old Line State. United States: Federal Writers' Project. OCLC 814094.
  4. ^ Durr, Kenneth D. (1998). "Why we are troubled": white working-class politics in Baltimore, 1940-1980. Washington, D.C.: American University. p. 23. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  5. ^ Durr, Kenneth D. (1998). "Why we are troubled": white working-class politics in Baltimore, 1940-1980. Washington, D.C.: American University. p. 142. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  6. ^ "Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000" (PDF). 2000 United States Census. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  7. ^ "Social Statistics Baltimore, Maryland". Infoplease. Retrieved 2014-12-05.
  8. ^ "2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. Retrieved 2015-03-17.
  9. ^ "The Role of Immigrants in Growing Baltimore: Recommendations to Retain and Attract New Americans" (PDF). WBAL-TV. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2014-10-31.
  10. ^ "The Polish Immigrant and the Catholic Church in America". PolishRoots. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  11. ^ "John Slebzak, Page One". Lewis Hine Project. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  12. ^ Fred Shoken. "A History of the B'nai Israel Congregation of Baltimore City". Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  13. ^ Hollowak, Thomas L. (1992). Baltimore's Polish Language Newspapers: Historical and Genealogical Abstracts, 1891-1925. Baltimore, Maryland: Historyk Press. ISBN 1-8871-2401-2.
  14. ^ Belfoure and Hayward, Charles, Mary Ellen (2001). The Baltimore Rowhouse. New York, N.Y.: Princeton Architectural Press. p. 198. ISBN 1-56898-283-6. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  15. ^ Hayward, Mary Ellen (2004). The Architecture of Baltimore: An Illustrated History. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-8018-7806-3. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  16. ^ Chorzempa, Rosemary A. (1993). Polish Roots. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Pub. Co. p. 35. ISBN 0-806-31378-1. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  17. ^ Miller, Randall M. (2009). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Daily Life in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 140. ISBN 9780313065361. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  18. ^ Durr, Kenneth D. (2003). Behind the Backlash: White Working-Class Politics in Baltimore, 1940-1980. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. p. 225. ISBN 0-8078-2764-9. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  19. ^ "Baltimore's Favorite Old World Restaurant Debuts Hot New Look Inspired by Three Generations of Family-Owned Ze Mean Bean Café". Marketwired. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
  20. ^ "No Polish festival this year for shrinking Fells Point community". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2012-08-26.
  21. ^ P.C.A.M. presents Maryland's Polish Festival, The Polish Community Association of Maryland (PCAM), retrieved 2015-10-06
  22. ^ Pamela Wood (June 16, 2013). "Slavic heritage celebrated at museum dedication". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2014-10-31.
  23. ^ "An olde-world craft? Of course you can cut it". Baltimore Guide. Retrieved 2014-05-12.

Further reading

  • Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Tombstone inscriptions of Holy Rosary Church Cemetery, Baltimore County, Maryland, Baltimore County Genealogical Society, 1999.
  • Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Tombstone inscriptions of St. Stanislaus Cemetery, Baltimore, Maryland, Baltimore County Genealogical Society, 2002.
  • Haremski, Roman L. The unattached, aged immigrant; a descriptive analysis of the problems experienced in old age by three groups of Poles living apart from their families in Baltimore ..., Washington, D.C., Catholic University of America Press, 1940.
  • Hollowak, Thomas L. A history of Polish longshoremen and their role in the establishment of a union at the port of Baltimore, Historyk Press, 1996.
  • Hollowak, Thomas L. Baltimore's Polonia: A Brief History, Historyk Press, 1995.
  • Przeciszewski, Tadeusz. Past and present problems of Polish ethnic groups in America (analyzed primarily through the example of the Baltimore community), 1975.
  • Davis-White, Jeanne S.; Hollowak, Thomas L. People of Polonia : the 1910 census, ward one, Baltimore City, Maryland, Historyk Press, 1993.
  • Davis-White, Jeanne S.; Hollowak, Thomas L. People of Polonia : the 1910 census, Ward two, Baltimore City, Maryland, Historyk Press, 1994.
  • Davis-White, Jeanne S.; Hollowak, Thomas L. People of Polonia : the 1910 census, ward three, Baltimore City, Maryland, Historyk Press, 1993.

External links

This page was last edited on 15 January 2020, at 15:33
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