History of the Philippines
|History of the Philippines|
The history of the Philippines is known to have begun at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. Homo luzonensis, a species of archaic humans, was present on the island of Luzon at least 67,000 years ago. The earliest known modern human was from the Tabon Caves in Palawan dating about 47,000 years. Negrito groups were the first inhabitants to settle in the prehistoric Philippines. By around 3000 BC, seafaring Austronesians migrated southward from Taiwan.
Scholars generally believe that these social groups eventually developed into various settlements or polities with varying degrees of economic specialization, social stratification, and political organization. Some of these settlements (mostly those located on major river deltas) achieved such a scale of social complexity that some scholars believe they should be considered early states. This includes the predecessors of modern-day population centers such as Manila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu as well as some polities, such as Ma-i, whose possible location is either Mindoro or Laguna.
These polities were either influenced by the Hindu-Buddhist Indian religion, language, culture, literature and philosophy from India through many campaigns from India including the South-East Asia campaign of Rajendra Chola I, Islam from Arabia, or were Sinified tributary states allied to China. These small maritime states flourished from the 1st millennium. These kingdoms traded with what are now called China, India, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The remainder of the settlements were independent barangays allied with one of the larger states. These small states alternated from being part of or being influenced by larger Asian empires like the Ming Dynasty, Majapahit and Brunei or rebelling and waging war against them.
The first recorded visit by Europeans is Ferdinand Magellan's expedition who landed in Homonhon Island, now part of Guiuan, Eastern Samar on March 17, 1521. They lost a battle against the army of Lapulapu, chief of Mactan, where Magellan was killed. Spanish colonialism began with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi's expedition on February 13, 1565, from Mexico. He established the first permanent settlement in Cebu. Much of the archipelago came under Spanish rule, creating the first unified political structure known as the Philippines. Spanish colonial rule saw the introduction of Christianity, the code of law, and the oldest modern university in Asia. The Philippines was ruled under the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain. After this, the colony was directly governed by Spain.
Spanish rule ended in 1898 with Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War. The Philippines then became a territory of the United States. U.S. forces suppressed a revolution led by Emilio Aguinaldo. The United States established the Insular Government to rule the Philippines. In 1907, the elected Philippine Assembly was set up with popular elections. The U.S. promised independence in the Jones Act. The Philippine Commonwealth was established in 1935, as a 10-year interim step prior to full independence. However, in 1942 during World War II, Japan occupied the Philippines. The U.S. military overpowered the Japanese in 1945. The Treaty of Manila in 1946 established the independent Philippine Republic.
Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the country to as early as 709,000 years. Some archeological evidence was found that humans lived in the archipelago 67,000 years ago, with the "Callao Man" of Cagayan and the Angono Petroglyphs in Rizal suggesting the presence of human settlement before the arrival of the Negritos and Austronesian speaking people. Continued excavations in Callao Cave however led to 12 bones from three hominin individuals being identified as a new species named Homo luzonensis. For modern humans, the Tabon remains are the still oldest known at about 47,000 years.
The Negritos were early settlers, but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. They were followed by speakers of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, a branch of the Austronesian language family. The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at 3000-2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia, as well as voyaging further east to reach the Northern Mariana Islands by around 1500 BC. They assimilated the earlier Australo-Melanesian Negritos, resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups that all display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups. Before the expansion out of Taiwan, archaeological, linguistic and genetic evidence had linked Austronesian speakers in Insular Southeast Asia to cultures such as the Hemudu, its successor the Liangzhu and Dapenkeng in Neolithic China.
The most widely accepted theory of the population of the islands is the "Out-of-Taiwan" model that follows the Austronesian expansion during the Neolithic in a series of maritime migrations originating from Taiwan that spread to the islands of the Indo-Pacific; ultimately reaching as far as New Zealand, Easter Island, and Madagascar. Austronesians themselves originated from the Neolithic rice-cultivating pre-Austronesian civilizations of the Yangtze River delta in coastal southeastern China pre-dating the conquest of those regions by the Han Chinese. This includes civilizations like the Liangzhu culture, Hemudu culture, and the Majiabang culture. It connects speakers of the Austronesian languages in a common linguistic and genetic lineage, including the Taiwanese indigenous peoples, Islander Southeast Asians, Chams, Islander Melanesians, Micronesians, Polynesians, and the Malagasy people. Aside from language and genetics, they also share common cultural markers like multihull and outrigger boats, tattooing, rice cultivation, wetland agriculture, teeth blackening, jade carving, betel nut chewing, ancestor worship, and the same domesticated plants and animals (including dogs, pigs, chickens, yams, bananas, sugarcane, and coconuts).
A 2021 genetic study, which examined representatives of 115 indigenous communities, found evidence of at least five independent waves of early human migration. Negrito groups, divided between those in Luzon and those in Mindanao, may come from a single wave and diverged subsequently, or through two separate waves. This likely occurred sometime after 46,000 years ago. Another Negrito migration entered Mindanao sometime after 25,000 years ago. Two early East Asian waves were detected, one most strongly evidenced among the Manobo people who live in inland Mindanao, and the other in the Sama-Bajau and related people of the Sulu archipelago, Zamboanga Peninsula, and Palawan. The admixture found in the Sama people indicates a relationship with the Lua and Mlabri people of mainland Southeast Asia, both peoples being speakers of an Austroasiatic language and reflects a similar genetic signal found in western Indonesia. These happened sometime after 15,000 years ago and 12,000 years ago respectively, around the time the last glacial period was coming to an end. Austronesians, either from Southern China or Taiwan, were found to have come in at least two distinct waves. The first, occurring perhaps between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, brought the ancestors of indigenous groups that today live around the Cordillera Central mountain range. Later migrations brought other Austronesian groups, along with agriculture, and the languages of these recent Austronesian migrants effectively replaced those existing populations. In all cases, new immigrants appear to have mixed to some degree with existing populations. The integration of Southeast Asia into Indian Ocean trading networks around 2,000 years ago also shows some impact, with South Asian genetic signals present within some Sama-Bajau communities. There is also some Papuan migration to Southeast Mindanao as Papuan genetic signatures were detected in the Sangil and Blaan ethnic groups.
By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of peoples: tribal groups, such as the Aetas, Hanunoo, Ilongots and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-gathering and were concentrated in forests; warrior societies, such as the Isneg and Kalinga who practiced social ranking and ritualized warfare and roamed the plains; the petty plutocracy of the Ifugao Cordillera Highlanders, who occupied the mountain ranges of Luzon; and the harbor principalities of the estuarine civilizations that grew along rivers and seashores while participating in trans-island maritime trade. It was also during the first millennium BC that early metallurgy was said to have reached the archipelagos of maritime Southeast Asia via trade with India
Around 300–700 AD, the seafaring peoples of the islands traveling in balangays began to trade with the Indianized kingdoms in the Malay Archipelago and the nearby East Asian principalities, adopting influences from both Buddhism and Hinduism.
Maritime Jade Road
The Maritime Jade Road was initially established by the animist indigenous peoples between the Philippines and Taiwan, and later expanded to cover Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and other countries. Artifacts made from white and green nephrite have been discovered at a number of archeological excavations in the Philippines since the 1930s. The artifacts have been both tools like adzes and chisels, and ornaments such as lingling-o earrings, bracelets and beads. Tens of thousands were found in a single site in Batangas. The jade is said to have originated nearby in Taiwan and is also found in many other areas in insular and mainland Southeast Asia. These artifacts are said to be evidence of long range communication between prehistoric Southeast Asian societies. Throughout history, the Maritime Jade Road has been known as one of the most extensive sea-based trade networks of a single geological material in the prehistoric world, existing for 3,000 years from 2000 BCE to 1000 CE. The operations of the Maritime Jade Road coincided with an era of near absolute peace which lasted for 1,500 years, from from 500 BCE to 1000 CE. During this peaceful pre-colonial period, not a single burial site studied by scholars yielded any osteological proof for violent death. No instances of mass burials were recorded as well, signifying the peaceful situation of the islands. Burials with violent proof were only found from burials beginning in the 15th century, likely due to the newer cultures of expansionism imported from India and China. When the Spanish arrived in the 16th century, they recorded some war-like groups, whose cultures have already been influenced by the imported Indian and Chinese expansionist cultures of the 15th century.
The Sa Huỳnh culture
The Sa Huỳnh culture centered on present-day Vietnam, showed evidence of an extensive trade network. Sa Huỳnh beads were made from glass, carnelian, agate, olivine, zircon, gold and garnet; most of these materials were not local to the region, and were most likely imported. Han dynasty-style bronze mirrors were also found in Sa Huỳnh sites.
Conversely, Sa Huỳnh produced ear ornaments have been found in archaeological sites in Central Thailand, Taiwan (Orchid Island), and in the Philippines, in the Palawan, Tabon Caves. One of the great examples is the Kalanay Cave in Masbate; the artefacts on the site in one of the "Sa Huỳnh-Kalanay" pottery complex sites were dated 400BC–1500 AD. The Maitum anthropomorphic pottery in the Sarangani Province of southern Mindanao is c. 200 AD.
Ambiguity of what is Sa Huỳnh culture puts into question its extent of influence in Southeast Asia. Sa Huỳnh culture is characterized by use of cylindrical or egg-shaped burial jars associated with hat-shaped lids. Using its mortuary practice as a new definition, Sa Huỳnh culture should be geographically restricted across Central Vietnam between Hue City in the north and Nha Trang City in the south. Recent archeological research reveals that the potteries in Kalanay Cave are quite different from those of the Sa Huỳnh but strikingly similar to those in Hoa Diem site, Central Vietnam and Samui Island, Thailand. New estimate dates the artifacts in Kalanay cave to come much later than Sa Huỳnh culture at 200-300 AD. Bio-anthropological analysis of human fossils found also confirmed the colonization of Vietnam by Austronesian people from insular Southeast Asia in, e.g., the Hoa Diem site.
- Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details
- Prehistoric (or Proto-historic) Iron Age Historic Iron Age
Precolonial period (900 AD to 1565) – Independent polities
Also known to a lesser extent as the Pre-Philippines period, is a pre-unification period characterized by many independent states known as polities each with its own history, cultures chieftains and governments distinct from each other. The British Historian Robert Nicholl citing Arab chronicler Al Ya'akubi, had written that on the early years of the 800s, the kingdoms of Muja (Then Pagan Brunei) and Mayd (Kedatuan of Madja-as or Ma-i) waged war against the Chinese Empire. Medieval Indian scholars also referred to the Philippines as "Panyupayana" (The lands surrounded by water).
By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes. The Barangic Phase of history can be noted for its highly mobile nature, with barangays transforming from being settlements and turning into fleets and vice versa, with the wood constantly re-purposed according to the situation. Politics during this era was personality-driven and organization was based on shifting alliances and contested loyalties set in a backdrop of constant inter-polity interactions, both through war and peace.
Legendary accounts often mention the interaction of early Philippine polities with the Srivijaya empire, but there is not much archaeological evidence to definitively support such a relationship. Considerable evidence exists, on the other hand, for extensive trade with the Majapahit empire.
The exact scope and mechanisms of Indian cultural influences on early Philippine polities are still the subject of some debate among Southeast Asian historiographers, but the current scholarly consensus is that there was probably little or no direct trade between India and the Philippines, and Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries, through early Philippine polities' relations with the Hindu Majapahit empire. The Philippine archipelago is thus one of the countries, (others include Afghanistan and Southern Vietnam) just at the outer edge of what is considered the "Greater Indian cultural zone".
The early polities of the Philippine archipelago were typically characterized by a three-tier social structure. Although different cultures had different terms to describe them, this three-tier structure invariably consisted of an apex nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen called "alipin" or "oripun." Among the members of the nobility class were leaders who held the political office of "Datu," which was responsible for leading autonomous social groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". Whenever these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more senior or respected among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu", variedly called a Lakan, Sultan, Rajah, or simply a more senior Datu. Eventually, by the 14th to 16th century, inter-kingdom warfare escalated and population densities across the archipelago was low.
Initial recorded history
During the period of the south Indian Pallava dynasty and the north Indian Gupta Empire, Indian culture spread to Southeast Asia and the Philippines that led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms.
The date inscribed in the oldest Philippine document found so far, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, is 900 AD. From the details of the document, written in Kawi script,i the bearer of a debt, Namwaran, along with his children Lady Angkatan and Bukah, are cleared of a debt by the ruler of Tondo. It is the earliest document that shows the use of mathematics in precolonial Philippine societies. A standard system of weights and measures is demonstrated by the use of precise measurement for gold, and familiarity with rudimentary astronomy is shown by fixing the precise day within the month in relation to the phases of the moon. From the various Sanskrit terms and titles seen in the document, the culture and society of Manila Bay was that of a Hindu–Old Malay amalgamation, similar to the cultures of Java, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra at the time.
There are no other significant documents from this period of precolonial Philippine society and culture until the Doctrina Christiana of the late 16th century, written at the start of the Spanish period in both native Baybayin script and Spanish. Other artifacts with Kawi script and baybayin were found, such as an Ivory seal from Butuan dated to the early 10th-14th centuries and the Calatagan pot with baybayin inscription, dated to not later than early 16th century.
In the years leading up to 1000, there were already several maritime societies existing in the islands but there was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine archipelago. Instead, the region was dotted by numerous semi-autonomous barangays (settlements ranging in size from villages to city-states) under the sovereignty of competing thalassocracies ruled by datus, wangs, rajahs, sultans or lakans. or by upland agricultural societies ruled by "petty plutocrats". A number of states existed alongside the highland societies of the Ifugao and Mangyan. These included:
- the Kingdom of Maynila
- the Kingdom of Taytay in Palawan (mentioned by Antonio Pigafetta to be where they resupplied when the remaining ships escaped Cebu after Magellan was slain)
- the Chieftaincy of Coron Island ruled by fierce warriors called Tagbanua as reported by Spanish missionaries mentioned by Nilo S. Ocampo,
- the Confederation of Namayan
- the polities of Tondo and Cainta
- the Sinitic wangdom of Pangasinan
- the nation of Ma-i
- the Kedatuans of Madja-as and Dapitan
- the Indianized rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu
- the sultanates of Maguindanao, Lanao and Sulu
The Polity of Tondo
The earliest historical record of local polities and kingdoms is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, which indirectly refers to the Tagalog polity of Tondo (c. before 900–1589) and two to three other settlements believed to be located somewhere near Tondo, as well as a settlement near Mt. Diwata in Mindanao, and the temple complex of Medang in Java. Although the precise political relationships between these polities is unclear in the text of the inscription, the artifact is usually accepted as evidence of intra- and inter-regional political linkages as early as 900 CE. By the arrival of the earliest European ethnographers during the 1500s, Tondo was led by the paramount ruler called a "Lakan". It had grown into a major trading hub, sharing a monopoly with the Rajahnate of Maynila over the trade of Ming dynasty products throughout the archipelago. This trade was significant enough that the Yongle Emperor appointed a Chinese governor named Ko Ch'a-lao to oversee it.
Since at least the year 900, this thalassocracy centered in Manila Bay flourished via an active trade with Chinese, Japanese, Malays, and various other peoples in Asia. Tondo thrived as the capital and the seat of power of this ancient kingdom, which was led by kings under the title "Lakan" that belongs to the caste of the Maharlika, who were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society. At its height, they ruled a large part of what is now known as Luzon from Ilocos to Bicol from possibly before 900 AD to 1571, becoming the largest precolonial state. The Spaniards called them Hidalgos.
The people of Tondo had developed a culture that is predominantly Hindu and Buddhist, they were also good agriculturists, and lived through farming and aquaculture. During its existence, it grew to become one of the most prominent and wealthy kingdom states in precolonial Philippines due to heavy trade and connections with several neighboring nations such as China and Japan.
Due to its very good relations with Japan, the Japanese called Tondo as Luzon, even a famous Japanese merchant, Luzon Sukezaemon, went as far as to change his surname from Naya to Luzon. Japan's interaction with Philippine states have precedence in the 700s when Austronesian peoples like the Hayato and Kumaso settled in Japan and culturally mediated with the locals and their Austronesian kin to the South, served at the Imperial court and sometimes waged battles in Japan. Japan also imported Mishima ware manufactured in Luzon. In 900 AD, the lord-minister Jayadewa presented a document of debt forgiveness to Lady Angkatan and her brother Bukah, the children of Namwaran. This is described in the Philippines' oldest known document, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
The Chinese also mention a polity called "Luzon." This is believed to be a reference to Maynila since Portuguese and Spanish accounts from the 1520s explicitly state that "Luçon" and "Maynila" were "one and the same", although some historians argue that since none of these observers actually visited Maynila, "Luçon" may simply have referred to all the Tagalog and Kapampangan polities that rose up on the shores of Manila Bay.
The Polity of Cainta
The Polity of Cainta which is in Rizal province, was a Kapampangan fortified settlement known for the Pasig river bisecting it in the middle while a moat surrounded its log walls and stone bulwarks armed with native cannons (Lantakas) while the city itself was encased by Bamboo thickets. By the time of Spanish contact, it was ruled by a native Chief named Gat Maitan.
Confederation of Namayan
Namayan arose as a Confederation of local Barangays. Local tradition says that it achieved its peak in 1175. Archeological findings in Santa Ana, Namayan's former seat of power, have produced the oldest evidence of continuous habitation among the Pasig-river polities, pre-dating artifacts found within the historical sites of Maynila and Tondo.
Places in Pangasinan like Lingayen Gulf were mentioned as early as 1225, when Lingayen as known as Li-ying-tung had been listed in Chao Ju-kua's Chu Fan Chih (An account of the various barbarians) as one of the trading places along with Mai (Mindoro or Manila). In northern Luzon, Caboloan (Pangasinan) (c. 1406–1576) sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411 as a tributary-state, and it also traded with Japan. Chinese records of this kingdom, named Feng-chia-hsi-lan (Pangasinan), began when the first tributary King (Wang in Chinese), Kamayin, sent an envoy offering gifts to the Chinese Emperor. The state occupies the current province of Pangasinan. It was locally known the Luyag na Kaboloan (also spelled Caboloan), with Binalatongan as its capital, existed in the fertile Agno River valley. It flourished around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires arose in Indonesia which had extended their influence to much of the Malay Archipelago. The Luyag na Kaboloan expanded the territory and influence of Pangasinan to what are now the neighboring provinces of Zambales, La Union, Tarlac, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, and Nueva Vizcaya. Pangasinan enjoyed full independence until the Spanish conquest.
In the sixteenth century Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by the Spanish. The locals wore native apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments. They also blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. Also, used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households. Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were also encountered in naval battles in the area. In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south.
The Nation of Ma-i
Volume 186 of the official history of the Song dynasty describes the polity of Ma-i (c. before 971 – after 1339). Song dynasty traders visited Ma-i annually, and their accounts described Ma-i's geography, trade products, and the trade behaviors of its rulers. Chinese merchants noted that Ma-i's citizens were honest and trustworthy. Because the descriptions of Mai's location in these accounts are unclear, there is dispute about Mai's location, with some scholars believing it was located in Bay, Laguna, and others believing it was on the island of Mindoro. The Buddhist polity traded with Ryukyu and Japan. Chao Jukua, a customs inspector in Fukien province, China wrote the Zhufan Zhi ("Description of the Barbarous Peoples").
Visayan belligerence against Imperial China
Writing in the 13th century, the Chinese historian Chao Ju-Kua mentioned raids conducted by the Pi-sho-ye on the port cities of southern China between A.D. 1174–1190, which he believed came by way of the southern portion of the island of Taiwan. Subsequent historians identified these raiders as Visayans while the historian Efren B. Isorena, through analysis of historical accounts and wind currents in the Pacific side of East and Southeast Asia, concluded that said raiders were most likely the people of Ibabao (the precolonial name for the eastern coast and a portion of the northern coast of Samar).
Kedatuan of Madja-as
During the 11th century, 10 exiled datus of the collapsing empire of Srivijaya led by Datu Puti had a mass migration to the central islands of the Philippines, fleeing from Rajah Makatunaw of the island of Borneo. Upon reaching the island of Panay and purchasing the island from Negrito chieftain Marikudo, they established a confederation of polities and named it Madja-as centered in Aklan and they settled the surrounding islands of the Visayas. This is according to Pedro Monetclaro's book Maragtas. However the actual personage of Rajah Makatunaw was mentioned in earlier Chinese texts about Brunei dating him to 1082, when he was the descendant of Seri Maharaja and he was accompanied by Sang Aji (The ancestor of Sultan Muhammad Shah). There is thus a disparity of dates between the Maragtas Book (Based on oral legends) and the Chinese texts. Historian Robert Nicholl also positively identify the Preislamic Bruneian Buddhist kingdom of Vijayapura, itself a tributary of the Srivijaya Empire in Palembang, as the ancestral homeland of the Visayans of the 10 Datus of Panay. Either way, Madja-as was allegedly founded on Panay island (named after the destroyed state of Pannai as well as populated by Pannai's descendants, Pannai was a constituent state of Srivijaya which was located in Sumatra and was home to a Hindu-Buddhist Monastic-Army that successfully defended the Strait of Malacca, the world's busiest maritime choke-point, which was a significant challenge to defend due to it being surrounded by the three most populous nations of the world back then, China, India and Indonesia. The people of Pannai policed the Strait against all odds for 727 years.) Upon their rebellion against an invading Chola Empire, the people of Madja-as, being loyalist warriors, conducted resistance movements against the Hindu and Islamic invaders that arrived from the west from their new home base in the Visayas islands. This confederation reached its peak under Datu Padojinog. During his reign the confederations' hegemony extended over most of the islands of Visayas. Its people consistently made piratical attacks against Chinese imperial shipping. Augustinian Friar Rev. Fr. Santaren recorded that Datu Macatunao or Rajah Makatunao who was the “sultan of the Moros,” and a relative of Datu Puti who seized the properties and riches of the ten datus was eventually killed by the warriors named Labaodungon and Paybare, after learning of this injustice from their father-in-law Paiburong, sailed to Odtojan in Borneo where Makatunaw ruled. The warriors sacked the city, killed Makatunaw and his family, retrieved the stolen properties of the 10 datus, enslaved the remaining population of Odtojan, and sailed back to Panay. Labaw Donggon and his wife, Ojaytanayon, later settled in a place called Moroboro. Afterwards there are descriptions of various towns founded by the datus in Panay and southern Luzon.
The Rajahnate of Cebu
The Rajahnate of Cebu was a Precolonial state. It was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya, a minor prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty which happened to occupy Sumatra-Indonesia. He was sent by the maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead. This rajahnate warred against the 'magalos' (slave traders) of Maguindanao and had an alliance with the Rajahnate of Butuan and Indianized Kutai in South Borneo, before it was weakened by the insurrection of Datu Lapulapu.
The Rajahnate of Butuan
|Rajahnate of Butuan|
The official history of the Song dynasty next refers to the Rajahnate of Butuan (c. before 1001–1756) in northeastern Mindanao which is the first polity from the Philippine archipelago recorded as having sent a tribute mission to the Chinese empire—on March 17, 1001, CE. Butuan later attained prominence under the rule of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja. In the year 1011, Rajah Sri Bata Shaja, the monarch of the Indianized Rajahnate of Butuan, a maritime-state famous for its goldwork sent a trade envoy under ambassador Likan-shieh to the Chinese Imperial Court demanding equal diplomatic status with other states. The request being approved, it opened up direct commercial links with the Rajahnate of Butuan and the Chinese Empire thereby diminishing the monopoly on Chinese trade previously enjoyed by their rivals, Tondo and the Champa civilization.: 24 Evidence of the existence of this rajahnate is given by the Butuan Silver Paleograph. Researcher Eric Casino, believes the name of the first Rajah mentioned in Chinese records, Rajah Kiling, is not Visayan in origin but rather, Indian, because Kiling refers to the people of India. The Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) of the nearby country of Malaysia, refers to the similarly worded Keling as immigrant people from India.
Struggle against Hindu Majapahit
During the 1300s, the Chinese annals, Nanhai zhi, reported that Brunei invaded or administered Sarawak and Sabah as well as the Philippine kingdoms of Butuan, Sulu and Ma-i (Mindoro) which would regain their independence at a later date. Afterwards, the Javanese-centered Hindu empire of Majapahit, in turn invaded Brunei and had briefly ruled over Luzon island and the Sulu Archipelago as recorded in the epic poem Nagarakretagama, which stated that they had colonies in the Philippines at Saludong (Manila) and Solot (Sulu). It even incorporated the Butuan and Cebu Rajahanates' Bornean ally, Kutai. But they failed to take hold of the Visayas islands, which was populated by Srivijayan loyalists who were waging incessant guerrilla warfare against them. Citing Kapampangan oral legends Nick Joaquin wrote about a princess of Namayan named Sasaban who married the Emperor of Majapahit, locally known as Soledan and is allegedly the Maharajah Anka Widyaya. Eventually, the kingdoms of Luzon regained independence from Majapahit after the Battle of Manila (1365) and Sulu also reestablished independence, and in vengeance, assaulted the Majapahit province of Poni (Brunei) before a fleet from the capital drove them out.: 92
According to Javanese records a Javanese force expelled Sulu marauders from Brunei during the reign of Angka Wijaya who was the last king to reign over Majapahit. The inhabitants of the Soeloe Islands (in the present Philippines) made an attack against Brunei (in order to obtain camphor), in keeping with their (piratical) nature, but they were driven off by the Javanese soldiers.— Stamford Raffles
The subsequent start of the Islamic era ushered the slow death of Majapahit as its provinces eventually seceded and became independent sultanates. With the upsurge of Islam, the remnants of Hindu Majapahit eventually fled to the island of Bali.
The Sultanate of Sulu
In 1380, Karim ul' Makdum and Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr, an Arab trader born in Johore, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and established the Sultanate of Sulu by converting its previous ruler, the Hindu king, Rajah Baguinda, to Islam and then marrying his daughter. This sultanate eventually gained great wealth due to its diving for fine pearls. Before Islamization, the then Rajahnate of Sulu was established by Visayan speaking Hindu migrants from the Rajahnate of Butuan to the Sulu Archipelago as Tausug, the language of the Sulu state is classified as a Southern Visayan language. During the 10th-13th centuries the Champa civilization and the port-kingdom of Sulu traded with each other which resulted in Cham merchants settling in Sulu where they were known as Orang Dampuan . The Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious native Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan. The Buranun were then subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was later restored. The Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based Orang Dampuan who came to Sulu from Champa. As told before, Sulu was also briefly ruled under the Hindu Majapahit empire as narrated in the Nagarakretagama but afterwards, Sulu and Manila both rebelled and sacked Brunei which was a nearby loyal province of Majapahit. However, with the onset of Islam by the 15th century, they associated themselves with their new Arab descended Sultans whose origins was in Malacca and their fellow co-religionist Moros (ethnic groups of the Philippine who had accepted Islam) than their still Hindu, Visayan speaking cousins. This culminated with royal intermarriages between the families of the then newly Islamized Rajahnate of Manila as well the Sultanates of Brunei, Sulu and Malacca.
The Sultanate of Maguindanao
The Sultanate of Maguindanao rose to prominence at the end of the 15th century, Shariff Mohammed Kabungsuwan of Johor introduced Islam in the island of Mindanao and he subsequently married Paramisuli, an Iranun princess from Mindanao, and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao.
It ruled most parts of Mindanao and continued to exist prior to the Spanish colonialization until the 19th century. The Sultanate also traded and maintained good relations with the Chinese, Dutch, and the British.
The Sultanate of Lanao
The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao, Philippines were founded in the 16th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520. Islam was introduced to the area by Muslim missionaries and traders from the Middle East, Indian and Malay regions who propagated Islam to Sulu and Maguindanao. Unlike in Sulu and Maguindanao, the Sultanate system in Lanao was uniquely decentralized. The area was divided into Four Principalities of Lanao or the Pat a Pangampong a Ranao which are composed of a number of royal houses (Sapolo ago Nem a Panoroganan or The Sixteen (16) Royal Houses) with specific territorial jurisdictions within mainland Mindanao. This decentralized structure of royal power in Lanao was adopted by the founders, and maintained up to the present day, in recognition of the shared power and prestige of the ruling clans in the area, emphasizing the values of unity of the nation (kaiisaisa o bangsa), patronage (kaseselai) and fraternity (kapapagaria). By the 16th century, Islam had spread to other parts of the Visayas and Luzon.
The Bruneian Empire and the expansion of Islam
Upon the secession of Poni (Brunei) from the Majapahit Empire, they imported the Arab Emir from Mecca, Sharif Ali, and became an independent Sultanate. During the reign of his descendant, Sultan Bolkiah, in 1485 to 1521, the recently Islamized Bruneian Empire decided to break the Dynasty of Tondo's monopoly in the China trade by attacking Tondo and defeating Rajah Gambang and then establishing the State of Selurong (Kingdom of Maynila) as a Bruneian satellite-state and placing his descendants on the throne of Maynila. A new dynasty under the Islamized Rajah Salalila was also established to challenge the House of Lakandula in Tondo. In addition to establishing the satellite state of Manila, Sultan Bolkiah also married Laila Mecana, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra to expand Brunei's influence in both Luzon and Mindanao. Furthermore, Islam was further strengthened by the arrival to the Philippines of traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia. Brunei was so powerful, it already subjugated their Hindu Bornean neighbor, Kutai to the south, though it survived through a desperate alliance with Hindu Butuan and Cebu which were already struggling against encroaching Islamic powers like Maguindanao. Brunei had also conquered the northern third and the southern third of the Philippines but failed to conquer the Visayas islands even though Sultan Bolkiah himself was half-Visayan from his Visayan mother. Sultan Bolkiah is associated with the legend of Nakhoda Ragam the singing captain, a myth about a handsome, virile, strong, musically gifted and angelic voiced prince who is known for his martial exploits. There is contextual evidence that Sultan Bolkiah may indeed be Nakhoda Ragam, since he is of half Visayan-Filipino descent since later Spanish accounts record that Filipinos, especially Visayans, were obsessed with singing and the warrior castes were particularly known for their great singing abilities.
The Lucoes in South, Southeast and East Asia
Concurrent with the spread of Islam in the Philippine archipelago, was the rise of the Lucoes who were the people of Luzon. They rose to prominence by establishing overseas communities all across South and Southeast Asia as well as maintaining relations with East Asia, participating in trading ventures, navigation expeditions and military campaigns in Burma, Japan, Brunei, Malacca, East Timor and Sri Lanka where they were employed as traders and mercenaries. One prominent Luções was Regimo de Raja, who was a spice magnate and a Temenggung (Jawi: تمڠݢوڠ) (Governor and Chief General) in Portuguese Malacca. He was also the head of an international armada which traded and protected commerce between the Indian Ocean, the Strait of Malacca, the South China Sea, and the medieval maritime principalities of the Philippines.
Pinto noted that there were a number of Luzones in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh together with the Ottoman commander Heredim Mafamede whose uncle was the Viceroy of Egypt, assigned Luzones to defend Aceh, and gave one of them, Sapetu Diraja, the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511. Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.
However, the Luzones did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines who fought the Muslims in 1538.
The Luzones were also pioneer seafarers and it is recorded that the Portuguese were not only witnesses but also direct beneficiaries of Lusung's involvement. Many Luzones chose Malacca as their base of operations because of its strategic importance. When the Portuguese finally took Malacca in 1512 AD, the resident Luzones held important government posts in the former sultanate. They were also large-scale exporters and ship owners that regularly sent junks to China, Brunei, Sumatra, Siam and Sunda. One Lusung official by the name of Surya Diraja annually sent 175 tons of pepper to China and had to pay the Portuguese 9000 cruzados in gold to retain his plantation. His ships became part of the first Portuguese fleet that paid an official visit to the Chinese empire in 1517 AD.
On Mainland Southeast Asia, Luzones aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Luzones fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya. Lucoes military and trade activity reached as far as Sri Lanka in South Asia where Lungshanoid pottery made in Luzon were discovered in burials.
The Portuguese were soon relying on Luzones bureaucrats for the administration of Malacca and on Luzones warriors, ships and pilots for their military and commercial ventures in East Asia.
It was through the Luzones who regularly sent ships to China that the Portuguese discovered the ports of Canton in 1514 AD. And it was on Luzones ships that the Portuguese were able to send their first diplomatic mission to China 1517 AD. The Portuguese had the Luzones to thank for when they finally established their base at Macao in the mid-1500s.
The Luzones were also instrumental in guiding Portuguese ships to discover Japan. The Western world first heard of Japan through the Portuguese. But it was through the Luzones that the Portuguese had their first encounter with the Japanese. The Portuguese king commissioned his subjects to get good pilots that could guide them beyond the seas of China and Malacca. In 1540 AD, the Portuguese king's factor in Brunei, Brás Baião, recommended to his king the employment of Lusung pilots because of their reputation as "discoverers." Thus it was through Luzones navigators that Portuguese ships found their way to Japan in 1543 AD.
Rise and fall of the Dapitan Kedatuan
Around 1563 AD, at the closing stages of the precolonial era, the Kedatuan of Dapitan in Bohol achieved prominence and it was known to a later Spanish missionary, Alcina, as the "Venice of the Visayas", because it was a wealthy, wooden and floating city-state in the Visayas. However, this kedatuan was eventually attacked and destroyed by soldiers from the Sultanate of Ternate, a state made up of Muslim Moluccans. The survivors of the destruction, led by their datu, Pagbuaya, migrated to northern Mindanao and established a new Dapitan there. They then waged war against the Sultanate of Lanao and settled in the lands conquered from them. Eventually, in vengeance against the Muslims and Portuguese allied to the Ternateans, they aided the Spanish in the conquest of Muslim Manila and in the Spanish expeditions to capture Portuguese Ternate.
During this period there was also a simmering territorial conflict between the Polity of Tondo and the Bruneian vassal-state, the Islamic Rajahnate of Maynila, to which the ruler of Maynila, Rajah Matanda, sought military assistance against Tondo from his relatives at the Sultanate of Brunei. The Hindu Rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu also endured slave raids from, and waged wars against the Sultanate of Maguindanao. Simultaneous with these slave-raids, was the rebellion of Datu Lapulapu of Mactan against Rajah Humabon of Cebu. The sparse population and the multiple states competing over the limited territory and people of the islands simplified Spanish colonialization by allowing its conquistadors to effectively employ a strategy of divide and conquer for rapid conquest.
Spanish settlement and rule (1565–1898)
Early Spanish expeditions and conquests
A Spanish expedition around the world led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sighted Samar Island but anchored off Suluan Island on March 16, 1521. They landed the next day on Homonhon Island, now part of Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Magellan claimed the islands he saw for Spain and named them Islas de San Lázaro. He established friendly relations with some of the local leaders especially with Rajah Humabon and converted some of them to Roman Catholicism. In the Philippines, they explored many islands including the island of Mactan. However, Magellan was killed during the Battle of Mactan against the local datu, Lapulapu.
Over the next several decades, other Spanish expeditions were dispatched to the islands. In 1543, Ruy López de Villalobos led an expedition to the islands and Leyte and Samar Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip of Austria, the Prince of Asturias at the time. Philip became Philip II of Spain on January 16, 1556, when his father, Charles I of Spain (who also reigned as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), abdicated the Spanish throne. The name was then extended to the entire archipelago later on in the Spanish era.
European colonialization began in earnest when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. Beginning with just five ships and five hundred men accompanied by Augustinian monks, and further strengthened in 1567 by two hundred soldiers, he was able to repel the Portuguese and create the foundations for the colonialization of the Archipelago. In 1571, the Spanish, their Latin-American recruits and their Filipino (Visayan) allies, commanded by able conquistadors such as Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo (who was in love with Tondo's princess, Kandarapa) attacked Maynila, a vassal-state of the Brunei Sultanate and liberated plus incorporated the kingdom of Tondo as well as establishing Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies. During the early part of the Spanish colonialization of the Philippines the Spanish Augustinian Friar, Gaspar de San Agustín, O.S.A., describes Iloilo and Panay as one of the most populated islands in the archipelago and the most fertile of all the islands of the Philippines. He also talks about Iloilo, particularly the ancient settlement of Halaur, as site of a progressive trading post and a court of illustrious nobilities.
Legazpi built a fort in Maynila and made overtures of friendship to Lakan Dula, Lakan of Tondo, who accepted. However, Maynila's former ruler, the Muslim rajah, Rajah Sulayman, who was a vassal to the Sultan of Brunei, refused to submit to Legazpi, but failed to get the support of Lakan Dula or of the Pampangan and Pangasinan settlements to the north. When Tarik Sulayman and a force of Kapampangan and Tagalog Muslim warriors attacked the Spaniards in the battle of Bangkusay, he was finally defeated and killed, the Spanish also destroyed the walled Kapampangan city-state of Cainta.
In 1578, the Castilian War erupted between the Christian Spaniards and Muslim Bruneians over control of the Philippine archipelago. On one side, the newly Christianized Non-Muslim Visayans of the Kedatuan of Madja-as and Rajahnate of Cebu, plus the Rajahnate of Butuan (which were from northern Mindanao), as well as the remnants of the Kedatuan of Dapitan had previously waged war against the Sultanate of Sulu, Sultanate of Maguindanao and Kingdom of Maynila, then joined the Spanish in the war against the Bruneian Empire and its allies, the Bruneian puppet-state of Maynila, Sulu which had dynastic links with Brunei as well as Maguindanao which was an ally of Sulu. The Spanish and its Visayan allies assaulted Brunei and seized its capital, Kota Batu. This was achieved as a result in part of the assistance rendered to them by two noblemen, Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The former had traveled to Manila to offer Brunei as a tributary of Spain for help to recover the throne usurped by his brother, Saiful Rijal. The Spanish agreed that if they succeeded in conquering Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela would indeed become the Sultan, while Pengiran Seri Ratna would be the new Bendahara. In March 1578, the Spanish fleet, led by De Sande himself, acting as Capitán General, started their journey towards Brunei. The expedition consisted of 400 Spaniards and Mexicans, 1,500 Filipino natives and 300 Borneans. The campaign was one of many, which also included action in Mindanao and Sulu.
The Spanish succeeded in invading the capital on April 16, 1578, with the help of Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. Sultan Saiful Rijal and Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Abdul Kahar were forced to flee to Meragang then to Jerudong. In Jerudong, they made plans to chase the conquering army away from Brunei. The Spanish suffered heavy losses due to a cholera or dysentery outbreak. They were so weakened by the illness that they decided to abandon Brunei to return to Manila on June 26, 1578, after just 72 days. Before doing so, they burned the mosque, a high structure with a five-tier roof.
Pengiran Seri Lela died in August–September 1578, probably from the same illness that had afflicted his Spanish allies, although there was suspicion he could have been poisoned by the ruling Sultan. Seri Lela's daughter, the Bruneian princess, left with the Spanish and went on to marry a Christian Tagalog, named Agustín de Legazpi of Tondo and had children in the Philippines.
Concurrently, northern Luzon became a center of the "Bahan Trade" (comercio de bafan), found in Luís Fróis’ Historia de Japam, mainly refers to the robberies, raids, and pillages conducted by the Japanese pirates of Kyūshūa as they assaulted the China seas. The Sengoku Period (1477–1603) or the warring states period of Japan had spread the wakō's 倭寇 (Japanese Pirates) activities in the China Seas, some groups of these raiders relocated to the Philippines and established their settlements in Luzon. Because of the proximity to China's beaches, the Philippines were favorable a location to launch raids on the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, and for shipping with Indochina and the Ryūkyū Islands. These were the halycon days of the Philippine branch of the Bahan trade. Thus, the Spanish sought to fight off these Japanese Pirates, prominent among whom was warlord Tayfusa, whom the Spaniards expelled after he set up the beginnings of a city-state of Japanese pirates in Northern Luzon. The Spanish repelled them in the fabled 1582 Cagayan battles. Due to the 1549 Ming ban on trade leveled against the Ashikaga Shogunate as a consequence of the Wokuo pirate raids, this resulted in the ban for all the Japanese to enter China, and for Chinese ships to sail to Japan. Thus, Manila became the only place where the Japanese and Chinese can openly trade, often also trading Japanese silver for Chinese silk.
In 1587, Magat Salamat, one of the children of Lakan Dula, along with Lakan Dula's nephew and lords of the neighboring areas of Tondo, Pandacan, Marikina, Candaba, Navotas and Bulacan, were executed when the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587–1588 failed in which a planned grand alliance with the Japanese Christian-captain, Gayo, (Gayo himself was a Woku who once pirated in Cagayan) and Brunei's Sultan, would have restored the old aristocracy. Its failure resulted in the hanging of Agustín de Legaspi and the execution of Magat Salamat (the crown-prince of Tondo). Thereafter, some of the conspirators were exiled to Guam or Guerrero, Mexico.
Spanish power was further consolidated after Miguel López de Legazpi's complete assimilation of Madja-as, his subjugation of Rajah Tupas, the Rajah of Cebu and Juan de Salcedo's conquest of the provinces of Zambales, La Union, Ilocos, the coast of Cagayan, and the ransacking of the Chinese warlord Limahong's pirate kingdom in Pangasinan.
The Spanish also invaded Northern Taiwan and Ternate in Indonesia, using Filipino warriors, before they were driven out by the Dutch. The Sultanate of Ternate reverted to independence and afterwards led a coalition of sultanates against Spain. While Taiwan became the stronghold of the Ming-loyalist and pirate state of the Kingdom of Tungning. The Spanish and the Moros of the sultanates of Maguindanao, Lanao and Sulu also waged many wars over hundreds of years in the Spanish–Moro conflict, they were supported by the Papuan language speaking Sultanate of Ternate in Indonesia which regained independence from Spain, as well as the Sultanate of Brunei, not until the 19th century did Spain succeed in defeating the Sulu Sultanate and taking Mindanao under nominal suzerainty.
The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista, a centuries-long campaign to retake and rechristianize the Spanish homeland which was invaded by the Muslims of the Umayyad Caliphate. The Spanish expeditions into the Philippines were also part of a larger Ibero-Islamic world conflict that included a war against the Ottoman Caliphate which had just invaded former Christian lands in the Eastern Mediterranean and which had a center of operations in Southeast Asia at its nearby vassal, the Sultanate of Aceh. Thus the Philippines became a theatre of the ongoing world-wide-ranging Ottoman–Habsburg wars.
In time, Spanish fortifications were also set up in Taiwan and the Maluku islands. These were abandoned and the Spanish soldiers, along with the newly Christianized natives of the Moluccas, withdrew back to the Philippines in order to re-concentrate their military forces because of a threatened invasion by the Japan-born Ming-dynasty loyalist, Koxinga, ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning. However, the planned invasion was aborted. Meanwhile, settlers were sent to the Pacific islands of Palau and the Marianas.
In 1593, a diplomatic entourage addressed to the "King of Luzon" from the King of Cambodia which bore an elephant as a tribute arrived in Manila. The King of Cambodia which witnessed the military activity of precolonial Luzones people who were mercenaries across Southeast Asia including at Burma and Siam, now implored the new rulers of Luzon, the Spaniards, to aid him in a war to retake his kingdom from an invasion by the Siamese. That had caused the ill-fated Spanish expedition to Cambodia that although ended in failure had set the foundations of the future restoration of Cambodia from Thai rule under French Cochinchina which tapped Spanish allies.
Incorporation to the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain
The founding of the City of Manila by uniting the dominions of Sulayman III of Namayan, Sabag, Rajah Ache Matanda of Maynila who was a vassal to the Sultan of Brunei, and Lakan Dula of Tondo who was a tributary to Ming Dynasty China – caused the establishment of Manila on February 6, 1579, through the Papal bull Illius Fulti Præsidio by Pope Gregory XIII, encompassing all Spanish colonies in Asia as a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Mexico. For much of the Spanish colonial period, the Philippines was part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain.
Spanish settlement during the 16th and 17th centuries
The "Memoria de las Encomiendas en las Islas" of 1591, just twenty years after the conquest of Luzon, reveals a remarkable progress in the work of colonialization and the spread of Christianity. A cathedral was built in the city of Manila with an episcopal palace, Augustinian, Dominican and Franciscan monasteries and a Jesuit house. The king maintained a hospital for the Spanish settlers and there was another hospital for the natives run by the Franciscans. In order to defend the settlements the Spaniards established in the Philippines, a network of military fortresses called "Presidios" were constructed and officered by the Spaniards, and sentried by Latin-Americans and Filipinos, across the archipelago, to protect it from foreign nations such as the Portuguese, British and Dutch as well as raiding Muslims and Wokou.
The Manila garrison was composed of roughly four hundred Spanish soldiers and the area of Intramuros as well as its surroundings, were initially settled by 1200 Spanish families. In Cebu City, at the Visayas, the settlement received a total of 2,100 soldier-settlers from New Spain. At the immediate south of Manila, Mexicans were present at Ermita and at Cavite where they were stationed as sentries. In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim pirates. There were also communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo, Negros and Vigan.
Interactions between native Filipinos and immigrant Spaniards plus the Latin-Americans and their Spanish-Mestizo descendants eventually caused the formation of a new language, Chavacano, a creole of Mexican Spanish. Meanwhile, in the suburb of Tondo, there was a convent run by Franciscan friars and another by the Dominicans that offered Christian education to the Chinese converted to Christianity. The same report reveals that in and around Manila were collected 9,410 tributes, indicating a population of about 30,640 who were under the instruction of thirteen missionaries (ministers of doctrine), apart from the monks in monasteries. In the former province of Pampanga the population estimate was 74,700 and 28 missionaries. In Pangasinan 2,400 people with eight missionaries. In Cagayan and islands Babuyanes 96,000 people but no missionaries. In La Laguna 48,400 people with 27 missionaries. In Bicol and Camarines Catanduanes islands 86,640 people with fifteen missionaries. Based on the tribute counts, the total founding population of Spanish-Philippines was 667,612 people, of which: 20,000 were Chinese migrant traders, 15,600 were Latino soldier-colonists sent from Peru and Mexico, 3,000 were Japanese residents, and 600 were pure Spaniards from Europe, there was also a large but unknown number of Indian Filipinos, the rest were Malays and Negritos. They were under the care of 140 missionaries, of which 79 were Augustinians, nine Dominicans and 42 Franciscans. During the Spanish evacuation of Ternate, Indonesia, the 200 families of mixed Mexican-Filipino-Spanish and Moluccan-Portuguese descent who had ruled over the briefly Christianized Sultanate of Ternate (They later reverted to Islam) were relocated to Ternate, Cavite and Ermita, Manila. and they were presaged by their previous ruler, Sultan Said Din Burkat who was enslaved but eventually converted to Christianity and was freed after being deported to Manila.
The fragmented and sparsely populated nature of the islands made it easy for Spanish colonialization. The Spanish then brought political unification to most of the Philippine archipelago via the conquest of the various small maritime states although they were unable to fully incorporate parts of the sultanates of Mindanao and the areas where the ethnic groups and highland plutocracy of the animist Ifugao of Northern Luzon were established. The Spanish introduced elements of western civilization such as the code of law, western printing and the Gregorian calendar alongside new food resources such as maize, pineapple and chocolate from Latin America.
Education played a major role in the socio-economic transformation of the archipelago. The oldest universities, colleges, and vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were all created during the Spanish colonial period, and by the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power, Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia. The Jesuits founded the Colegio de Manila in 1590, which later became the Universidad de San Ignacio, a royal and pontifical university. They also founded the Colegio de San Ildefonso on August 1, 1595. After the expulsion of the Society of Jesus in 1768, the management of the Jesuit schools passed to other parties. On April 28, 1611, through the initiative of Bishop Miguel de Benavides, the University of Santo Tomas was founded in Manila. The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José (1601) and took over the Escuela Municipal, later to be called the Ateneo de Manila University (1859). All institutions offered courses included not only religious topics but also science subjects such as physics, chemistry, natural history and mathematics. The University of Santo Tomás, for example, started by teaching theology, philosophy and humanities and during the 18th century, the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Canonical Law, together with the schools of medicine and pharmacy were opened.
Outside the tertiary institutions, the efforts of missionaries were in no way limited to religious instruction but also geared towards promoting social and economic advancement of the islands. They cultivated into the natives their taste for music and taught Spanish language to children. They also introduced advances in rice agriculture, brought from America maize and cocoa and developed the farming of indigo, coffee and sugar cane. The only commercial plant introduced by a government agency was the plant of tobacco.
Church and state were inseparably linked in Spanish policy, with the state assuming responsibility for religious establishments. One of Spain's objectives in colonialization of the Philippines was the conversion of the local population to Roman Catholicism. The work of conversion was facilitated by the disunity and insignificance of other organized religions, except for Islam, which was still predominant in the southwest. The pageantry of the church had a wide appeal, reinforced by the incorporation of indigenous social customs into religious observances. The eventual outcome was a new Roman Catholic majority, from which the Muslims of western Mindanao and the upland tribal and animistic peoples of Luzon remained detached and alienated from (Ethnic groups such as the Ifugaos of the Cordillera region and the Mangyans of Mindoro).
At the lower levels of administration, the Spanish built on traditional village organization by co-opting local leaders. This system of indirect rule helped create an indigenous upper class, called the principalía, who had local wealth, high status, and other privileges. This perpetuated an oligarchic system of local control. Among the most significant changes under Spanish rule was that the indigenous idea of communal use and ownership of land was replaced with the concept of private ownership and the conferring of titles on members of the principalía.
Around 1608 William Adams, an English navigator contacted the interim governor of the Philippines, Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco on behalf of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who wished to establish direct trade contacts with New Spain. Friendly letters were exchanged, officially starting relations between Japan and New Spain. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from Mexico, via the Royal Audiencia of Manila, and administered directly from Spain from 1821 after the Mexican revolution, until 1898.
The Manila galleons, were constructed in Bicol and Cavite. The Manila galleons were accompanied with a large naval escort as it traveled to and from Manila and Acapulco. The galleons sailed once or twice a year, between the 16th and 19th centuries. The Manila Galleons brought with them goods, settlers and military reinforcements destined for the Philippines, from Latin America. The reverse voyage also brought Asian commercial products and immigrants to the western side of the Americas.
The Spanish military fought off various indigenous revolts and several external challenges, especially from the British, Dutch, and Portuguese and Chinese pirates. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, universities, and hospitals. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced education, establishing public schooling in Spanish.
In 1646, a series of five naval actions known as the Battles of La Naval de Manila was fought between the forces of Spain and the Dutch Republic, as part of the Eighty Years' War. Although the Spanish forces consisted of just two Manila galleons and a galley with crews composed mainly of Filipino volunteers, against three separate Dutch squadrons, totaling eighteen ships, the Dutch squadrons were severely defeated in all fronts by the Spanish-Filipino forces, forcing the Dutch to abandon their plans for an invasion of the Philippines.
In 1687, Isaac Newton included an explicit reference to the Philippines in his classic Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica by mentioning Leuconia, the ancient Ptolemaic name for the Philippines.
Spanish rule during the 18th century
Colonial income derived mainly from entrepôt trade: The Manila Galleons sailing from the port of Manila to the port of Acapulco on the west coast of Mexico brought shipments of silver bullion, and minted coin that were exchanged for return cargoes of Asian, and Pacific products. A total of 110 Manila galleons set sail in the 250 years of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade (1565 to 1815). There was no direct trade with Spain until 1766.
The Philippines was never profitable as a colony during Spanish rule, and the long war against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century together with the intermittent conflict with the Muslims in the South and combating Japanese Wokou piracy from the North nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. Furthermore, the state of near constant war caused a high death and desertion rate among the Mestizo, Mulatto and Indio (Native American) soldiers sent from Mexico and Peru that were stationed in the Philippines. The high death and desertion rate also applied to the native Filipino warriors conscripted by Spain, to fight in battles all across the archipelago. The repeated wars, lack of wages and near starvation were so intense, almost half of the soldiers sent from Latin America either died or fled to the countryside to live as vagabonds among the rebellious natives or escaped enslaved Indians (From India) where they race-mixed through rape or prostitution, further blurring the racial caste system Spain tried hard to maintain. These circumstances contributed to the increasing difficulty of governing the Philippines. The Royal Fiscal of Manila wrote a letter to King Charles III of Spain in which he advises to abandon the colony, but the religious orders opposed this since they considered the Philippines a launching pad for the conversion of the Far East.
The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown and often procured from taxes and profits accrued by the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico), and the 200-year-old fortifications at Manila had not been improved much since first built by the Spanish. This was one of the circumstances that made possible the brief British occupation of Manila between 1762 and 1764.
British occupation (1762–1764)
Britain declared war against Spain on January 4, 1762, and on September 24, 1762, a force of British Army regulars and British East India Company soldiers, supported by the ships and men of the East Indies Squadron of the British Royal Navy, sailed into Manila Bay from Madras, India. Manila was besieged and fell to the British on October 4, 1762.
Outside of Manila, the Spanish leader Simón de Anda y Salazar organized a militia of 10,000 mostly from Pampanga to resist British attempts to extend their conquest outside Manila. Anda y Salazar established his headquarters first in Bulacan, then in Bacolor. After a number of skirmishes and failed attempts to support Filipino uprisings, the British command admitted to the War Secretary in London that the Spanish were "in full possession of the country". The occupation of Manila ended in April 1764 as agreed to in the peace negotiations for the Seven Years' War in Europe. The Spanish then persecuted the Binondo Chinese community for its role in aiding the British. An unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoys, who came with the British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizal, which explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents.
Spanish rule in the second part of the 18th century
In 1766 direct communication was established with Spain and trade with Europe through a national ship based on Spain. In 1774, colonial officers from Bulacan, Tondo, Laguna Bay, and other areas surrounding Manila reported with consternation that discharged soldiers and deserters (From Mexico, Spain and Peru) during the British occupation were providing the indios military training for the weapons that had been disseminated all over the territory during the war. Expeditions from Spain were administered since 1785 by the Real Compañía Filipina, which was granted a monopoly of trade between Spain and the islands that lasted until 1834, when the company was terminated by the Spanish crown due to poor management and financial losses. About this time, Governor-General Anda complained that the Latin-American and Spanish soldiers sent to the Philippines had dispersed "all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence".
In 1781, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country. The Philippines was administered from the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the independence to Mexico in 1821 necessitated the direct rule from Spain of the Philippines from that year.
Spanish rule during the 19th century
The Philippines was included in the vast territory of the Kingdom of Spain, in the first constitution of Spain promulgated in Cadiz in 1812. It was never a colony as modern-day historical literature would say, but an overseas region in Asia (Spanish Constitution 1812). The Spanish Constitution of 1870 provides for the first autonomous community for "Archipelago Filipino" where all provinces in the Philippine Islands will be given the semi-independent home rule program.
During the 19th century Spain invested heavily in education and infrastructure. Through the Education Decree of December 20, 1863, Queen Isabella II of Spain decreed the establishment of a free public school system that used Spanish as the language of instruction, leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos. Additionally, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain, which facilitated the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened class of Spanish-Filipinos that had been able to enroll in Spanish and European universities.
A great number of infrastructure projects were undertaken during the 19th century that put the Philippine economy and standard of living ahead of most of its Asian neighbors and even many European countries at that time. Among them were a railway system for Luzon, a tramcar network for Manila, and Asia's first steel suspension bridge Puente Claveria, later called Puente Colgante.
On August 1, 1851, the Banco Español-Filipino de Isabel II was established to attend the needs of the rapid economic boom, that had greatly increased its pace since the 1800s as a result of a new economy based on a rational exploitation of the agricultural resources of the islands. The increase in textile fiber crops such as abacá, oil products derived from the coconut, indigo, that was growing in demand, etc., generated an increase in money supply that led to the creation of the bank. Banco Español-Filipino was also granted the power to print a Philippine-specific currency (the Philippine peso) for the first time (before 1851, many currencies were used, mostly the pieces of eight).
Spanish Manila was seen in the 19th century as a model of colonial governance that effectively put the interests of the original inhabitants of the islands before those of the colonial power. As John Crawfurd put it in its History of the Indian Archipelago, in all of Asia the "Philippines alone did improve in civilization, wealth, and populousness under the colonial rule" of a foreign power. John Bowring, Governor General of British Hong Kong from 1856 to 1860, wrote after his trip to Manila:
Credit is certainly due to Spain for having bettered the condition of a people who, though comparatively highly civilized, yet being continually distracted by petty wars, had sunk into a disordered and uncultivated state. The inhabitants of these beautiful Islands upon the whole, may well be considered to have lived as comfortably during the last hundred years, protected from all external enemies and governed by mild laws vis-a-vis those from any other tropical country under native or European sway, owing in some measure, to the frequently discussed peculiar (Spanish) circumstances which protect the interests of the natives.
In The Inhabitants of the Philippines, Frederick Henry Sawyer wrote:
Until an inept bureaucracy was substituted for the old paternal rule, and the revenue quadrupled by increased taxation, the Filipinos were as happy a community as could be found in any colony. The population greatly multiplied; they lived in competence, if not in affluence; cultivation was extended, and the exports steadily increased. [...] Let us be just; what British, French, or Dutch colony, populated by natives can compare with the Philippines as they were until 1895?.
The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1878. The colony's population as of December 31, 1877, was recorded at 5,567,685 persons. This was followed by the 1887 census that yielded a count of 6,984,727, while that of 1898 yielded 7,832,719 inhabitants.
Latin-American revolutions and direct Spanish rule
In the Americas; overseas Filipinos were involved in several Anti-colonial movements, Filomeno V. Aguilar Jr. in his paper: “Manilamen and seafaring: engaging the maritime world beyond the Spanish realm”, stated therein that Filipinos who were internationally called Manilamen were active in the navies and armies of the world even after the era of the Manila Galleons such as the case of the Argentine war of independence wherein an Argentinian of French descent, Hypolite Bouchard, laid siege to Monterey California as a privateer for the Argentine army. His second ship, the Santa Rosa, which was captained by the American Peter Corney, had a multi-ethnic crew which included Filipinos. It has been proposed that those Filipinos were recruited in San Blas, an alternative port to Acapulco Mexico where several Filipinos had settled during the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade era. Argentinian-Philippine relations can be traced even earlier since the Philippines already received immigrants from South America, like the soldier Juan Fermín de San Martín, who was the brother of the leader of the Argentinian Revolution Jose de San Martin. Likewise, in Mexico, about 200 Filipinos were recuited by Miguel Hidalgo in his revolution against Spain, the most prominent of which was the Manila-born Ramon Fabié afterwards when the revolution was continued by President Guerrero, General Isidoro Montes de Oca, another Filipino-Mexican, had participated in the Mexican Revolutionary war against Spain too. The recent participation of overseas Filipinos in Anti-Imperial wars in the Americas started even earlier when Filipinos in the settlement of Saint Malo, Louisiana assisted the United States in the defense of New Orleans during the War of 1812.
Upon Mexican independence, the Filipinos has had such an effect on Mexico that there were plans among the newly independent Mexicans, to help the Filipinos revolt against Spain too, there was even a secret memorandum from the Mexican government which read:
Now that we Mexicans have fortunately obtained our independence by revolution against Spanish rule, it is our solemn duty to help the less fortunate countries especially the Philippines, with whom our country has had the most intimate relations during the last two centuries and a half. We should send secret agents with a message to their inhabitants to rise in revolution against Spain and that we shall give them financial and military assistance to win their freedom. Should the Philippines succeed in gaining her independence from Spain, we must felicitate her warmly and from an alliance of amity and commerce with her as a sister nation. Moreover, we must resume the intimate Mexico-Philippine relations, as they were during the halcyon days of the Acapulco-Manila galleon trade.
Likewise, in this period, overseas Filipinos were also active in the Asia-Pacific especially in China and Indochina. During the Taiping rebellion, Frederick Townsend Ward had a militia employing foreigners to quell the rebellion for the Qing government, at first he hired American and European adventurers but they proved unruly, while recruiting for better troops, he met his aide-de-camp, Vincente (Vicente?) Macanaya, who was twenty three years old in 1860 and was part of the large Filipino population then living in Shanghai, who “were handy on board ships and more than a little troublesome on land’, as Caleb Carr journalistically put it. Smith, another writer about China also notes in his book: “Mercenaries and Mandarins” that Manilamen were ‘Reputed to be brave and fierce fighters’ and ‘were plentiful in Shanghai and always eager for action’. During this Taiping rebellion, by July 1860, Townsend Ward's force of Manilamen ranging from one to two hundred mercenaries successfully assaulted Sung-Chiang Prefecture. Thus, while the Philippines was slowly engendered with revolutionary fervour being suppressed by Spain, overseas Filipinos have had an active role in the military and naval engagements of various nations in the Americas and Asia-Pacific. Soldiers from the Philippines were recruited by France, which was allied to Spain, to initially protect Indo-Chinese converts to Roman Catholicism who were persecuted by their native governments, and later for an actual conquest of Vietnam and Laos as well as the establishment of the Protectorate of Cambodia which was liberated from Thai invasions and re-established as a vassal-state of France with the combined Franco-Spanish-Filipino forces creating French Cochinchina which was governed from the former Cambodian and now Vietnamese city of Saigon.
The Criollo and Latino dissatisfaction against the Peninsulares (Spaniards direct from Spain) spurred by their love of the land and their suffering people had a justified hatred against the exploitative Peninsulares who were only appointed to high positions due to their race and unflinching loyalty to the homeland. This resulted in the uprising of Andres Novales a Philippine born soldier who earned great fame in richer Spain but chose to return to serve in poorer Philippines. He was supported by local soldiers as well as former officers in the Spanish army of the Philippines who were primarily from the now sovereign Mexico as well as the freshly independent nations of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Costa Rica. The uprising was brutally suppressed but it foreshadowed the 1872 Cavite Mutiny that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution. However, Hispanic-Philippines reached its zenith when the Philippine-born Marcelo Azcárraga Palmero became a hero as he restored the Bourbon Dynasty of Spain to the throne during his stint as Lieutenant-General (Three Star General) after the Bourbons have been deposed by revolutionaries. He eventually became Prime Minister of the Spanish Empire and was awarded membership in the Order of the Golden Fleece, which is considered the most exclusive and prestigious order of chivalry in the world.
Revolutionary sentiments arose in 1872 after three Filipino priests, Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora, known as Gomburza, were accused of sedition by colonial authorities and executed by garotte. This would inspire the Propaganda Movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, Graciano López Jaena, and Mariano Ponce, that clamored for adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. José Rizal, the most celebrated intellectual and radical ilustrado of the era, wrote the novels "Noli Me Tángere", and "El filibusterismo", which greatly inspired the movement for independence. The Katipunan, a secret society whose primary purpose was that of overthrowing Spanish rule in the Philippines, was founded by Andrés Bonifacio who became its Supremo (leader).
In the 1860s to 1890s, in the urban areas of the Philippines, especially at Manila, according to burial statistics, as much as 3.3% of the population were pure European Spaniards and the pure Chinese were as high as 9.9%. The Spanish-Filipino and Chinese-Filipino Mestizo populations also fluctuated. Eventually, everybody belonging to these non-native categories diminished because they were assimilated into and chose to self-identify as pure Filipinos since during the Philippine Revolution, the term "Filipino" included anybody born in the Philippines coming from any race. That would explain the abrupt drop of otherwise high Chinese, Spanish and mestizo, percentages across the country by the time of the first American census in 1903.
The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was wrongly implicated in the outbreak of the revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Katipunan in Cavite split into two groups, Magdiwang, led by Mariano Álvarez (a relative of Bonifacio's by marriage), and Magdalo, led by Baldomero Aguinaldo cousin of Emilio Aguinaldo. Tension between the factions led to the Tejeros Convention in 1897, at which an election chose Emilio Aguinaldo as President over Bonifacio. Subsequent leadership conflicts between the two culminated in the execution of the former by the latter's soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a truce with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong. Not all the revolutionary generals complied with the agreement. One, General Francisco Macabulos, established a Central Executive Committeee to serve as the interim government until a more suitable one was created. Armed conflicts resumed, this time coming from almost every province in Spanish-governed Philippines.
In 1898, as conflicts continued in the Philippines, the USS Maine, having been sent to Cuba because of U.S. concerns for the safety of its citizens during an ongoing Cuban revolution, exploded and sank in Havana harbor. This event precipitated the Spanish–American War. After Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila, a German squadron arrived in Manila and engaged in maneuvers which Dewey, seeing this as obstruction of his blockade, offered war—after which the Germans backed down. The German Emperor expected an American defeat, with Spain left in a sufficiently weak position for the revolutionaries to capture Manila—leaving the Philippines ripe for German picking.
The U.S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. Aguinaldo arrived on May 19, 1898, via transport provided by Dewey. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines in Kawit, Cavite. Aguinaldo proclaimed a Revolutionary Government of the Philippines on June 23. By the time U.S. land forces arrived, the Filipinos had taken control of the entire island of Luzon except for Spanish capitol in the walled city of Intramuros. In the Battle of Manila, on August 13, 1898, the United States captured the city from the Spanish. This battle marked an end of Filipino-American collaboration, as Filipino forces were prevented from entering the captured city of Manila, an action deeply resented by the Filipinos.
The First Philippine Republic (1899–1901)
On January 23, 1899, the First Philippine Republic was proclaimed under Asia's first democratic constitution, with Aguinaldo as its president. Under Aguinaldo, The Philippine Revolutionary Army was also renowned to be racially tolerant and progressive as it had a multi-ethnic composition that included various other races and nationalities asides from the native Filipino, being its officers. Juan Cailles an Indian and French Mestizo served as a Major General,: 507 the Chinese Filipino José Ignacio Paua was a Brigadier General, and Vicente Catalan who was appointed supreme Admiral of the Philippine Revolutionary Navy was a Cuban of Criollo descent.
Despite the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, Spain and the United States had sent commissioners to Paris to draw up the terms of the Treaty of Paris to end the Spanish–American War. The Filipino representative, Felipe Agoncillo, had been excluded from sessions as Aguinaldo's government was not recognized by the family of nations. Although there was substantial domestic opposition, the United States decided to annex the Philippines. In addition to Guam and Puerto Rico, Spain was forced in the negotiations to cede the Philippines to the U.S. in exchange for US$20,000,000.00. U.S. President McKinley justified the annexation of the Philippines by saying that it was "a gift from the gods" and that since "they were unfit for self-government, ... there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them", in spite of the Philippines having been already Christianized by the Spanish over the course of several centuries. The First Philippine Republic resisted the U.S. occupation, resulting in the Philippine–American War (1899–1913).
The estimated GDP per capita for the Philippines in 1900, the year Spain left and the First Philippine Republic was in operation, was $1,033.00. That made it the second-richest place in all of Asia, just a little behind Japan ($1,135.00), and far ahead of China ($652.00) and India ($625.00).
American rule (1898–1946)
Filipinos initially saw their relationship with the United States as that of two nations joined in a common struggle against Spain. However, the United States later distanced itself from the interests of the Filipino insurgents. Emilio Aguinaldo was unhappy that the United States would not commit to paper a statement of support for Philippine independence. The islands were ceded by Spain to the United States alongside Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. A compensation of US$20 million was paid to Spain according to the terms of the 1898 Treaty of Paris. Relations deteriorated and tensions heightened as it became clear that the Americans were in the islands to stay.
Hostilities broke out on February 4, 1899, after two American privates killed three Filipino soldiers as American forces launched a major attack in San Juan, a Manila suburb. This began the Philippine–American War, which would cost far more money and take far more lives than the Spanish–American War. Some 126,000 American soldiers would be committed to the conflict; 4,234 Americans died, as did 12,000–20,000 Philippine Republican Army soldiers who were part of a nationwide guerrilla movement of at least 80,000 to 100,000 soldiers.
The general population, caught between Americans and rebels, suffered significantly. At least 200,000 Filipino civilians lost their lives as an indirect result of the war mostly as a result of the cholera epidemic at the war's end that took between 150,000 and 200,000 lives. Atrocities were committed by both sides.
The poorly equipped Filipino troops were easily overpowered by American troops in open combat, but they were formidable opponents in guerrilla warfare. Malolos, the revolutionary capital, was captured on March 31, 1899. Aguinaldo and his government escaped, however, establishing a new capital at San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. On June 5, 1899, Antonio Luna, Aguinaldo's most capable military commander, was killed by Aguinaldo's guards in an apparent assassination while visiting Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija to meet with Aguinaldo. With his best commander dead and his troops suffering continued defeats as American forces pushed into northern Luzon, Aguinaldo dissolved the regular army on November 13 and ordered the establishment of decentralized guerrilla commands in each of several military zones. Another key general, Gregorio del Pilar, was killed on December 2, 1899, in the Battle of Tirad Pass—a rear guard action to delay the Americans while Aguinaldo made good his escape through the mountains.
Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901, and was brought to Manila. Convinced of the futility of further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms, officially bringing an end to the war. However, sporadic insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines, especially in the Muslim south, until 1913.
In 1900, President McKinley sent the Taft Commission, to the Philippines, with a mandate to legislate laws and re-engineer the political system. On July 1, 1901, William Howard Taft, the head of the commission, was inaugurated as Civil Governor, with limited executive powers. The authority of the Military Governor was continued in those areas where the insurrection persisted. The Taft Commission passed laws to set up the fundamentals of the new government, including a judicial system, civil service, and local government. A Philippine Constabulary was organized to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assume the responsibilities of the United States Army.
The Tagalog and Negros Cantonal Republics
Brigadier General James F. Smith arrived at Bacolod on March 4, 1899, as the Military Governor of the Sub-district of Negros, after receiving an invitation from Aniceto Lacson, president of the breakaway Cantonal Republic of Negros. Another insurgent republic was briefly formed during American administration: the Tagalog Republic in Luzon, under Macario Sakay.
Insular Government (1901–1935)
The Philippine Organic Act was the basic law for the Insular Government, so called because civil administration was under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs. This government saw its mission as one of tutelage, preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. On July 4, 1902, the office of military governor was abolished and full executive power passed from Adna Chaffee, the last military governor, to Taft, who became the first U.S. Governor-General of the Philippines. United States policies towards the Philippines shifted with changing administrations. During the early years of territorial administration, the Americans were reluctant to delegate authority to the Filipinos, but an elected Philippine Assembly was inaugurated in 1907, as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, with the appointive Philippine Commission becoming the upper house.
Philippines was a major target for the progressive reformers. A 1907 report to Secretary of War Taft provided a summary of what the American civil administration had achieved. It included, in addition to the rapid building of a public school system based on English teaching, and boasted about such modernizing achievements as:
- steel and concrete wharves at the newly renovated Port of Manila; dredging the River Pasig,; streamlining of the Insular Government; accurate, intelligible accounting; the construction of a telegraph and cable communications network; the establishment of a postal savings bank; large-scale road-and bridge-building; impartial and incorrupt policing; well-financed civil engineering; the conservation of old Spanish architecture; large public parks; a bidding process for the right to build railways; Corporation law; and a coastal and geological survey.
In 1903 the American reformers in the Philippines passed two major land acts designed to turn landless peasants into owners of their farms. By 1905 the law was clearly a failure. Reformers such as Taft believed landownership would turn unruly agrarians into loyal subjects. The social structure in rural Philippines was highly traditional and highly unequal. Drastic changes in land ownership posed a major challenge to local elites, who would not accept it, nor would their peasant clients. The American reformers blamed peasant resistance to landownership for the law's failure and argued that large plantations and sharecropping was the Philippines’ best path to development.
Elite Filipina women played a major role in the reform movement, especially on health issues. They specialized on such urgent needs as infant care and maternal and child health, the distribution of pure milk and teaching new mothers about children's health. The most prominent organizations were the La Protección de la Infancia, and the National Federation of Women's Clubs.
When Democrat Woodrow Wilson became U.S. president in 1913, new policies were launched designed to gradually lead to Philippine independence. In 1902 U.S. law established Filipinos citizenship in the Philippine Islands; unlike Hawaii in 1898 and Puerto Rico in 1918, they did not become citizens of the United States. The Jones Law of 1916 became the new basic law, promised eventual independence. It provide for the election of both houses of the legislature.
In socio-economic terms, the Philippines made solid progress in this period. Foreign trade had amounted to 62 million pesos in 1895, 13% of which was with the United States. By 1920, it had increased to 601 million pesos, 66% of which was with the United States. A health care system was established which, by 1930, reduced the mortality rate from all causes, including various tropical diseases, to a level similar to that of the United States itself. The practices of slavery, piracy and headhunting were suppressed but not entirely extinguished. A new educational system was established with English as the medium of instruction, eventually becoming a lingua franca of the Islands. The 1920s saw alternating periods of cooperation and confrontation with American governors-general, depending on how intent the incumbent was on exercising his powers vis-à-vis the Philippine legislature. Members to the elected legislature lobbied for immediate and complete independence from the United States. Several independence missions were sent to Washington, D.C. A civil service was formed and was gradually taken over by Filipinos, who had effectively gained control by 1918.
Philippine politics during the American territorial era was dominated by the Nacionalista Party, which was founded in 1907. Although the party's platform called for "immediate independence", their policy toward the Americans was highly accommodating. Within the political establishment, the call for independence was spearheaded by Manuel L. Quezon, who served continuously as Senate president from 1916 until 1935.
World War I gave the Philippines the opportunity to pledge assistance to the US war effort. This took the form of an offer to supply a division of troops, as well as providing funding for the construction of two warships. A locally recruited national guard was created and significant numbers of Filipinos volunteered for service in the US Navy and army.
Frank Murphy was the last Governor-General of the Philippines (1933–35), and the first U.S. High Commissioner of the Philippines (1935–36). The change in form was more than symbolic: it was intended as a manifestation of the transition to independence.
The Great Depression in the early thirties hastened the progress of the Philippines towards independence. In the United States it was mainly the sugar industry and labor unions that had a stake in loosening the U.S. ties to the Philippines since they could not compete with the Philippine cheap sugar (and other commodities) which could freely enter the U.S. market. Therefore, they agitated in favor of granting independence to the Philippines so that its cheap products and labor could be shut out of the United States.
In 1933, the United States Congress passed the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act as a Philippine Independence Act over President Herbert Hoover's veto. Though the bill had been drafted with the aid of a commission from the Philippines, it was opposed by Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon, partially because of provisions leaving the United States in control of naval bases. Under his influence, the Philippine legislature rejected the bill. The following year, a revised act known as the Tydings–McDuffie Act was finally passed. The act provided for the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with transition to full independence after a ten-year period. The commonwealth would have its own constitution and be self-governing, though foreign policy would be the responsibility of the United States, and certain legislation required approval of the United States president. The Act stipulated that the date of independence would be on July 4 following the tenth anniversary of the establishment of the Commonwealth.
A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30, 1934. On February 8, 1935, the 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of 177 to 1. The constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, 1935, and ratified by popular vote on May 14, 1935.
On September 17, 1935, presidential elections were held. Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente leader Gregorio Aglipay, and others. Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively.
The Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, 1935, in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. The event was attended by a crowd of around 300,000 people. Under the Tydings–McDuffie Act this meant that the date of full independence for the Philippines was set for July 4, 1946, a timetable which was followed after the passage of almost eleven very eventful years.
The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence. These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a conscription for service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, and the colonization of Mindanao.
However, uncertainties, especially in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U.S. commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines, and in the economy due to the Great Depression, proved to be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, and of power struggles between Osmeña and Quezon, especially after Quezon was permitted to be re-elected after one six-year term.
A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion and occupation during World War II.
World War II and Japanese occupation
Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga on the morning of December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.
On January 2, 1942, General MacArthur declared the capital city, Manila, an open city to prevent its destruction. The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May of the same year. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. About 10,000 Filipinos and 1,200 Americans died before reaching their destination. President Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States, where they set up a government in exile. MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines.
The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission. They initially organized a Council of State, through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when Japan declared the Philippines as an independent republic at Gozen Kaigi since U.S. government had promised independence of the Philippines in 1935. The Japanese-sponsored republic headed by President José P. Laurel proved to be unpopular.
From mid-1942 through mid-1944, Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army, as well as remnants of the U.S. Army Forces Far East, continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and was considered an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Supplies and encouragement were provided by U.S. Navy submarines and a few parachute drops. Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap, which armed some 30,000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon. While remaining loyal to the United States, many Filipinos hoped and believed that liberation from the Japanese would bring them freedom and their already-promised independence.
The Philippines was the bloodiest theater of the war for the invading empire, with at least 498,600 Japanese troops killed in fighting the combined Filipino resistance and American soldiers, a larger number of casualties compared to the second-placed theater, the entirety of China, which caused the Japanese about 455,700 casualties. The occupation of the Philippines by Japan ended at the war's conclusion. At the eve of the liberation of the Philippines, the Allied forces and the Japanese Empire waged the largest naval battle in history, by gross tonnage in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The American army had been fighting the Philippines Campaign since October 1944, when MacArthur's Sixth United States Army landed on Leyte. Landings in other parts of the country had followed, and the Allies, with the Philippine Commonwealth troops, pushed toward Manila. However, fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, 1945. Approximately 10,000 U.S. soldiers were missing in action in the Philippines when the war ended, more than in any other country in the Pacific or European Theaters. The Philippines suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction, especially during the Battle of Manila. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, a large portion during the final months of the war, and Manila had been extensively damaged.
As in most occupied countries, crime, looting, corruption, and black markets were endemic. Japan in 1943 proposed independence on new terms, and some collaborators went along with the plan, but Japan was clearly losing the war and nothing became of it.
With a view of building up the economic base of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, the Japanese Army envisioned using the islands as a source of agricultural products needed by its industry. For example, Japan had a surplus of sugar from Taiwan but, a severe shortage of cotton, so they tried to grow cotton on sugar lands with disastrous results. They lacked the seeds, pesticides, and technical skills to grow cotton. Jobless farm workers flocked to the cities, where there was minimal relief and few jobs. The Japanese Army also tried using cane sugar for fuel, castor beans and copra for oil, derris for quinine, cotton for uniforms, and abaca (hemp) for rope. The plans were very difficult to implement in the face of limited skills, collapsed international markets, bad weather, and transportation shortages. The program was a failure that gave very little help to Japanese industry, and diverted resources needed for food production.
Living conditions were bad throughout the Philippines during the war. Transportation between the islands was difficult because of lack of fuel. Food was in very short supply, due to inflation.
Postcolonial Philippines and the Third Republic (1946–1965)
The return of the Americans in spring 1945 was welcomed by nearly all the Filipinos, in sharp contrast to the situation in nearby Dutch East Indies. The collaborationist "Philippine Republic" set up by the Japanese under Jose P. Laurel, was highly unpopular, and the extreme destructiveness of the Japanese Army in Manila in its last days solidified Japan's image as a permanent target of hate. The pre-war Commonwealth system was reestablished under Sergio Osmeña, who became president in exile after President Quezon died in 1944. Osmeña was little-known and his Nacionalista Party was no longer such a dominant force. Osmeña supporters challenged the legitimacy of Manuel Roxas who had served as secretary to Laurel. MacArthur testified to Roxas' patriotism and the collaborationist issue disappeared after Roxas was elected in 1946 on a platform calling for closer ties with the United States; adherence to the new United Nations; national reconstruction; relief for the masses; social justice for the working class; the maintenance of peace and order; the preservation of individual rights and liberties of the citizenry; and honesty and efficiency of government. The United States Congress passed a series of programs to help rehabilitation, including $2 billion over five years for war damages and rehabilitation, and a new tariff law that provided for a 20-year transition from free trade to a low tariff with the United States. Washington also demanded that Americans would have equal rights with Filipinos in business activities, a special treatment that was resented. In 1947 the United States secured an agreement that it would keep its major military and naval bases. On the whole the transition to independence, achieved in 1946, was mostly peaceful and highly successful, despite the extreme difficulties caused by massive war damages. The special relationship with the United States remained the dominant feature until sharp criticism arose in the 1960s.
Administration of Manuel Roxas (1946–1948)
Elections were held in April 1946, with Manuel Roxas becoming the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. The United States ceded its sovereignty over the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as scheduled. However, the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on United States markets—more dependent, according to United States high commissioner Paul McNutt, than any single U.S. state was dependent on the rest of the country. The Philippine Trade Act, passed as a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States, exacerbated the dependency with provisions further tying the economies of the two countries. A military assistance pact was signed in 1947 granting the United States a 99-year lease on designated military bases in the country.
During Roxas' term of office administration of the Turtle Islands and Mangsee Islands was transferred by the United Kingdom to the Republic of the Philippines. By an international treaty concluded in 1930 between the United States (in respect of its then overseas territory, the Philippine Archipelago) and the United Kingdom (in respect of its then protectorate, the State of North Borneo) the two powers agreed the international boundaries between those respective territories. In that treaty the United Kingdom also accepted that the Turtle Islands as well as the Mangsee Islands were part of the Philippines Archipelago and therefore under US sovereignty. However, by a supplemental international treaty concluded at the same time, the two powers agreed that those islands, although part of the Philippines Archipelago, would remain under the administration of the State of North Borneo's British North Borneo Company. The supplemental treaty provided that the British North Borneo Company would continue to administer those islands unless and until the United States government gave notice to the United Kingdom calling for administration of the islands to be transferred to the U.S. The U.S. never gave such a notice. On the 4th of July, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was born. It became the successor to the U.S. under the treaties of 1930. On July 15, 1946, the United Kingdom annexed the State of North Borneo and, in the view of the United Kingdom, became the sovereign power with respect to what had been the State of North Borneo. On September 19, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines notified the United Kingdom that it wished to take over the administration of the Turtle Islands, Tawi-Tawi and the Mangesse Islands. Pursuant to a supplemental international agreement, the transfer of administration became effective on October 16, 1947.
Administration of Elpidio Quirino (1948–1953)
The Roxas administration granted general amnesty to those who had collaborated with the Japanese in World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. Roxas died suddenly of a heart attack in April 1948, and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino, was elevated to the presidency. He ran for president in his own right in 1949, defeating José P. Laurel and winning a four-year term.
World War II had left the Philippines demoralized and severely damaged. The task of reconstruction was complicated by the activities of the Communist-supported Hukbalahap guerrillas (known as "Huks"), who had evolved into a violent resistance force against the new Philippine government. Government policy towards the Huks alternated between gestures of negotiation and harsh suppression. Secretary of Defense Ramon Magsaysay initiated a campaign to defeat the insurgents militarily and at the same time win popular support for the government. The Huk movement had waned in the early 1950s, finally ending with the unconditional surrender of Huk leader Luis Taruc in May 1954.
Enhancing President Manuel Roxas' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people. After periodic surprise visits to the slums of Manila and other backward regions of the country, President Quirino officially made public a seven-point program for social security, to wit: Unemployment insurance, Old-age insurance, Accident and permanent disability insurance, Health insurance, Maternity insurance, State relief, Labor opportunity
President Quirino also created the Social Security Commission, making Social Welfare Commissioner Asuncion Perez chairman of the same. This was followed by the creation of the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration, charges with extending aid, loans, and relief to the less fortunate citizens. Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits.
Administration of Ramon Magsaysay (1953–1957)
As President, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movements in Southeast Asia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific.
During his term, he made Malacañang literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force (PAF): President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight. He restored the people's trust in the military and in the government.
Magsaysay's administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free in modern Philippine history; his rule is often cited as the Philippines's "Golden Years". Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the country gained international recognition in sports, culture, and foreign affairs. The Philippines placed second on a ranking of Asia's clean and well-governed countries.
Supported by the United States, Magsaysay was elected president in 1953 on a populist platform. He promised sweeping economic reform, and made progress in land reform by promoting the resettlement of poor people in the Catholic north into traditionally Muslim areas. Though this relieved population pressure in the north, it heightened religious hostilities. Remnants of the communist Hukbalahap were defeated by Magsaysay. He was extremely popular with the common people, and his death in an airplane crash in March 1957 dealt a serious blow to national morale. At this time, the Philippines joined the United Nations in defending South Korea from North Korean invasions. The Philippines was the first country in Southeast Asia to recognize South Korean independence and was the first to send military units to fight on South Korea's behalf.
Administration of Carlos P. Garcia (1957–1961)
Carlos P. Garcia succeeded to the presidency after Magsaysay's death, and was elected to a four-year term in the election of November that same year. His administration emphasized the nationalist theme of "Filipino first", arguing that the Filipino people should be given the chances to improve the country's economy. Garcia successfully negotiated for the United States' relinquishment of large military land reservations. However, his administration lost popularity on issues of government corruption as his term advanced.
Administration of Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965)
In the presidential elections held on November 14, 1961, Vice President Diosdado Macapagal defeated re-electionist President Carlos P. Garcia and Emmanuel Pelaez as a vice president. President Macapagal changed the independence day of the Philippines from July 4 to June 12.
Land Reform Code
The code declared that it was State policy
- To establish owner-cultivatorship and the economic family-size farm as the basis of Philippine agriculture and, as a consequence, divert landlord capital in agriculture to industrial development;
- To achieve a dignified existence for the small farmers free from pernicious institutional restraints and practices;
- To create a truly viable social and economic structure in agriculture conducive to greater productivity and higher farm incomes;
- To apply all labor laws equally and without discrimination to both industrial and agricultural wage earners;
- To provide a more vigorous and systematic land resettlement program and public land distribution; and
- To make the small farmers more independent, self-reliant and responsible citizens, and a source of genuine strength in our democratic society.
and, in pursuance of those policies, established the following
- An agricultural leasehold system to replace all existing share tenancy systems in agriculture;
- A declaration of rights for agricultural labor;
- An authority for the acquisition and equitable distribution of agricultural land;
- An institution to finance the acquisition and distribution of agricultural land;
- A machinery to extend credit and similar assistance to agriculture;
- A machinery to provide marketing, management, and other technical services to agriculture;
- A unified administration for formulating and implementing projects of land reform;
- An expanded program of land capability survey, classification, and registration; and
- A judicial system to decide issues arising under this Code and other related laws and regulations.
Macapagal ran for re-election in 1965, but was defeated by his former party-mate, Senate President Ferdinand Marcos, who had switched to the Nacionalista Party. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated public works projects and intensified tax collection. In a failed attempt to retake east Sabah, the Jabidah massacre, where Muslim Tausug Filipinos were killed by the Philippine Army, occurred under the authority of Marcos. Due to his popularity among Christians, Marcos was re-elected president in 1969, becoming the first president of the Philippines to get a second term. Crime and civil disobedience increased. The Communist Party of the Philippines formed the New People's Army and the Moro National Liberation Front continued to fight for an independent Muslim nation in Mindanao. An explosion which killed opposition lawmakers during the proclamation rally of the senatorial slate of the Liberal Party on August 21, 1971, led Marcos to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Protests surged and the writ was restored on January 11, 1972.
Amid the growing popularity of the opposition, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972, by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081 to stifle dissent. Marcos justified the declaration by citing the threat of Communist insurgency and the alleged ambush of defense secretary Juan Ponce Enrile. Ruling by decree, Marcos curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, abolished Congress, closed down major media establishments, ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics: senators Benigno Aquino Jr., Jovito Salonga and Jose Diokno. Crime rates plunged dramatically after a curfew was implemented. Many protesters, students, and political opponents were forced to go into exile, and a number were killed.
A constitutional convention, which had been called for in 1970 to replace the colonial 1935 Constitution, continued the work of framing a new constitution after the declaration of martial law. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973. Marcos claimed that martial law was the prelude to creating a "New Society", which he would rule for more than two decades. The economy during the 1970s was robust, due to previous engagements by various administrations. However, the economy suffered after incurring massive debt and downgrading prospects of the Philippines under martial rule, while the wife of the president, Imelda Marcos, lived in high society.
The human rights abuses under the dictatorship particularly targeted political opponents, student activists, journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought back against the administration. Based on the documentation of Amnesty International, Task Force Detainees of the Philippines, and similar human rights monitoring entities, the dictatorship was marked by 3,257 known extrajudicial killings, 35,000 documented tortures, 77 'disappeared', and 70,000 incarcerations.
Some 2,520 of the 3,257 murder victims were tortured and mutilated before their bodies were dumped in various places for the public to discover - a tactic meant to sow fear among the public, which came to be known as "salvaging." Some bodies were even cannibalized.
Marcos officially lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. However, he retained much of the government's power for arrest and detention. Corruption and nepotism as well as civil unrest contributed to a serious decline in economic growth and development under Marcos, whose own health faced obstacles due to lupus. The political opposition boycotted the 1981 presidential elections, which pitted Marcos against retired general Alejo Santos, in protest over his control over the results. Marcos won by a margin of over 16 million votes, allowing him to have another six-year term under the new Constitution that his administration crafted. Finance Minister Cesar Virata was eventually appointed to succeed Marcos as Prime Minister.
In 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr. was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos and began a succession of events, including pressure from the United States, that culminated in a snap presidential election in February 1986. The opposition united under Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino. The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (Comelec), declared Marcos the winner of the election. However, there was a large discrepancy between the Comelec results and that of Namfrel, an accredited poll watcher. The allegedly fraudulent result was rejected by local and international observers. Cardinal Jaime Sin declared support for Corazon Aquino, which encouraged popular revolts. General Fidel Ramos and Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile withdrew their support for Marcos. A peaceful civilian-military uprising, now popularly called the People Power Revolution, forced Marcos into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president on February 25, 1986. The administration of Marcos has been called by various sources as a kleptocracy and a conjugal dictatorship.
Fifth Republic (1986–present)
Administration of Corazon Cojuangco Aquino (1986–1992)
Corazon Aquino immediately formed a revolutionary government to normalize the situation, and provided for a transitional "Freedom Constitution". A new permanent constitution was ratified and enacted in February 1987.
The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in the Cordilleras and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress.
Progress was made in revitalizing democratic institutions and respect for civil liberties, but Aquino's administration was also viewed as weak and fractious, and a return to full political stability and economic development was hampered by several attempted coups staged by disaffected members of the Philippine military.
In 1991, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U.S. military bases in the country. The United States turned over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992, ending almost a century of U.S. military presence in the Philippines.
Administration of Fidel Valdez Ramos (1992–1998)
In the 1992 elections, Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos, endorsed by Aquino, won the presidency with just 23.6% of the vote in a field of seven candidates. Early in his administration, Ramos declared "national reconciliation" his highest priority and worked at building a coalition to overcome the divisiveness of the Aquino years.
He legalized the Communist Party and laid the groundwork for talks with communist insurgents, Muslim separatists, and military rebels, attempting to convince them to cease their armed activities against the government. In June 1994, Ramos signed into law a general conditional amnesty covering all rebel groups, and Philippine military and police personnel accused of crimes committed while fighting the insurgents.
In October 1995, the government signed an agreement bringing the military insurgency to an end. A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), a major separatist group fighting for an independent homeland in Mindanao, was signed in 1996, ending the 24-year-old struggle. However, an MNLF splinter group, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front continued the armed struggle for an Islamic state.
Efforts by Ramos supporters to gain passage of an amendment that would allow him to run for a second term were met with large-scale protests, leading Ramos to declare he would not seek re-election.
On his presidency the death penalty was revived in the light of the rape-slay case of UPLB students Eileen Sarmienta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and the first person to be executed was Leo Echegaray in 1999.
Administration of Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998–2001)
Joseph Estrada, a former movie actor who had served as Ramos' vice president, was elected president by a landslide victory in 1998. His election campaign pledged to help the poor and develop the country's agricultural sector. He enjoyed widespread popularity, particularly among the poor. Estrada assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis. The economy did, however, recover from a low −0.6% growth in 1998 to a moderate growth of 3.4% by 1999.
Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution. The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the 'restrictive' economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines. However it was not successful in amending the constitution.
After the worsening secessionist movement in Mindanao in April 2000, President Estrada declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF). The government later captured 46 MILF camps including the MILF's headquarters', Camp Abubakar.
In October 2000, however, Estrada was accused of having accepted millions of pesos in payoffs from illegal gambling businesses. He was impeached by the House of Representatives but his impeachment trial in the Senate broke down when the senate voted to block examination of the president's bank records. In response, massive street protests erupted demanding Estrada's resignation. Faced with street protests, cabinet resignations, and a withdrawal of support from the armed forces, Estrada was forced from office on January 20, 2001.
Administration of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2001–2010)
Vice President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (the daughter of President Diosdado Macapagal) was sworn in as Estrada's successor on the day of his departure. Her accession to power was further legitimized by the mid-term congressional and local elections held four months later, when her coalition won an overwhelming victory.
Arroyo's initial term in office was marked by fractious coalition politics as well as a military mutiny in Manila in July 2003 that led her to declare a month-long nationwide state of rebellion. Later on in December 2002 she said would not run in the May 10, 2004 presidential election, but she reversed herself in October 2003 and decided to join the race anyway.
She was re-elected and sworn in for her own six-year term as president on June 30, 2004. In 2005, a tape of a wiretapped conversation surfaced bearing the voice of Arroyo apparently asking an election official if her margin of victory could be maintained. The tape sparked protests calling for Arroyo's resignation. Arroyo admitted to inappropriately speaking to an election official, but denied allegations of fraud and refused to step down. Attempts to impeach the president failed later that year.
Halfway through her second term, Arroyo unsuccessfully attempted to push for an overhaul of the constitution to transform the present presidential-bicameral republic into a federal parliamentary-unicameral form of government, which critics describe would be a move that would allow her to stay in power as Prime Minister.
Numerous other scandals (such as the Maguindanao massacre, wherein 58 people were killed, and the unsuccessful NBN-ZTE broadband deal) took place in the dawn of her administration. She formally ended her term as president in 2010 (wherein she was succeeded by Senator Benigno Aquino III) and ran for a seat in congress the same year (becoming the second president after Jose P. Laurel to run for lower office following the presidency).
Administration of Benigno Simeon Aquino III (2010–2016)
Benigno Aquino III began his presidency on June 30, 2010, the fifteenth President of the Philippines. He is a bachelor and the son of former Philippines president Corazon C. Aquino. His administration claimed to be focused on major reforms that would bring greater transparency, reduced poverty, reduced corruption, and a booming market which will give birth to a newly industrialized nation.
Just as with his predecessor, however, Aquino's administration has been marked with a mix of success and scandal since his inauguration, beginning with the 2010 Manila hostage crisis that caused deeply strained relations between Manila and Hong Kong for a time (affecting major events such as Wikimania 2013).
Tensions regarding Sabah due to the Sultanate of Sulu's claim gradually rose during the early years of his administration. Standoffs in Sabah between The Sultanate of Sulu's Royal Army and the Malaysian forces struck in 2013.
In 2012, the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed to create the Bangsamoro Government in Mindanao. In response, the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) was assembled by religious extremists with the goal of seceding from the Philippines.
The economy performed well at 7.2% GDP growth, the second fastest in Asia.
On May 15, 2013, the Philippines implemented the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, commonly known as K–12 program. It added two more years to the country's ten-year schooling system for primary and secondary education.
The country was then hit by Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) on November 8, 2013, which heavily devastated the Visayas. Massive rehabilitation efforts by foreign world powers sending aid, devolved into chaos following the revelations that the administration and that the government had not been properly handing out the aid packages and preference for political maneuvering over the safety of the people, leading to mass deterioration of food and medical supplies.
In 2014, the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro was finally signed after 17 years of negotiation with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a move that is expected to bring peace in Mindanao and the Sulu.
When the United States President Barack Obama visited the Philippines on April 28, 2014, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement, was signed, paving the way for the return of United States Armed Forces bases into the country.
On January 25, 2015, 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force (PNP-SAF) were killed during an encounter between MILF and BIFF in Mamasapano, Maguindanao putting efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law into law in an impasse.
Under his presidency, the Philippines has had controversial clashes with the People's Republic of China on a number of issues (such as the standoff in Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea and the dispute over the Spratly islands). This resulted in the proceedings of the Philippines to file a sovereignty case against China in a global arbitration tribunal. Later on in 2014, the Aquino Administration then filed a case to the Arbitration Tribunal in The Hague which challenged Beijing's claim in the South China Sea after Chinese ships were accused of harassing a small Philippine vessel carrying goods for stationed military personnel in the South Thomas Shoal where an old Philippine ship had been stationed for many years.
Administration of Rodrigo Roa Duterte (2016–present)
Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte of PDP–Laban won the 2016 presidential election, garnering 39.01% or 16,601,997 of the total votes, becoming the first Mindanaoan to become president. On the other hand, Camarines Sur 3rd District representative Leni Robredo won with the second narrowest margin in history, against Senator Bongbong Marcos.
Under his presidency, the government launched a 24-hour complaint office accessible to the public through a nationwide hotline, 8888, and changed the nationwide emergency telephone number from 117 to 911. In addition, he has launched an intensified anti-drug campaign to fulfill a campaign promise of wiping out criminality in six months. By August 2019, the death toll for the Philippine Drug War is 5,779.
On November 8, 2016, the Supreme Court of the Philippines ruled in favor of the burial of the late president Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng Mga Bayani, the country's official cemetery for heroes, provoking protests from various groups. The burial was done on November 18, 2016, in private. Later in the afternoon, the event was made public.
On May 23, 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte signed Proclamation No. 216 declaring a 60-day martial law in Mindanao following clashes between government forces and the Maute group in Marawi.
In a bid for attaining inclusive economic growth and the improvement quality of life in the country, Duterte launched DuterteNomics, with infrastructure development and industrialization being a significant part of its policy. The Build! Build! Build! Infrastructure Plan, which aims to usher in "a golden age of infrastructure" in the country, began in 2017. It includes the development of transport infrastructure such as railways, roads, airports, and seaports, as well as other infrastructure such as irrigation and flood control projects. The goal of this program is to sustain the country's economic growth and accelerate poverty reduction. The construction industry needs two million more workers to sustain the program. The Build, Build, Build program is made up of 75 projects, which includes six air transport projects, 12 rail transport projects, and four water transport projects. It also includes four major flood management projects, 11 water supply and irrigation projects, four power projects, and three other public infrastructure projects. The country is expected to spend $160 billion to $180 billion up to 2022 for the public investments in infrastructure.
In 2017, Duterte signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act, which provides for free tuition and exemption from other fees in public universities and colleges for Filipino students, as well as subsidies for those enrolled in private higher education institutions. He also signed 20 new laws, including the Universal Health Care Act, the creation of the Department of Human Settlements and Urban Development, establishing a national cancer control program, and allowing subscribers to keep their mobile numbers for life.
Under his presidency, the Bangsamoro Organic Law was legislated into law. It was later ratified after a plebiscite was held. The Bangsamoro transition period began, paving the way for the formal creation of the Bangsamoro ARMM.
- Ancient Filipino diet and health
- Archaeology of the Philippines
- Battles of Manila
- Battles of the Philippines
- Filipino nationalism
- Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935
- History of Asia
- History of Southeast Asia
- List of disasters in the Philippines
- List of Philippine historic sites
- List of presidents of the Philippines
- List of sovereign state leaders in the Philippines
- Military history of the Philippines
- National hero of the Philippines
- Politics of the Philippines
- Resident Commissioner of the Philippines
- Sovereignty of the Philippines
- Timeline of Philippine history
- Timeline of Philippine sovereignty
- Ingicco, T.; van den Bergh, G.D.; Jago-on, C.; Bahain, J.-J.; Chacón, M.G.; Amano, N.; Forestier, H.; King, C.; Manalo, K.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Reyes, M.C.; Sémah, A.-M.; Shao, Q.; Voinchet, P.; Falguères, C.; Albers, P.C.H.; Lising, M.; Lyras, G.; Yurnaldi, D.; Rochette, P.; Bautista, A.; de Vos, J. (May 1, 2018). "Earliest known hominin activity in the Philippines by 709 thousand years ago". Nature. 557 (7704): 233–237. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..233I. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0072-8. PMID 29720661. S2CID 13742336.
- Mijares, Armand Salvador; Détroit, Florent; Piper, Philip; Grün, Rainer; Bellwood, Peter; Aubert, Maxime; Champion, Guillaume; Cuevas, Nida; De Leon, Alexandra; Dizon, Eusebio (July 2010). "New evidence for a 67,000-year-old human presence at Callao Cave, Luzon, Philippines". Journal of Human Evolution. 59 (1): 123–132. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2010.04.008. PMID 20569967.
- Détroit, Florent; Mijares, Armand Salvador; Corny, Julien; Daver, Guillaume; Zanolli, Clément; Dizon, Eusebio; Robles, Emil; Grün, Rainer; Piper, Philip J. (April 2019). "A new species of Homo from the Late Pleistocene of the Philippines" (PDF). Nature. 568 (7751): 181–186. Bibcode:2019Natur.568..181D. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1067-9. PMID 30971845. S2CID 106411053.
- Détroit, Florent; Dizon, Eusebio; Falguères, Christophe; Hameau, Sébastien; Ronquillo, Wilfredo; Sémah, François (December 2004). "Upper Pleistocene Homo sapiens from the Tabon cave (Palawan, The Philippines): description and dating of new discoveries". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 3 (8): 705–712. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2004.06.004.
- Reid, Lawrence A. (2007). "Historical linguistics and Philippine hunter-gatherers". In L. Billings; N. Goudswaard (eds.). Piakandatu ami Dr. Howard P. McKaughan. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines and SIL Philippines. pp. 6–32.
The Negrito groups are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines... genetic evidence (the occurrence of unique alleles) suggests that the Negrito groups in Mindanao may have been separated from those in Luzon for twenty to thirty thousand years (p.10).
- Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tryon, Darrell, eds. (2006). The Austronesians: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Comparative Austronesian Series. ANU Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 978-1-920942-85-4. JSTOR j.ctt2jbjx1.
- "Pre-colonial Manila". Malacañan Palace: Presidential Museum and Library. Retrieved October 9, 2021.
- Jocano, F. Landa (2001). Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. ISBN 978-971-622-006-3.
- Junker, Laura Lee (1998). "Integrating History and Archaeology in the Study of Contact Period Philippine Chiefdoms". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 2 (4): 291–320. doi:10.1023/A:1022611908759. JSTOR 20852912. S2CID 141415414.
- Go, Bon Juan (2005). "Ma'I in Chinese Records – Mindoro or Bai? An Examination of a Historical Puzzle". Philippine Studies. Ateneo de Manila University. 53 (1): 119–138. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013.
- Demetrio, Francisco R.; Cordero-Fernando, Gilda; Nakpil-Zialcita, Roberto B.; Feleo, Fernando (1991). The Soul Book: Introduction to Philippine Pagan Religion. GCF Books, Quezon City. ASIN B007FR4S8G.
- Thakur, Upendra (1986). Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture. Abhinav Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7017-207-9.
- Junker, Laura Lee (1999). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824820350.
- Bisht, N. S.; Bankoti, T. S. (2004). Encyclopaedia of the South-east Asian Ethnography: Communities and Tribes. Global Vision. p. 69. ISBN 978-81-87746-96-6.
- Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State and society in the Philippines. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0742510234. OCLC 57452454.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
- Bergreen, Laurence (October 14, 2003). Over the Edge of the World: Magellan's Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-621173-2.
- Pigafetta, Antonio (c. 1525). Journal of Magellan's Voyage (in French).
- "PH to Mark the First Circumnavigation Route". 2021 Quincentennial Commemorations in the Philippines. National Quincentennial Committee. March 14, 2021.
- De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques In The Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press. pp. 17–29. ISBN 9780874175905.
- Zaide 1994, p. 281
- Severino, Howie (August 1, 2010). "Researchers discover fossil of human older than Tabon Man". GMA News Online. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
- Jett, Stephen C. (2017). Ancient Ocean Crossings: Reconsidering the Case for Contacts with the Pre-Columbian Americas. University of Alabama Press. pp. 168–171. ISBN 9780817319397.
- Détroit, Florent; Corny, Julien; Dizon, Eusebio Z.; Mijares, Armand S. (2013). ""Small Size" in the Philippine Human Fossil Record: Is It Meaningful for a Better Understanding of the Evolutionary History of the Negritos?" (PDF). Human Biology. 85 (1): 45–66. doi:10.3378/027.085.0303. PMID 24297220. S2CID 24057857. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 23, 2019.
- Scott 1984, p. 138. "Not one roof beam, not one grain of rice, not one pygmy Negrito bone has been recovered. Any theory which describes such details is therefore pure hypothesis and should be honestly presented as such."
- Chambers, Geoff (2013). "Genetics and the Origins of the Polynesians". eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0020808.pub2. ISBN 978-0470016176.
- Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). "The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (26): 72–78. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
- Bellwood, Peter (2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. p. 213.
- Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David (2014). "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia". Nature Communications. 5 (1): 4689. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4689L. doi:10.1038/ncomms5689. PMC 4143916. PMID 25137359.
- Scott 1984, p. 52.
- Goodenough, Ward Hunt (1996). Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. American Philosophical Society. pp. 127–128.
- Goodenough, Ward Hunt (1996). Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. American Philosophical Society. p. 52.
- "Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum". Archived from the original on February 28, 2014.
- Sagart, Laurent (July 25, 2008). "The expansion of Setaria farmers in East Asia: a linguistic and archaeological model". In Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Blench, Roger; Ross, Malcolm D.; Peiros, Ilia; Lin, Marie (eds.). Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. Routledge. pp. 165–190. ISBN 978-1-134-14962-9.
- Li, H; Huang, Y; Mustavich, LF; et al. (November 2007). "Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River". Hum. Genet. 122 (3–4): 383–8. doi:10.1007/s00439-007-0407-2. PMID 17657509. S2CID 2533393.
- Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Fu, Qiaomei; Delfin, Frederick; Li, Mingkun; Chiu, Hung-Lin; Stoneking, Mark; Ko, Ying-Chin (March 2014). "Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 94 (3): 426–436. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.02.003. PMC 3951936. PMID 24607387.
- Bellwood, Peter (2004). "The origins and dispersals of agricultural communities in Southeast Asia" (PDF). In Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter (eds.). Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. RoutledgeCurzon. pp. 21–40. ISBN 9780415297776.
- Liu, Li; Chen, Xingcan (2012). "Emergence of social inequality – The middle Neolithic (5000–3000 BC)". The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. p. 204. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139015301.007. ISBN 9780521644327.
- Blench, Roger (2004). "Fruits and arboriculture in the Indo-Pacific region". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 24 (The Taipei Papers (Volume 2)): 31–50.
- Larena, Maximilian; Sanchez-Quinto, Federico; Sjödin, Per; McKenna, James; Ebeo, Carlo; Reyes, Rebecca; Casel, Ophelia; Huang, Jin-Yuan; Hagada, Kim Pullupul; Guilay, Dennis; Reyes, Jennelyn; Allian, Fatima Pir; Mori, Virgilio; Azarcon, Lahaina Sue; Manera, Alma; Terando, Celito; Jamero, Lucio; Sireg, Gauden; Manginsay-Tremedal, Renefe; Labos, Maria Shiela; Vilar, Richard Dian; Latiph, Acram; Saway, Rodelio Linsahay; Marte, Erwin; Magbanua, Pablito; Morales, Amor; Java, Ismael; Reveche, Rudy; Barrios, Becky; Burton, Erlinda; Salon, Jesus Christopher; Kels, Ma. Junaliah Tuazon; Albano, Adrian; Cruz-Angeles, Rose Beatrix; Molanida, Edison; Granehäll, Lena; Vicente, Mário; Edlund, Hanna; Loo, Jun-Hun; Trejaut, Jean; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Reid, Lawrence; Malmström, Helena; Schlebusch, Carina; Lambeck, Kurt; Endicott, Phillip; Jakobsson, Mattias (March 30, 2021). "Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50,000 years". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 118 (13): e2026132118. doi:10.1073/pnas.2026132118. PMC 8020671. PMID 33753512.
- Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Munoz, Paul Michael (2006). Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay peninsula. p. 45.
- Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter, eds. (2004). Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. Psychology Press. pp. 36, 157. ISBN 978-0-415-29777-6.
- The Philippines and India – Dhirendra Nath Roy, Manila 1929 and India and The World – By Buddha Prakash p. 119–120.
- Hsiao-Chun Hung, et al. (2007). Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia. PNAS.
- Father Gabriel Casal & Regalado Trota Jose, Jr., Eric S. Casino, George R. Ellis, Wilhelm G. Solheim II, The People and Art of the Philippines, printed by the Museum of Cultural History, UCLA (1981)
- Bellwood, Peter, Hsiao-Chun Hung, and Yoshiyuki Iizuka. "Taiwan Jade in the Philippines: 3,000 Years of Trade and Long-distance Interaction." Paths of Origins: The Austronesian Heritage in the Collections of the National Museum of the Philippines, the Museum Nasional Indonesia, and the Netherlands Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde (2011): 31-41.
- Scott 1984, p. 17.
- Bellwood, Peter (2011). Pathos of Origin. pp. 31–41.
- Hsiao-Chun, Hung (2007). Ancient jades map 3,000 years of prehistoric exchange in Southeast Asia.
- Tsang, Cheng-hwa (2000), "Recent advances in the Iron Age archaeology of Taiwan", Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 20: 153–158, doi:10.7152/bippa.v20i0.11751
- Turton, M. (2021). Notes from central Taiwan: Our brother to the south. Taiwan’s relations with the Philippines date back millenia, so it’s a mystery that it’s not the jewel in the crown of the New Southbound Policy. Taiwan Times.
- Everington, K. (2017). Birthplace of Austronesians is Taiwan, capital was Taitung: Scholar. Taiwan News.
- Bellwood, P., H. Hung, H., Lizuka, Y. (2011). Taiwan Jade in the Philippines: 3,000 Years of Trade and Long-distance Interaction. Semantic Scholar.
- Mallari, P. G. S. (2014). War and peace in precolonial Philippines. The Manila Times.
- Junker, L. L. (1999). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. University of Hawaii Press.
- Solheim, William (1969). "Prehistoric Archaeology in Eastern Mainland Southeast Asia and the Philippines". Asian Perspectives. 3: 97–108. hdl:10125/19126.
- Miksic, John N. (2003). Earthenware in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the Singapore Symposium on Premodern Southeast Asian Earthenwares. Singapore: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore.
- Dhani Irwanto (2019). Sundaland: Tracing The Cradle of Civilizations. Indonesia Hydro Media. p. 41. ISBN 978-602-724-493-1.
- Yamagata, Mariko; Matsumura, Hirofumi (2017), Matsumura, Hirofumi; Piper, Philip J.; Bulbeck, David (eds.), "Austronesian Migration to Central Vietnam:: Crossing over the Iron Age Southeast Asian Sea", New Perspectives in Southeast Asian and Pacific Prehistory, ANU Press, 45, pp. 333–356, ISBN 978-1-76046-094-5, JSTOR j.ctt1pwtd26.26
- Nicholl 1983, p. 38
- Santarita, Joefe B. (2018). "Panyupayana: The Emergence of Hindu Polities in the Pre-Islamic Philippines". Cultural and Civilisational Links between India and Southeast Asia. pp. 93–105. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-7317-5_6. ISBN 978-981-10-7316-8.
- Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-135-4.
- Jocano, Felipe Jr. (August 7, 2012). Wiley, Mark (ed.). A Question of Origins. Arnis: Reflections on the History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0742-7.
- Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74114-448-2.
- Legarda, Benito Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.
- Reyeg, Fernardo; Marsh, Ned (December 2011). "2" (PDF). The Filipino Way of War: Irregular Warfare Through The Centuries (Post Graduate). Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. p. 21. hdl:10945/10681. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
- Newson, Linda A. (2009). Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. doi:10.21313/hawaii/9780824832728.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-8248-3272-8.
Given the significance of the size and distribution of the population to the spread of diseases and their ability to become endemic, it is worth commenting briefly on the physical and human geography of the Philippines. The hot and humid tropical climate would have generally favored the propagation of many diseases, especially water-borne infections, though there might be regional or seasonal variations in climate that might affect the incidence of some diseases. In general, however, the fact that the Philippines comprise some seven thousand islands, some of which are uninhabited even today, would have discouraged the spread of infections, as would the low population density.
- Philippine Journal of Linguistics – 23 – p. 67
- The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History by Richard Bulliet, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson p.186
- Mathematical Ideas in Early Philippine Society
- Gallop, Annabel (2016). "The Early Use of Seals in the Malay World". Bulletin de l'École Française d'Extrême-Orient. 102: 125–164. doi:10.3406/befeo.2016.6233. JSTOR 26435124.
- "Butuan Ivory Seal". National Museum of the Philippines. February 10, 2015.
- Guillermo, Ramon; Paluga, Myfel Joseph (2011). "Barang king banga: A Visayan language reading of the Calatagan pot inscription (CPI)". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 42 (1): 121–159. doi:10.1017/S0022463410000561. S2CID 162984793 – via Cambridge University Press.
- Philippine History by Maria Christine N. Halili. "Chapter 3: Precolonial Philippines" (Published by Rex Bookstore; Manila, Sampaloc St. Year 2004)
- Volume 5 of A study of the Eastern and Western Oceans (Japanese: 東西洋考) mentions that Luzon first sent tribute to Yongle Emperor in 1406.
- "Akeanon Online – Aton Guid Ra! – Aklan History Part 3 – Confederation of Madyaas". Akeanon.com. March 27, 2008. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
- "Katutubo, Muslim, Kristyano". Salazar at Mendoza-Urban. 1985.
- (Munoz, p. 171) harv error: no target: CITEREFMunoz (help)
- Background Note: Brunei Darussalam, U.S. State Department.
- "Introduction". Mangyan Heritage Center. Archived from the original on February 13, 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- Postma, Antoon (1992). "The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary". Philippine Studies. 40 (2): 183–203. JSTOR 42633308.
- Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin & Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. pp. 565–569. ISBN 978-1-884964-04-6. Retrieved January 7, 2010.
- Ho Khai Leong (2009). Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 33. ISBN 978-981-230-856-6.
- Karnow, Stanley (2010). In Our Image. ISBN 978-0-307-77543-6. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Scott 1985, p. 104
- The Report: The Philippines 2012. Oxford Business Group. 2012. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-907065-56-9.
- Miyamoto, Kazuo. Vikings of the Far East. New York: Vantage Press, 1975. pp88–89.
- Kakubayashi, Fumio (1998). "隼人 : オーストロネシア系の古代日本部族'" [Hayato: An Austronesian speaking tribe in southern Japan]. The Bulletin of the Institute for Japanese Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University (in Japanese). 3: 15–31. NAID 110000577490.
- Cole, Fay-Cooper (1912). "Chinese Pottery in the Philippines" (PDF). Field Museum of Natural History. Anthropological Series. 12 (1).
- Woods, Damon L. (2006). The Philippines: A Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6.
- Alfonso, Ian Christopher B. (2016). The Nameless Hero: Revisiting the Sources on the First Filipino Leader to Die for Freedom. Angeles: Holy Angel University Press. ISBN 978-971-0546-52-7.
- Blair, Emma Helen; Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1903). Relation of the Conquest of the Island of Luzon. The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898. 3. Ohio, Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company. p. 145.
- Huerta, Felix, de (1865). Estado Geografico, Topografico, Estadistico, Historico-Religioso de la Santa y Apostolica Provincia de San Gregorio Magno. Binondo: Imprenta de M. Sanchez y Compañia.
- "About Pasay – History: Kingdom of Namayan". Pasay city government website. City Government of Pasay. Archived from the original on September 21, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
- Fox, Robert B. and Avelino M. Legaspi. 1977. Excavations at Santa Ana. Manila: National Museum of the Philippines
- Towards an Early History of Pangasinan: Preliminary Notes and Observations By: Erwin S. Fernandez. Page 181
- Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8.
- Scott, William Henry (1989). "Filipinos in China in 1500" (PDF). China Studies Program. De la Salle University. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578–2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80.
- Zhenping, Wang (2008). "Reading Song-Ming Records on the Pre-colonial History of the Philippines". Journal of East Asian Cultural Interaction Studies. 1: 249–260. hdl:10112/3180.
- Scott 1984, p. 67.
- Juan, Go Bon (January 2005). "Ma'l in Chinese Records-Mindoro or Bai?: An examination of a historical puzzle". Philippine Studies. 53 (1): 119–138. doi:10.3316/informit.094756901052957 (inactive October 31, 2021). JSTOR 42633737.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2021 (link)
- Scott 1984, p. [page needed].
- "South East Asia Pottery – Philippines". Seapots.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- Old Chinese Book Tells of the World 800 Years Ago; Chau-Ju-Kua's Chronicles of the Twelfth Century, Now First Translated, Give a "Description of Barbarous Peoples" Picked Up by This Noted Inspector of Foreign Trade and Descendant of Emperors.
- Isorena, Efren B. (2004). "The Visayan Raiders of the China Coast, 1174–1190 Ad". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 32 (2): 73–95. JSTOR 29792550.
Chau Ju-Kua, writing in the thirteenth century, probably was the first to mention that certain ferocious raiders of China's Fukien coast probably came by way of the southern portion of the island of Formosa, He referred to them as the Pi-sho-ye.
- Isorena, Efren B. (2004). "The Visayan Raiders of the China Coast, 1174–1190 Ad". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 32 (2): 73–95. JSTOR 29792550.
- Jovito S. Abellana, "Bisaya Patronymesis Sri Visjaya" (Ms., Cebuano Studies Center, ca. 1960)
- Abeto, Isidro Escare (1989). "Chapter X - Confederation of Madyaas". Philippine history: reassessed / Isidro Escare Abeto. Metro Manila :: Integrated Publishing House Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library. p. 54. OCLC 701327689.
Already conceived while he was in Binanua-an, and as the titular head of all the datus left behind by Datu Puti, Datu Sumakwel thought of some kind of system as to how he could exercise his powers given him by Datu Puti over all the other datus under his authority.
- The Pre-Islamic Kings of Brunei By Rozan Yunos taken from the Magazine "Pusaka" published on year 2009.
- Nicholl 1983, p. 37 (Sub-citation taken from Ferrand, Relations p. 333)
- "The Temples Of Bahal (Portibi): Traces of Vajranaya Buddhism in Sumatra". Wonderful Indonesia. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Strait of Malacca – World Oil Transit ChokepointsArchived November 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy
- "saleeby 152–153"
- Maragtas by Pedro Alcantara Monteclaro
- Talaguit, Christian. "Mga Maragtas ng Panay: Comparative Analysis of Documents about the Bornean Settlement Tradition". De la Salle University, History Department.[unreliable source?]
- Jovito Abellana, Aginid, Bayok sa Atong Tawarik, 1952
- International Studies In the Philippines Mapping New Frontiers In Theory and Practice (Edited By: Frances Antionette Cruz).
- Kinaadman. 2001. Volume 23. Xavier University Press. Page 34.
- Scott 1984, p. 59.
- Santos, Hector (1999). "The Butuan Silver Strip. A Philippine Leaf". Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Eric Casino. "The Barangays of Butuan: Lumad Mindanaoans in China and the Sulu Zone". Asia Mindanaw: Dialogue of Peace and Development (2014): 2.
- "A historical perspective on the word 'Keling'". Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- Ptak, Roderich (1998). "From Quanzhou to the Sulu Zone and beyond: Questions Related to the Early Fourteenth Century". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 29 (2): 269–294. doi:10.1017/S002246340000744X. JSTOR 20072046.
- Lourdes Rausa-Gomez. "Sri Yijava and Madjapahit" (PDF). "Lourdes Rausa-Gomez cited Sir Stamford Raffles, himself citing the "Traditional History of Java" wherein he said that Manila and Sulu in the Philippines were part of Majapahapit, however she doubted the veracity of Stamford Raffles assertion due to the lack of archaeological evidence between Majapahit and the Philippines in her 1967 article. However, that article has been renderred outdated due to the discovery of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription in 1989 which proved links between Java and Manila, which makes her dismissal of the Raffles assertion null and the Raffles assertion feasible."
- Odal-Devora, Grace (2000). Alejandro, Reynaldo Gamboa; Yuson, Alfred A. (eds.). The River Dwellers. Pasig : The River of Life. Unilever Philippines. pp. 43–66.
- Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Department (2009). History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Past. ISBN 978-99917-2-372-3.
- Barski, p.46[citation not found]
- 100 Events That Shaped The Philippines (Adarna Book Services Inc. 1999 Published by National Centennial Commission) Page 72 "The Founding of the Sulu Sultanate"
- Sundita, Christopher Allen (2002). In Bahasa Sug: An Introduction to Tausug. Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co. ISBN 971-92226-6-2.
- The Filipino Moving Onward 5' 2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-971-23-4154-0.
- Philippine History Module-based Learning I' 2002 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-971-23-3449-8.
- Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2004. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
- "Brunei". CIA World Factbook. 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
- "The Maguindanao Sultanate", Moro National Liberation Front web site. "The Political and Religious History of the Bangsamoro People, condensed from the book Muslims in the Philippines by Dr. C. A. Majul." (archived from the original on January 26, 2003) Retrieved January 9, 2008.
- Palafox, Queenie. "The Sultan of the River". National Historical Commission. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
- Shinzō Hayase (2007). Mindanao Ethnohistory Beyond Nations: Maguindanao, Sangir, and Bagobo Societies in East Maritime Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-971-550-511-6.
- Scott 1984.
- Pusat Sejarah Brunei Archived April 15, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved February 7, 2009.
- Santiago, Luciano P.R., The Houses of Lakandula, Matanda, and Soliman [1571–1898]: Genealogy and Group Identity, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 18 
- Henson, Mariano A. 1965. The Province of Pampanga and Its Towns: A.D. 1300–1965. 4th ed. revised. Angeles City: By the author.
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 22.
- Saunders 2013, p. 60. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaunders2013 (help)
- Herbert & Milner 1989, p. 99. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHerbertMilner1989 (help)
- Lea & Milward 2001, p. 16. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLeaMilward2001 (help)
- Hicks 2007, p. 34. sfn error: no target: CITEREFHicks2007 (help)
- Church 2012, p. 16. sfn error: no target: CITEREFChurch2012 (help)
- Eur 2002, p. 203. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEur2002 (help)
- Abdul Majid 2007, p. 2. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAbdul_Majid2007 (help)
- Welman 2013, p. 8. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWelman2013 (help)
- Cf. William Henry Scott (1903). "Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society". (January 1, 1994) pp. 109–110.
- The Mediterranean Connection By William Henry Scott (Published in "Philippine Studies" ran by Ateneo de Manila University Press)
- Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya. SOURCE: Ibidem, page 195.
- The former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 AD. SOURCE: Barros, Joao de, Decada terciera de Asia de Ioano de Barros dos feitos que os Portugueses fezarao no descubrimiento dos mares e terras de Oriente , Lisbon, 1777, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
- Pires, Tomé; Rodrigues, Francisco; Cortesão, Armando (1978). A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodrigues: Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra.
- Reid, Anthony (1995). "Continuity and Change in the Austronesian Transition to Islam and Christianity". In Peter Bellwood; James J. Fox; Darrell Tryon (eds.). The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, The Australian National University.
- Turnbull, C.M. (1977). A History of Singapore: 1819–1975. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-580354-9.
- Antony, Robert J., ed. (2010). Elusive Pirates, Pervasive Smugglers. doi:10.5790/hongkong/9789888028115.001.0001. ISBN 978-988-8028-11-5.[page needed]
- Pinto, Fernao Mendes (1989) . The Travels of Mendes Pinto. Translated by Rebecca Catz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- *21. Ibidem, page 194.
- Ibidem, page 195.
- "Quest of the Dragon and Bird Clan; The Golden Age (Volume III)" -Lungshanoid (Glossary)- By Paul Kekai Manansala
- Bayao, Bras, Letter to the king dated Goa 1 November 1540, Archivo Nacional de Torre de Tombo: Corpo Cronologico, parte 1, maco 68, doc. 63, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
- Pigafetta, Antonio (1524). Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo.
- Marivir Montebon, Retracing Our Roots – A Journey into Cebu's Pre-Colonial Past, p.15
- Celestino C. Macachor (2011). "Searching for Kali in the Indigenous Chronicles of Jovito Abellana". Rapid Journal. 10 (2). Archived from the original on July 3, 2012.
- Pigafetta, Antonio (1874). The first voyage round the world by Magellan. Translated by Lord Stanley of Alderley. London: The Hakluyt Society.
- Lacsamana 1990, p. 47
- Scott 1985, p. 51.
- Kurlansky 1999, p. 64.
- Joaquin 1988.
- De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press. pp. 30–39. ISBN 9780874175905.
- The friar says: Es la isla de Panay muy parecida a la de Sicilia, así por su forma triangular come por su fertilidad y abundancia de bastimentos... Es la isla más poblada, después de Manila y Mindanao, y una de las mayores, por bojear más de cien leguas. En fertilidad y abundancia es en todas la primera... El otro corre al oeste con el nombre de Alaguer [Halaur], desembocando en el mar a dos leguas de distancia de Dumangas...Es el pueblo muy hermoso, ameno y muy lleno de palmares de cocos. Antiguamente era el emporio y corte de la más lucida nobleza de toda aquella isla...Mamuel Merino, O.S.A., ed., Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas (1565–1615), Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1975, pp. 374–376.
- Alip 1964, p. 201,317.
- Annual report of the Secretary of War 1903, p. 379.
- McAmis 2002, p. 33.
- "Letter from Francisco de Sande to Felipe II, 1578". Archived from the original on October 14, 2014. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
- Frankham 2008, p. 278.
- Atiyah 2002, p. 71.
- Saunders 2002, pp. 54–60.
- Saunders 2002, p. 57.
- Acabado, Stephen B.; Koller, Jared M.; Liu, Chin-hsin; Lauer, Adam J.; Farahani, Alan; Barretto-Tesoro, Grace; Reyes, Marian C; Martin, Jonathan Albert; Peterson, John A. (2019). "The Short History of the Ifugao Rice Terraces: A Local Response to the Spanish Conquest". Journal of Field Archaeology. 44 (3): 195–214. doi:10.1080/00934690.2019.1574159. S2CID 133693424.
- Acabado, Stephen (December 2018). "Zones of refuge: Resisting conquest in the northern Philippine highlands through environmental practice". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 52: 180–195. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2018.05.005. S2CID 150245254.
- Acabado, Stephen B. (2015). Antiquity, archaeological processes, and highland adaptation: The Ifugao rice terraces. Loyola Heights, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
- Hall and McClain 1991, 235.
- His name appears also as “Taizufú”, “Tayfuzu” or “Zaizufu”. San Agustín 1975, 541
- AGI, Filipinas, 6, r. 5, n. 53.
- "Merchants, Missionaries and Marauders: Trade and Traffic between Kyūshū (Japan) and Luzon (Philippines) in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries" By Ubaldo IACCARINO[permanent dead link]
- The “Indo-Pacific” Crossroads: The Asian Waters as Conduits of Knowledge, People, Cargoes, and Technologies Page 107 (Citing:"Wang 1953; Tanaka Takeo 1961.")
- Martinez, Manuel F. Assassinations & conspiracies : from Rajah Humabon to Imelda Marcos. Manila: Anvil Publishing, 2002.
- Fernando A. Santiago, Jr. "Isang Maikling Kasaysayan ng Pandacan, Maynila 1589–1898". Archived from the original on August 14, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- Kurlansky, Mark. (1999). The Basque History of the World. New York: Walker & Company. p. 64. ISBN 0-8027-1349-1.
- Joaquin, Nick. (1988). Culture and History: Occasional Notes on the Process of Philippine Becoming. Manila: Solar Publishing.
- Borschberg, Peter (2015). Journal, Memorials and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge: Security, Diplomacy and Commerce in 17th-century Southeast Asia. NUS Press. pp. 82, 84, 126, 421. ISBN 978-9971-69-527-9.
- "Antonio de Morga, in Blair and Robertson, The Philippines Islands, XV, Pages 97-98"
- Cesar A. Majul, Muslims in the Philippines (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press,1999), 128-129.
- Sordilla, Shane Patrick. "MAGUINDANAO AND TERNATE CONNECTION AND DISCONNECTION DURING THE AGE OF EUROPEAN COLONIZATION: AN OVERVIEW". Cite journal requires
- Truxillo, Charles A. (2012). Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War. Jain Publishing Company. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-89581-864-5.
- Peacock Gallop (2015) "From Anatolia to Aceh: Ottomans, Turks and Southeast Asia".
- Borao, José Eugenio (2010). "The Baroque Ending of a Renaissance Endeavour". The Spanish experience in Taiwan, 1626–1642: the Baroque ending of a Renaissance endeavor. Hong Kong University Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-962-209-083-5. JSTOR j.ctt1xcrpk.
- "Catholic Missions in the Carolines and Marshall Islands". micsem.org.
- Morga (2008), Sucesos, p. 81.
- Reid, Anthony (1995). "Continuity and Change in the Austronesian Transition to Islam and Christianity". In Peter Bellwood; James J. Fox; Darrell Tryon (eds.). The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, The Australian National University. doi:10.22459/A.09.2006. hdl:2027/mdp.39015051647942. ISBN 9780731521326.
- George Childs Kohn (October 31, 2013). Dictionary of Wars. Routledge. pp. 445–. ISBN 978-1-135-95494-9.
- "History – the First Cathedral 1581–1583 Archived May 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.http://www.manilacathedral.org/History/history_1.htm Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Official Website. Retrieved on March 22, 2013.
- Sánchez-Jiménez, David (October 1, 2010). "La hispanización y la identidad hispana en Filipinas". Publications and Research.
- "Fortress of Empire, Rene Javellana, S. J. 1997".
- Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 179.
Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or "arrabales," all occupied by Spaniards ("todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles"). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes.
- "Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines". PHILIPPINE-HISTORY.ORG. 2005.
- Herrington, Don. "West Coast Of The Island Of Luzon | Tourist Attractions". www.livinginthephilippines.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Galaup "Travel Accounts" page 375.
- "Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World" By Eva Maria Mehl, page 235.
- Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 229.
Reforms under General Arandía.—The demoralization and misery with which Obando's rule closed were relieved somewhat by the capable government of Arandía, who succeeded him. Arandía was one of the few men of talent, energy, and integrity who stood at the head of affairs in these islands during two centuries. He reformed the greatly disorganized military force, establishing what was known as the "Regiment of the King," made up very largely of Mexican soldiers [note: emphasis added]. He also formed a corps of artillerists composed of Filipinos. These were regular troops, who received from Arandía sufficient pay to enable them to live decently and like an army.
- Blair, Emma Helen; Robertson, James Alexander (1905). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. 25. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. pp. 150–177.
- Quinze Ans de Voyage Autor de Monde Vol. II ( 1840) Archived October 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from Institute for Research of Iloilo Official Website.
- "The Philippine Archipelago" By Yves Boquet Page 262
- De la Torre, Visitacion (2006). The Ilocos Heritage. Makati City: Tower Book House. p. 2. ISBN 978-971-91030-9-7.
- Duka 2008, p. 72.
- During the Spanish colonial period, the terms Insulares and Filipino generally referred to full-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the Philippines, distinguishing them from Spaniards born in Spain who were termed Peninsulares. The first documented use of the tern Filipino to refer to persons of Philippine ethnicity was in the 19th century poem A la juventud filipina by Jose Rizal.
- The Unlucky Country: The Republic of the Philippines in the 21St Century By Duncan Alexander McKenzie (Page xii)
- Carol R. Ember; Melvin Ember; Ian A. Skoggard, eds. (2005). "History". Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures around the World, Volume 1. Springer.
- Stephanie Mawson, ‘Between Loyalty and Disobedience: The Limits of Spanish Domination in the Seventeenth Century Pacific’ (Univ. of Sydney M.Phil. thesis, 2014), appendix 3.
- "Japanese Christian". Philippines: Google map of Paco district of Manila, Philippines. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010.
- "Spanish Settlers in the Philippines (1571–1599) By Antonio Garcia-Abasalo" (PDF).
- Retana, "Relacion de las Encomiendas existentes en Filipinas el dia 31 de 1.591" Archivo del Bibliófilo Filipino IV, p 39–112
- Zamboangueño Chavacano: Philippine Spanish Creole or Filipinized Spanish Creole? By Tyron Judes D. Casumpang (Page 3)
- Bartolome Juan Leonardy y de Argensola, Conquistas de las islas Molucas (Madrid: Alonso Martin, 1909) pp. 351-8; Cesar Majul, Muslims in the Philippines (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1973) pp. 119-20; Hal, History of Southeast Asia, pp. 249-50.
- Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 139.
Fourth.—In considering this Spanish conquest, we must understand that the islands were far more sparsely inhabited than they are to-day. The Bisayan islands, the rich Camarines, the island of Luzon, had, in Legaspi's time, only a small fraction of their present great populations. This population was not only small, but it was also extremely disunited. Not only were the great tribes separated by the differences of language, but, as we have already seen, each tiny community was practically independent, and the power of a dato very limited. There were no great princes, with large forces of fighting retainers whom they could call to arms, such as the Portuguese had encountered among the Malays south in the Moluccas.
- Spain (1680). Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias. Titulo Quince. De las Audiencias y Chancillerias Reales de las Indias. Madrid. Spanish-language facsimile of the original.
- Coleman 2009, pp. 17–59
- Antonio de Morga (1609). Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. Fondo de Cultura. ISBN 978-0-521-01035-1.
- Dolan & 1991-4
- Shafer 1958
- "Astilleros: the Spanish shipyards of Sorsogon" (PDF). Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia. Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- Williams, Glyn (1999). The Prize of All the Oceans. New York: Viking. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-670-89197-9.
- Schurz, William Lytle. The Manila Galleon, 1939. p. 193.
- 1996. "Silk for Silver: Manila-Macao Trade in the 17th Century." Philippine Studies 44, 1:52–68.
- Letter from Fajardo to Felipe III From Manila, August 15 1620.(From the Spanish Archives of the Indies)("The infantry does not amount to two hundred men, in three companies. If these men were that number, and Spaniards, it would not be so bad; but, although I have not seen them, because they have not yet arrived here, I am told that they are, as at other times, for the most part boys, mestizos, and mulattoes, with some Indians (Native Americans). There is no little cause for regret in the great sums that reënforcements of such men waste for, and cost, your Majesty. I cannot see what betterment there will be until your Majesty shall provide it, since I do not think, that more can be done in Nueva Spaña, although the viceroy must be endeavoring to do so, as he is ordered.")
- Fish, Shirley. The Manila-Acapulco Galleons: The Treasure Ships of the Pacific, with an Annotated List of the Transpacific Galleons 1565–1815. Central Milton Keynes, England: Authorhouse 2011.
- Seijas, Tatiana (2014). Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico: From Chinos to Indians. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-95285-9.
Rose, Christopher (January 13, 2016). "Episode 76: The Trans-Pacific Slave Trade". 15 Minute History. University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on July 19, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 8, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2012.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1993). Philippines : a country study. The Library of Congress (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 108–112. ISBN 0-8444-0748-8.
- Garcıa de los Arcos, “Grupos etnicos,” ´ 65–66
- The Diversity and Reach of the Manila Slave Market Page 36
- Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, “the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese.” In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory.
- Tracy 1995, pp. 12, 55
- Tracy 1995, p. 9
- Tracy 1995, p. 58
- Backhouse, Thomas (1765). The Secretary at War to Mr. Secretary Conway. London: British Library. pp. v. 40.
- Raitisoja, Geni " Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world" Archived April 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Tradio86.com, July 8, 2006, accessed March 19, 2011.
- Fish 2003, p. 158
- Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-13679-3.
- "The Board of the Philippines". Fundacion Goya en Aragon.
- Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). "Unruly Mexicans in Manila: Imperial Goals and Colonial Concerns". Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World. pp. 227–266. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316480120.007. ISBN 978-1-316-48012-0.
In Governor Anda y Salazar's opinion, an important part of the problem of vagrancy was the fact that Mexicans and Spanish disbanded after finishing their military or prison terms all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence.
- Dolan & 1991-5
- Fundación Santa María (Madrid) 1994, p. 508
- De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press. p. 132. ISBN 9780874175905.
- John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago, (1820), page 445
- John Bowring, "Travels in the Philippines", p. 18, London, 1875
- Frederic H. Sawyer, "The inhabitants of the Philippines", Preface, London, 1900
- Population of the Philippines Census Years 1799 to 2007 Archived July 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. National Statistical Coordination Board,
- Jan Lahmeyer (1996). "The Philippines: historical demographical data of the whole country". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2003.
- Voz de Galicia (1898). "CENSOS DE CUBA, PUERTO RICO, FILIPINAS Y ESPAÑA. ESTUDIO DE SU RELACION". Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2006). Historia de México. México, D. F.: Pearson Educación.
- Mercene, Floro L. (2007). Manila Men in the New World. p. 52. ISBN 9789715425292.
- "Mexican Embassy unveils commemorative plaque in honor of PH war hero". Manila Times. October 4, 2021. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
- Beyond Pacquaio-De La Hoya, a Cultural History
- According to Ricardo Pinzon, these two Filipino soldiers—Francisco Mongoy and Isidoro Montes de Oca—were so distinguished in battle that they are regarded as folk heroes in Mexico. General Vicente Guerrero later became the first president of Mexico of African descent. See Floro L. Mercene, "Central America: Filipinos in Mexican History," Ezilon Infobase, January 28, 2005.
- Williams, Rudi (June 3, 2005). "DoD's Personnel Chief Gives Asian-Pacific American History Lesson". American Forces Press Service. U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on June 15, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
- Guevarra, Rudy P. Jr. (2011). "Filipinos in Nueva España: Filipino-Mexican Relations, Mestizaje, and Identity in Colonial and Contemporary Mexico". Journal of Asian American Studies. 14 (3): 389–416. doi:10.1353/jaas.2011.0029. S2CID 144426711. Project MUSE 456194.
- Caleb Carr, The devil soldier: the story of Frederick Townsend Ward, New York: Random House, 1992, p. 91.
- Smith, Mercenaries and mandarins, p. 29.
- For an exploration of Manilamen as mercenaries and filibusters in relation to the person and work of Jose´ Rizal, see Filomeno Aguilar Jr, ‘Filibustero, Rizal, and the Manilamen of the nineteenth century’, Philippine Studies, 59, 4, 2011, pp. 429–69.
- Nigel Gooding, Filipino Involvement in the French-Spanish Campaign in Indochina, retrieved July 4, 2008
- Garcia de los Arcos has noted that the Regiment of the King, which had absorbed a large percentage of Mexican recruits and deportees between the 1770s and 1811, became the bastion of discontent supporting the Novales mutiny. ~Garcia de los Arcos, “Criollismo y conflictividad en Filipinas a principios del siglo XIX,” in El lejano Oriente espanol: Filipinas ( ˜ Siglo XIX). Actas, ed. Paulino Castaneda ˜ Delgado and Antonio Garcia-Abasolo Gonzalez (Seville: Catedra General Casta ´ nos, ˜1997), 586.
- "Filipino-Mexican-Central-and-South American Connection" By: Gemma Guerrero Cruz
- Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
- Joaquin, Nick (1977). A Question of Heroes : Essays in Criticism on Ten Key Figures of Philippine History. Manila: Filipinas Foundation.
- Richardson, Jim (January 2006). "Andrés Bonifacio Letter to Julio Nakpil, April 24, 1897". Documents of the Katipunan. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2009.
- Joaquin, Nick (1990). Manila, My Manila. Vera-Reyes, Inc.
- "Philippine History". DLSU-Manila. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
- Doeppers, Daniel F. (1994). "Tracing the Decline of the Mestizo Categories in Philippine Life in the Late 19Th Century". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 22 (2): 80–89. JSTOR 29792149.
- Hedman, Eva-Lotta; Sidel, John (2005). Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial Trajectories. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-134-75421-2. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- Steinberg, David Joel (2018). "Chapter – 3 A SINGULAR AND A PLURAL FOLK". THE PHILIPPINES A Singular and a Plural Place. Routledge. p. 47. doi:10.4324/9780429494383. ISBN 978-0-8133-3755-5.
The cultural identity of the mestizos was challenged as they became increasingly aware that they were true members of neither the indio nor the Chinese community. Increasingly powerful but adrift, they linked with the Spanish mestizos, who were also being challenged because after the Latin American revolutions broke the Spanish Empire, many of the settlers from the New World, Caucasian Creoles born in Mexico or Peru, became suspect in the eyes of the Iberian Spanish. The Spanish Empire had lost its universality.
- TRACING THE DECLINE OF THE MESTIZO CATEGORIES IN PHILIPPINE LIFE IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY By Daniel F. Doeppers)
- "The Destruction of USS Maine". U.S. Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center. Archived from the original on August 18, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- Wionzek 2000, p. xiv.
- Wionzek 2000, p. xvi.
- Lacsamana 1990, p. 126
- Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands: A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
- Gen. Jose Paua, the Chinese in Philippine revolution by Raymund Catindig (The Philippine Star)
- History of the Philippine Navy
- "Philippines – The Malolos Constitution and the Treaty of Paris". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
- "President McKinley gives his reasons for the U.S. to keep the Philippines". Retrieved June 9, 2007.
- Woods 2005, p. 49
- NationMaster (2010). "GDP per capita in 1900 by country. Definition, graph and map". Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- Lacsamana 1990, p. 135
- Dolan & 1991-13
- Halstead, M (1898). "The Story of the Philippines". Nature. 70 (1811): 248–249. Bibcode:1904Natur..70..248T. doi:10.1038/070248a0.
- Price, Michael G. (2002). Foreword. In A.B. Feuer, America at War: the Philippines, 1898–1913 (pp. xiii–xvi). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96821-9.
- Dolan & 1991-15
- Deady 2005, p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF)
- David Silbey (2008). A War of Frontier and Empire: The Philippine–American War, 1899–1902. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 200–01. ISBN 9780809096619.
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 222; Zaide 1994, p. 270.
- Linn, p. 148 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLinn (help).
- Agoncillo 1990, pp. 247–260, 294–297
- Escalante 2007, pp. 86–87.
- Taft 1908, p. 1
- Ellis 2008, p. 2143
- Escalante 2007, pp. 86–169 (ch. 5, Laying the Foundations of Colonial Rule)
- Linn, Brian McAllister (2000). The Philippine War, 1899–1902. University Press of Kansas. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-7006-1225-3.
- Kabigting Abad, Antonio (1955). General Macario L. Sakay: Was He a Bandit or a Patriot?. J. B. Feliciano and Sons Printers-Publishers.
- Dolan & 1991-16
- Ellis 2008, p. 2163
- Andrew Roberts, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900 (2008), p 26.
- Theresa Ventura (2016). "From Small Farms to Progressive Plantations: The Trajectory of Land Reform in the American Colonial Philippines, 1900–1916". Agricultural History. 90 (4): 459–483. doi:10.3098/ah.2016.090.4.459. JSTOR 10.3098/ah.2016.090.4.459.
- Mina Roces, "Filipino Elite Women and Public Health in the American Colonial Era, 1906–1940." Women's History Review 26#3 (2017): 477–502.
- Reyes, Jose (1923). Legislative history of America's economic policy toward the Philippines. Studies in history, economics and public law. 106 (2 ed.). Columbia University. pp. 192 of 232.[dead link]
- Dolan & 1991-17
- Page 92, Volume 32 The Encyclopædia Britannica 1922 edition
- Moore, Charles (1921). "Daniel H. Burnham: Planner of Cities". Houghton Mifflin and Co., Boston and New York.[full citation needed]
- Goff, Richard; Moss, Walter G.; Terry, Janice; Upshur, Jiu-Hwa: The Twentieth Century: A Brief Global History, Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998, pp. 212
- Agoncillo 1990, pp. 345–346
- Dolan & 1991-20
- Super Administrator. "Corpus Juris – 1935 Constitution". thecorpusjuris.com. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009.
- Zaide 1994, pp. 317–318 (archived from the original Archived May 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine on May 22, 2009)
- "Franklin D. Roosevelt: Proclamation 2148 – Establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines". ucsb.edu.
- "Philippines, The period of U.S. influence". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- "Philippines, The period of U.S. influence". Encyclopædia Britannica (online ed.). Archived from the original on February 5, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 392
- Lacsamana 1990, p. 168
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 415
- Dolan & 1991-21
- "The Guerrilla War". American Experience. PBS. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
- Norling 2005.
- "The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon". Defense Journal. 2002. Archived from the original on March 23, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2009.
- "Map of known insurgent activity". Center of Military History. United States Army. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
- Caraccilo, Dominic J. (2005). Surviving Bataan And Beyond: Colonel Irvin Alexander's Odyssey As A Japanese Prisoner Of War. Stackpole Books. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-8117-3248-2.
- "Dispositions and deaths". Australia-Japan Research Project. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- "Figures were compiled by the Relief Bureau of the Ministry of Health and Welfare in March 1964". Australia-Japan Research Project. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
- Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan.
- "LIEUTENANT RAMSEY'S WAR" by EDWIN PRICE RAMSEY and STEPHEN J. RIVELE.Published by Knightsbride publishing Co, Los Angeles, California
- Dear and Foot, eds. Oxford Companion to World War II pp 877–79
- Ara, Satoshi (2008). "Food supply problem in Leyte, Philippines, during the Japanese Occupation (1942–44)". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 39 (1): 59–82. doi:10.1017/s0022463408000039. S2CID 162389263.
- Bonifacio S. Salamanca,"Quezon, Osmena and Roxas and the American Military Presence in the Philippines." Philippine Studies 37.3 (1989): 301–316. online
- Paul H. Clyde, and Burton F. Beers, The Far East: A History of Western Impacts and Eastern Responses, 1830–1975 (1975) pp 476–77.
- Man Mohini Kaul, "Philippine Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect." India Quarterly 33.1 (1977): 33–48.
- Treaty of General Relations between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America. Chanrobles law library. July 4, 1946. Retrieved November 30, 2007.
- Dolan & 1991-23
- "Balitang Beterano: Facts about Philippine Independence". Philippine Headline News Online. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
- Convention between the United States and the United Kingdom done at Washington on 2 January 1930
- Exchange of Notes between the United States and the United Kingdom done at Washington on 2 January 1930
- The North Borneo Cession Order in Council 1946
- "Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines regarding the transfer of the administration of the Turtle and Mangsee Islands to the Philippine Republic; Cmd 8320" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2018. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
- Peter C. Richards (December 6, 1947). "New Flag Over Pacific Paradise". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- Philippine presidents " Manuel A. Roxas, Malacañang Museum (archived from the original on July 29, 2008).
- Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
- Dolan & 1991-26
- Goodwin, Jeff (June 4, 2001). No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945–1991. Cambridge University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-521-62948-5.
- Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the Centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
- Carlos P. Romulo and Marvin M. Gray, The Magsaysay Story (1956), is a full-length biography
- "THE PHILIPPINES: Death of a Friend". Time. March 25, 1957. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010.
- "SoKor thanks anew PH military assistance in Korean War". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
- "South Korea honors Filipinos who fought in Korean War on 70th anniversary". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
- "Carlos Garcia: Unheralded nationalist". Philippine News Online. Archived from the original on October 26, 2006. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
- Lacsamana 1990, p. 184
- "Republic Act No. 3844 : The Agricultural Land Reform Code of the Philippines". August 8, 1963.
- Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos I (PDF). San Francisco: Union Square Publications.
- "Jabidah and Merdeka: The inside story". September 13, 2015. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015.
- Francisco, Katerina. "Martial Law, the dark chapter in Philippine history". Rappler.
- Dolan & 1991-28
- Agoncillo 1990, pp. 576–577
- Javier, Research by Kristian. "A family affair | 31 years of amnesia". newslab.philstar.com.
- "Alfred McCoy, Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime". Ateneo de Manila University. September 20, 1999.
- "Gone too soon: 7 youth leaders killed under Martial Law". Rappler. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- "3,257: Fact checking the Marcos killings, 1975–1985 – The Manila Times Online". www.manilatimes.net. April 12, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
- "Document". www.amnesty.org.
- Robles, Raissa (2016). Marcos Martial Law: Never Again. Filipinos For A Better Philippines, Inc.
- W., McCoy, Alfred (2009). Policing America's empire : the United States, the Philippines, and the rise of the surveillance state. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299234133. OCLC 550642875.
- Cagurangan, Mar-Vic. "'Salvage' victims". The Guam Daily Post. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Mila D. Aguilar (October 3, 2015), So Why Samar?, archived from the original on October 30, 2021, retrieved June 18, 2018
- Celoza, Albert (1997). Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: the political economy of authoritarianism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-275-94137-6.
- "Philippines – From Aquino's Assassination to People Power". U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
- "Cardinal Jaime Sin". The Independent. June 22, 2005.
- Manning, Robert A. (1984). "The Philippines in Crisis". Foreign Affairs. 63 (2): 392–410. doi:10.2307/20042190. JSTOR 20042190.
- Chaikin, David; Sharman, J. C. (2009). "The Marcos Kleptocracy". Corruption and Money Laundering. pp. 153–186. doi:10.1057/9780230622456_7. ISBN 978-1-349-37827-2.
- Acemoglu, Daron; Verdier, Thierry; Robinson, James A. (May 1, 2004). "Kleptocracy and Divide-and-Rule: A Model of Personal Rule" (PDF). Journal of the European Economic Association. 2 (2–3): 162–192. doi:10.1162/154247604323067916. S2CID 7846928.
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 585
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 586
- "Background Notes: Philippines, November 1996". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2006.
- "Then & Now: Corazon Aquino". CNN. Retrieved August 16, 2006.
- "Pinatubo – Eruption Features". National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
- Riggs 1994, pp. 129–130 (footnote 18)
- Shenon, Philip (September 16, 1991). "PHILIPPINE SENATE VOTES TO REJECT U.S. BASE RENEWAL". The New York Times.
- Branigin, William (November 24, 1992). "U.S. MILITARY ENDS ROLE IN PHILIPPINES". The Washington Post.
- Nwankwo, Peter O. (2011). Criminology and Criminal Justice Systems of the World: A Comparative Perspective. Trafford Publishing. p. 392. ISBN 9781426967405.
- "Showdown in Manila". Asiaweek. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
- "A timeline of death penalty in the Philippines". Philippine Center for Investigated Journalist. April 18, 2006. Archived from the original on February 17, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2006.
- "Profile: Joseph Estrada". BBC News. October 26, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2006.
- Multiple sources:
- Antonio C. Abaya, GMA's successes, Manila Standard, January 17, 2008.
- Philippines' GDP grows 3.2 pc in 1999, GNP up 3.6 pc *Archived November 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Asian Economic News, January 31, 2000.
- Philippines' GDP up 4.5% in 2nd qtr, Asian Economic News, September 4, 2000.
- The Philippines: Sustaining Economic Growth Momentum In A Challenging Global Environment, Governor Amando M. Tetangco, Jr., Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, June 27, 2008. (WebCite archive of the original
- Speech: THE PHILIPPINES: CONSOLIDATING ECONOMIC GROWTH Archived January 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Governor Rafael Buenaventura, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, March 13, 2000.
- Philippines : Recent Trends and Prospects, Asian Development Bank, 2001. (archived from the original on June 7, 2011)
- "What Went Before: Past Charter-change attempts". Inquirer.net. May 21, 2013.
- Speech of Former President Estrada on the GRP-MORO Conflict (September 18, 2008), Human development Network.
- In the Spotlight : Moro Islamic Liberation Front Archived September 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Center for Defense Information Terrorism Project, February 15, 2002.
- Philippine Military Takes Moro Headquarters, People's Daily, July 10, 2000.
- AFP-MILF 2000 War in Mindanao Remembered Archived March 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (April 13, 2006), American Chronicle, May 13, 2009.
- Paddock, Richard C. (October 20, 2000). "Kickback Scandal Bedevils Estrada's Presidency". Los Angeles Times.
- Fuller, Thomas (November 14, 2000). "The Impeachment of Estrada : Day of Political Tumult in Manila". The New York Times.
- "Estrada Impeachment Trial Thrown Into Chaos". The Washington Post. January 17, 2001.
- "Estrada Resigns as Philippine President; Vice President Is Immediately Sworn In". The Wall Street Journal. January 20, 2001.
- "Country Profile: Philippines, March 2006" (PDF). U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
- "Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Talkasia Transcript". CNN. Retrieved July 29, 2006.
- Dalangin-Fernandez, Lira (July 20, 2006). "People's support for Charter change 'nowhere to go but up'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 27, 2006. Retrieved July 27, 2006.
- "Timeline: LRT, MRT construction". The Philippine Star. July 19, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- Jr, Nestor P. Burgos (June 3, 2012). "Royal decree creates Sultanate of Panay in Capiz". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
- Cruz, Arlyn dela (February 16, 2013). "Heirs of Sultan of Sulu pursue Sabah claim on their own". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
- Najib, Najiah (December 30, 2013). "Lahad Datu invasion: A painful memory of 2013". Astro Awani.
- "Road map for peace: Highlights of the Bangsamoro framework agreement". GMA News. October 15, 2012.
- "Aquino signs K–12 bill into law". Rappler. May 15, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Typhoon Haiyan death toll rises over 5,000 (Report). BBC. November 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
- "Tacloban: City at the centre of the storm". BBC. November 12, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Landingin, Roel (March 27, 2014). "Philippines signs deal with Muslim rebels". Financial Times.
- "Obama to stay overnight in PH". Rappler. April 1, 2014. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "US, PH reach new defense deal". ABS-CBN News. April 27, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "Philippines, US sign defense pact". Agence France-Presse. ABS-CBN News. April 28, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- Postrado, Leonard (January 13, 2016). "EDCA prevails". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- "Pope Francis greeted by ecstatic Philippines crowds". BBC News. January 15, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
- "Pope Francis in the Philippines". CNN. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
- Fonbuena, Carmela; Cupin, Bea; Gloria, Glenda M. (February 7, 2015). "TIMELINE: Mamasapano clash". Rappler.
- Cupin, Bea (February 25, 2016). "MILF: Don't scrap Bangsamoro law because of Mamasapano". Rappler.
- "Philippines files case to UN in South China Sea dispute". BBC News. March 31, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
- Torres-Tupas, Tetch (January 12, 2016). "Supreme Court upholds legality of Edca". Inquirer.net.
- Panela, Shaira (March 23, 2016). "PH microsatellite Diwata-1 heads to Int'l Space Station". Rappler.
- "Duterte, Robredo win 2016 polls". ABS-CBN. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "Congress proclaims Duterte, Robredo as new President, VP; Rody a no-show". Inquirer.net. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Rañada, Pia (June 22, 2016). "Duterte inauguration guest list now has 627 names". Rappler. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- Philips, T.; Holmes, O.; Bowcott, O. (July 12, 2016). "Philippines wins South China Sea case against China". The Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Corrales, Nestor (July 7, 2016). "Duterte administration to launch 24-hour hotline in August". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
- "Dial 8888, 911: Gov't opens complaints, emergency hotlines". ABS CBN News. August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Duterte sworn in as Philippines president". Reuters. June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- "Between Duterte and a death squad, a Philippine mayor fights drug-war violence". Reuters. March 16, 2017.
- "#RealNumbersPH". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Cayetano: PH war on drugs exaggerated by fake news". ABS-CBN. May 5, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- "Anti-Marcos protesters brave rains to condemn burial – The Manila Times Online". www.manilatimes.net. November 26, 2016.
- Esguerra, Anthony; Salaverria, Leila (May 23, 2017). "Duterte declares martial law in Mindanao". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 23, 2017.
- "Home". Build!. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "DuterteNomics unveiled". Presidential Communications Operations Office. April 19, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Vera, Ben O. de. "34 of 75 flagship infra projects to start in '18". Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- "Infra spending to sustain high growth, generate economic multipliers". Department of Finance. August 28, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Mogato, Anna Gabriela A. (October 26, 2017). "Construction worker shortage 'about 2.5M' – DTI". BusinessWorld Online. Archived from the original on August 4, 2019. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Gonzales, Anna Leah E. (August 28, 2017). "2M more workers needed for 'Build Build Build'". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on December 26, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
- Schnabel, Chris (December 20, 2017). "Metro Manila Subway leads expected infra buildup in 2018". Rappler. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- "Making "Build, Build, Build" Work in the Philippines". Asian Development Bank. October 30, 2017. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- Kabiling, Genalyn (February 19, 2019). "We can keep our mobile numbers for life; Duterte signs 19 other laws". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Unson, John (January 27, 2019). "Plebiscite in Mindanao: Will it be the last?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Arguillas, Carolyn. "Bangsamoro law ratified; how soon can transition from ARMM to BARMM begin?". MindaNews. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
- History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Past. Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education. 2009. ISBN 978-99917-2-372-3.
- Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990) . History of the Filipino People (8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. ISBN 978-971-8711-06-4.
- Alip, Eufronio Melo (1964). Philippine History: Political, Social, Economic.
- Atiyah, Jeremy (2002). Rough guide to Southeast Asia. Rough Guide. ISBN 978-1858288932.
- Bisht, Narendra S.; Bankoti, T. S. (2004). Encyclopaedia of the South East Asian Ethnography. Global Vision Publishing Ho. ISBN 978-81-87746-96-6.
- Brands, H. W. Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines (1992) excerpt
- Coleman, Ambrose (2009). The Firars in the Philippines. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 978-1-113-71989-8.
- Deady, Timothy K. (2005). "Lessons from a Successful Counterinsurgency: The Philippines, 1899–1902" (PDF). Parameters. Carlisle, Pennsylvania: United States Army War College. 35 (1): 53–68. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 10, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
- Dolan, Ronald E.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "Early History". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "The Early Spanish". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "The Decline of Spanish". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "Spanish American War". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "War of Resistance". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "United States Rule". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "A Collaborative Philippine Leadership". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "Commonwealth Politics". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "World War II". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "Economic Relations with the United States". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "The Magsaysay, Garcia, and Macapagal Administrations". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "Marcos and the Road to Martial Law". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991). "From Aquino's Assassination to People Power". Philippines: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-8444-0748-7.
- This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Dolan, Ronald E. (1993). Philippines: A country study. Federal Research Division.
- Annual report of the Secretary of War. Washington GPO: US Army. 1903.
- Duka, Cecilio D. (2008). Struggle for Freedom' 2008 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-5045-0.
- Ellis, Edward S. (2008). Library of American History from the Discovery of America to the Present Time. READ BOOKS. ISBN 978-1-4437-7649-3.
- Escalante, Rene R. (2007). The Bearer of Pax Americana: The Philippine Career of William H. Taft, 1900–1903. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 978-971-10-1166-6.
- Riggs, Fred W. (1994). "Bureaucracy: A Profound Puzzle for Presidentialism". In Farazmand, Ali (ed.). Handbook of Bureaucracy. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-9182-7.
- Fish, Shirley (2003). When Britain Ruled The Philippines 1762–1764. 1stBooks. ISBN 978-1-4107-1069-7.
- Frankham, Steven (2008). Borneo. Footprint Handbooks. Footprint. ISBN 978-1906098148.
- Fundación Santa María (Madrid) (1994). Historia de la educación en España y América: La educación en la España contemporánea : (1789–1975) (in Spanish). Ediciones Morata. ISBN 978-84-7112-378-7.
- Joaquin, Nick (1988). Culture and history: occasional notes on the process of Philippine becoming. Solar Pub. Corp. ISBN 978-971-17-0633-3.
- Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines (1990) excerpt
- Kurlansky, Mark (1999). The Basque history of the world. Walker. ISBN 978-0-8027-1349-0.
- Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990). Philippine History and Government (Second ed.). Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 978-971-06-1894-1.
- Linn, Brian McAllister (2000). The Philippine War, 1899–1902. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1225-3.
- McAmis, Robert Day (2002). Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802849458.
- Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 978-981-4155-67-0.
- Nicholl, Robert (1983). "Brunei Rediscovered: A Survey of Early Times". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 14 (1): 32–45}. doi:10.1017/S0022463400008973.
- Norling, Bernard (2005). The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-9134-8.
- Saunders, Graham (2002). A History of Brunei. Routledge. ISBN 978-0700716982.
- Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen Rosskamm (1987). The Philippines Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship, and Resistance. South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-275-5.
- Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic source materials for the study of Philippine history. New Day Publishers. ISBN 978-971-10-0227-5.
- Scott, William Henry (1985). Cracks in the parchment curtain and other essays in Philippine history. New Day Publishers. ISBN 978-971-10-0073-8.
- Shafer, Robert Jones (1958). The economic societies in the Spanish world, 1763–1821. Syracuse University Press.
- Taft, William (1908). Present Day Problems. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8369-0922-7.
- Tracy, Nicholas (1995). Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on Manila in the Seven Years War. University of Exeter Press. ISBN 978-0-85989-426-5.
- Wionzek, Karl-Heinz (2000). Germany, the Philippines, and the Spanish–American War: four accounts by officers of the Imperial German Navy. National Historical Institute. ISBN 9789715381406.
- Woods, Ayon kay Damon L. (2005). The Philippines. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6.
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994). The Philippines: A Unique Nation. All-Nations Publishing Co. ISBN 978-971-642-071-5.
- Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State and Society in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7425-6872-3.
- Columbia University Press (2001). "Philippines, The". Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Bartleby.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2008.
- Barrows, David Prescott (1905). A History of the Philippines . Amer. Bk. Company.
- Blair, Emma Helen; Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1903). 1582–1583. The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. 5. Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company.
Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations.
- Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898 (1903)
- Corpuz, O.D. (2005). Roots of the Filipino Nation. University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 978-971-542-461-5.
- Elliott, Charles Burke (1916). The Philippines : To the End of the Military Régime (PDF). The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
- Elliott, Charles Burke (1917). The Philippines: To the End of the Commission Government, a Study in Tropical Democracy (PDF). The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
- Foreman, John (1906). The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago. Charles Scribner's Sons. (other formats available)
- Mijares, Primitivo (1976). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Union Square Publications. Republished as Mijares, Primitivo (2017). The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos. Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-781-3.
- Millis, Walter (1931). The Martial Spirit. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 978-0-929587-07-3.
- Kalaw, Maximo M. (1927). "Early Political Life in the Philippines". The development of Philippine politics. Oriental commercial. p. 1. Retrieved January 21, 2008.
- Nieva, Gregorio (September 28, 1921). "Now Is The Time To Solve The Philippine Problem: The View Of A Representative Filipino". The Outlook. Outlook Publishing Company, Inc. 129: 135–137. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Ocay, Jeffry (2010). "Domination and Resistance in the Philippines: From the Pre-hispanic to the Spanish and American Period". LUMINA. 21 (1).
- Scott, William Henry (1992). Looking for the Prehispanic Filipino: And Other Essays in Philippine History. New Day Publishers. ISBN 978-971-10-0524-5.
- Worcester, Dean Conant (1913). The Philippines: Past and Present. New York: The Macmillan company.
- Worcester, Dean Conant (1898). The Philippine Islands and Their People. Macmillan & co.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of the Philippines.|
- Official government portal of the Republic of the Philippines.
- National Historical Institute.
- The United States and its Territories 1870–1925: The Age of Imperialism.
- History of the Philippine Islands by Morga, Antonio de in 55 volumes, from Project Gutenberg. Translated into English, edited and annotated by E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson. Volumes 1–14 and 15–25 indexed under Blair, Emma Helen.
- Philippine Society and Revolution (archived from the original on 2010-01-10).
- The European Heritage Library – Balancing Paradise and Pandemonium: Philippine Encounters with the rest of the World Archived November 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Filipiniana, The Premier Digital Library of the Philippines
- Philippine History