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History of New Hampshire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Hampshire is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. New Hampshire was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

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  • ✪ Vermont and New Hampshire Compared
  • ✪ 7 Facts about New Hampshire
  • ✪ History's Mysteries - America's Stonehenge (History Channel Documentary)
  • ✪ The Colony of New Hampshire Settled by the English in 1623
  • ✪ Haunted Places in New Hampshire


Vermont and New Hampshire Both are bordering states in these United States in a region known as New England, the area of the country first settled by European colonists when they came over and, you know, kicked Native American nations off their lands throughout the 1600s. The Connecticut River separates them, and each joke the other state is the upside-down version of itself. That's pretty good. So although Vermont and New Hampshire are right next to each other, and although they are about the same size, and although even the shape of each state is similar to a point where people often mix them up, there are a lot of differences between the two. Before we get to the differences, let’s keep going with what they have in common. Both have a lot of natural beauty, filled with rolling hills, mountains, streams, lakes, and forests. Both have plenty of protected land. Vermont has the Green Mountain National Forest and New Hampshire has the White Mountain National Forest. The Green Mountains in Vermont and White Mountains in New Hampshire are both part of the northern Appalachian Mountains, a range that goes up and down the eastern portion of the country. New Hampshire has the taller highest peak of the two states, with Mount Washington, one of the windiest places on earth. On April 12, 1934, scientists recorded a wind speed of 231 miles per hour on the top of the mountain, which is still the world record for wind speed if you don’t count cyclones or tornadoes. Vermont does have a more rugged terrain, overall, and in fact New Hampshire’s land gets all chill and flat in the southeast portion of the state. It even borders the Atlantic Ocean. For 18 miles (29km). The shortest ocean coastline of any state, but at least it’s not landlocked like Vermont! Tons of Americans who live in the NORTHEAST MEGALOPOLIS go to both Vermont and New Hampshire for tourism, especially for outdoorsy stuff like fishing, hunting, and hiking. Winter sports like skiiing and snowmobiling are also big in the winter in both states. Oh, and don’t forget the fall foliage! Oh my, it’s so pretty. Jim Gaffigan: The foliage! Let's drive by the foliage. It's so beautiful the way the leaves die. Both states have a lot of people with lighter skin. The vast majority of people in both states trace most of their ancestry back to Europe. The earliest European settlers were mostly Puritans and other groups from Britain, but before the English arrived French explorers checked out both states. These European settlers encountered various Native American nations already living there for hundreds of years. Most of them were Algonquian-speaking Abenaki tribes, although in Vermont the Pennacook and Mohican tribes also resided. During the colonial era, both Vermont and New Hampshire were controlled by the British, although both were threatened at their borders by the French. New Hampshire was one of the original British 13 colonies, and Vermont was not. New Hampshire actually used to claim parts of what today is Vermont, which was also claimed by other colonies and mostly unsettled by the British during this time. It actually was its own country for a short while. After the United States gained independence and became a country in 1776, New Hampshire was one of its first states. It became the 9th state to ratify the Constitution in 1788, and Vermont became the 14th state three years later. Both states shared similar patterns of growth, with their populations dramatically growing during the early 1800s but slowing way down by the end of the century. Contrary to popular belief, politically speaking Vermont and New Hampshire are fairly similar. Vermont has a reputation for being left-leaning on the political spectrum- I mean this is where Bernie Sanders is from, for crying out loud. But it’s also where Calvin Coolidge was from. Vermont reliably voted for a Republican for President almost every election up until 1988. Even though New Hampshire has a reputation as a low-tax state where a bunch of libertarians are trying to move to, it has still mostly voted for Democrats in presidential elections over the last 25 years. Both states are mostly Christian, but really both states aren’t that religious. 34% of Vermont residents consider themselves religious, while 35% of New Hampshire residents consider themselves religious. Both states have residents that are, on average, much older than the average age of people in other states. So not only are both states old. Both states are OLD. Both states have low unemployment rates. Vermont’s is currently 3.3% and New Hampshire’s is currently 2.4%. Both states also have a similar percentage of residents who graduated from college. About 36% of residents in both Vermont and New Hampshire have at least a bachelor’s degree. Both states have some of the highest high school graduation rates as well. Both states rank in the top 10 for healthiest in the country. I know that already I have explained some differences between Vermont and New Hampshire, but let’s now spend the rest of the video exclusively looking at how these two states contrast. Despite being about the same size, New Hampshire has a larger population than Vermont. In fact, it has more than twice as many people. Vermont is the second smallest state in the country in terms of population. Its largest city, Burlington, has just 42,000 people. New Hampshire’s largest city, Manchester, has about 111,000. New Hampshire’s population is currently growing at a faster rate. In fact, Vermont’s population has recently been declining. It’s more expensive to live in New Hampshire. But that’s overall. For example, it’s actually 9.5% less expensive living in Manchester, New Hampshire compared to living in Burlington, Vermont. However, if you look at a city like Rutland, Vermont, you are going to find much better deals than any comparable place in New Hampshire, so it kind of depends on what part of each state we’re talking about. The biggest three industries in Vermont are healthcare, education, and retail. The three biggest in New Hampshire are healthcare, manufacturing, and retail. Vermont has the smallest economy in the United States. New Hampshire’s is ranked 39, and has a much more promising future for industry growth. Agriculture has always been more of a focus in Vermont compared to New Hampshire, where they have historically been more open to industry. New Hampshire residents tend to make more money than Vermont residents. The poverty rate in Vermont is 11.9%, compared to just 7.3% in New Hampshire. New Hampshire has the lowest poverty rate in the country. The minimum wage in Vermont is $10.50 an hour, but by 2024 it will be $15 an hour. In New Hampshire, it’s just $7.25 an hour, which is also the federal minimum, and it doesn’t appear to be going up any time soon. Vermont tends to be a little less open to outsiders. In fact, people who have lived in Vermont for a long time have a name for outsiders. They call them "flatlanders." Vermont has higher taxes overall. New Hampshire has historically gone more out of its way to attract new businesses to its state compared to Vermont. Vermont has a law called Act 250, which greatly limits real estate development. Although, Vermont recently announced it will pay people up to $10,000 to live there if they have a full-time job where they can work remotely. But yeah, I mentioned taxes. Let’s get more into that. New Hampshire doesn’t have an income tax OR a sales tax. So how the heck do they get money? Well, the state has really high property taxes. Vermont just taxes you for, well, like everything, but at least their property taxes are lower. And while they have some of the highest taxes in the United States, their social services are way above average because of it. And boy is the New Hampshire government frugal. They barely pay its state representatives anything. Vermont famously banned billboards in 1968, so when you drive down a highway in Vermont today you will see this, as opposed to this, in neighboring New Hampshire. Vermont puts a lot more emphasis on supporting local businesses. The state prides itself in letting everyone know that its capital city, Montpelier, is the only capital in the country without a McDonald’s. Oh, and there are only 6 Walmarts in the entire state. Every four years, New Hampshire is home to the first primary election for the Democratic Party and Republican Party to pick their nominees for President. Sooo I predict that in early 2020 a bunch of journalists will be hanging out there. Vermont is known for having quite the characters running for political office there, like this unforgettable cast who ran for governor in 2014. The reason why obscure candidates in Vermont are actually seen is because Vermont lets them debate on TV, which I think, frankly, is amazing. It’s awesome. Marijuana is completely legal in Vermont. Medical marijuana is currently legal in New Hampshire, but it’s sure looking like marijuana will also be completely legal there soon as well. Vermont made headlines when it became the first state in the country to legalize same-sex unions way back in 2000, fifteen years before the Obergefell v. Hodges Supreme Court decision legalized same-sex marriages nationwide. So yeah, as I go on and on with this video, maybe I am realizing that Vermont IS much more left-leaning than New Hampshire. Hmmm So as much as the two states bicker and appear to be so different, Vermont and New Hampshire actually complement each other quite well. I understand if you have a hard time making up your mind between the two if you want to live in either. Hey I know! How about living somewhere along the lovely Connecticut River? So, what do you think? Should I move my Vermont and become a full-time YouTuber so that we can get that sweet $10,000? I’ve already got my Ben and Jerry’s ice cream and Green Mountain coffee. Eh? Which state do YOU like better? Also, what did I forget? What did I get right? What did I get wrong? Which states should I compare next? Let me know in the comments below. Thank you for watching.


Founding: 17th century–1775

Fort William and Mary in 1705
Fort William and Mary in 1705

The colony that became the state of New Hampshire was founded on the division in 1629 of a land grant given in 1622 by the Council for New England to Captain John Mason (former governor of Newfoundland) and Sir Ferdinando Gorges (who founded Maine). The colony was named New Hampshire by Mason after the English county of Hampshire, one of the first Saxon shires. Hampshire was itself named after the port of Southampton, which was known previously as simply "Hampton".

New Hampshire was first settled by Europeans at Odiorne's Point in Rye (near Portsmouth) by a group of fishermen from England under David Thompson [1] in 1623, just three years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. Early historians believed the first native-born New Hampshirite, John Thompson, was born there.

Fisherman David Thompson had been sent by Mason, to be followed a few years later by Edward and William Hilton. They led an expedition to the vicinity of Dover, which they called Northam. Mason died in 1635 without ever seeing the colony he founded. Settlers from Pannaway, moving to the Portsmouth region later and combining with an expedition of the new Laconia Company (formed 1629) under Captain Neal, called their new settlement Strawbery Banke. In 1638 Exeter was founded by John Wheelwright.

In 1631, Captain Thomas Wiggin served as the first governor of the Upper Plantation (comprising modern-day Dover, Durham and Stratham). All the towns agreed to unite in 1639, but meanwhile Massachusetts had claimed the territory. In 1641 an agreement was reached with Massachusetts to come under its jurisdiction. Home rule of the towns was allowed. In 1653 Strawbery Banke petitioned the General Court of Massachusetts to change its name to Portsmouth, which was granted.

Map showing several claims and disputed borders between 1691-1775
Map showing several claims and disputed borders between 1691-1775

The relationship between Massachusetts and the independent New Hampshirites was controversial and tenuous, and complicated by land claims maintained by the heirs of John Mason. In 1679 King Charles II separated New Hampshire from Massachusetts, issuing a charter for the royal Province of New Hampshire, with John Cutt as governor. New Hampshire was absorbed into the Dominion of New England in 1686, which collapsed in 1689. After a brief period without formal government (the settlements were de facto ruled by Massachusetts) William III and Mary II issued a new provincial charter in 1691. From 1699 to 1741 the governors of Massachusetts were also commissioned as governors of New Hampshire.

The province's geography placed it on the frontier between British and French colonies in North America, and it was for many years subjected to native claims, especially in the central and northern portions of its territory. Because of these factors it was on the front lines of many military conflicts, including King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, and King George's War. By the 1740s most of the native population had either been killed or driven out of the province's territory.

Because New Hampshire's governorship was shared with that of Massachusetts, border issues between the two colonies were not properly adjudicated for many years. These issues principally revolved around territory west of the Merrimack River, which issuers of the Massachusetts and New Hampshire charters had incorrectly believed to flow primarily from west to east. In the 1730s New Hampshire political interest led by Lieutenant Governor John Wentworth were able to raise the profile of these issues to colonial officials and the crown in London, even while Governor and Massachusetts native Jonathan Belcher preferentially granted land to Massachusetts interests in the disputed area. In 1741 King George II ruled that the border with Massachusetts was approximately what it is today, and also separated the governorships of the two provinces. Benning Wentworth in 1741 became the first non-Massachusetts governor since Edward Cranfield succeeded John Cutt in the 1680s.

Wentworth promptly complicated New Hampshire's territorial claims by interpreting the provincial charter to include territory west of the Connecticut River, and began issuing land grants in this territory, which was also claimed by the Province of New York. The so-called New Hampshire Grants area became a subject of contention from the 1740s until the 1790s, when it was admitted to the United States as the state of Vermont.

Slavery in New Hampshire

As in the other Thirteen Colonies and elsewhere in the colonial Americas, racially conditioned slavery was a firmly established institution in New Hampshire. The New Hampshire Assembly in 1714 passed "An Act To Prevent Disorders In The Night":[2][3]

Whereas great disorders, insolencies and burglaries are oft times raised and committed in the night time by Indian, Negro, and Molatto Servants and Slaves to the Disquiet and hurt of her Majesty, No Indian, Negro, or Molatto is to be from Home after 9 o'clock.

Notices emphasizing and re-affirming the curfew were published in The New Hampshire Gazette in 1764 and 1771.[2]

Following the Revolution, a powerfully-written petition of 1779 sent by 20 slaves in Portsmouth requested freedom for the enslaved. But the New Hampshire legislature would not officially eliminate slavery in the state until 1857, long after the death of many of the signatories. The 1840 census was the last to enumerate any slaves in the households of the state.[2]

While the number of slaves resident in New Hampshire itself dwindled during the course of the 19th century the state's economy remained closely interlinked with, and dependent upon, the economies of the slave states. Slave-produced raw materials such as cotton for textiles and slave-manufactured goods were imported. And for example the ship Nightingale of Boston, built in Eliot, Maine in 1851 and outfitted in Portsmouth, would serve as a slave ship before its capture by the African Slave Trade Patrol in 1861, indicating the region's further economic connection to the ongoing Atlantic slave trade.[2][4]

Revolution: 1775–1815

Broadside statement of Congress of the Colony of New Hampshire, referencing "sudden & abrupt departure" of Royal Governor John Wentworth, January 1776
Broadside statement of Congress of the Colony of New Hampshire, referencing "sudden & abrupt departure" of Royal Governor John Wentworth, January 1776

New Hampshire was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule during the American Revolution. The Massachusetts Provincial Congress called upon the other New England colonies for assistance in raising an army. In response, on May 22, 1775, the New Hampshire Provincial Congress voted to raise a volunteer force to join the patriot army at Boston. In January 1776, it became the first colony to set up an independent government and the first to establish a constitution,[5] but the latter explicitly stated "we never sought to throw off our dependence on Great Britain", meaning that it was not the first to actually declare its independence (that distinction instead belongs to Rhode Island).[6] The historic attack on Fort William and Mary (now Fort Constitution) helped supply the cannon and ammunition for the Continental Army that was needed for the Battle of Bunker Hill that took place north of Boston a few months later. New Hampshire raised three regiments for the Continental Army, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd New Hampshire regiments. New Hampshire Militia units were called up to fight at the Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Bennington, Saratoga Campaign and the Battle of Rhode Island. John Paul Jones' ship the Sloop-of-war USS Ranger and the frigate USS Raleigh were built in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, along with other naval ships for the Continental Navy and privateers to hunt down British merchant shipping.

Concord was named the state capital in 1808.[7]

Order by John Taylor Gilman, State Treasurer and later Governor, 1784
Order by John Taylor Gilman, State Treasurer and later Governor, 1784

Industrialization, abolitionism and politics: 1815–1860

Map of the Republic of Indian Stream
Map of the Republic of Indian Stream

In 1832, New Hampshire saw a major news story: the founding of the Republic of Indian Stream on its northern border with Canada over the unresolved post-revolutionary war border issue. In 1835 the republic was annexed by New Hampshire, with the dispute finally resolved in 1842 by the Webster–Ashburton Treaty.

Abolitionists from Dartmouth College founded the experimental, interracial Noyes Academy in Canaan, New Hampshire in 1835. Rural opponents of the school eventually dragged the school away with oxen before lighting it ablaze to protest integrated education, within months of the school's founding.

Abolitionist sentiment was a strong undercurrent in the state, with significant support given the Free Soil Party of John P. Hale. However the conservative Jacksonian Democrats usually maintained control, under the leadership of editor Isaac Hill. In 1856 the new Republican Party headed by Amos Tuck produced a political revolution.

Civil War: 1861–1865

After Abraham Lincoln gave speeches in March 1860, he was well regarded. However, the radical wing of the Republican Party increasingly took control. As early as January 1861, top officials were secretly meeting with Governor John A. Andrew of Massachusetts to coordinate plans in case the war came. Plans were made to rush militia units to Washington in an emergency.[8]

New Hampshire fielded 31,650 enlisted men and 836 officers during the American Civil War; of these, 1,803 enlisted men and 131 officers were killed or wounded.[9] The state provided eighteen volunteer infantry regiments (thirteen of which were raised in 1861 in response to Lincoln's call to arms), three rifle regiments (who served in the 1st United States Sharpshooters and 2nd United States Sharpshooters), one cavalry battalion (the 1st New Hampshire Volunteer Cavalry, which was attached to the 1st New England Volunteer Cavalry), and two artillery units (the 1st New Hampshire Light Battery and 1st New Hampshire Heavy Artillery), as well as additional men for the Navy and Marine Corps.[9]

Among the most celebrated of New Hampshire's units was the 5th New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Colonel Edward Ephraim Cross.[10] Called the "Fighting Fifth" in newspaper accounts, the regiment was considered among the Union's best both during the war (Major General Winfield Scott called the regiment "refined gold" in 1863) and by historians afterward.[10] The Civil War veteran and early Civil War historian William F. Fox determined that this regiment had the highest number of battle-related deaths of any Union regiment.[10] The 20th-century historian Bruce Catton said that the Fifth New Hampshire was "one of the best combat units in the army" and that Cross was "an uncommonly talented regimental commander."[10]

The critical post of state Adjutant General was held in 1861-64 by elderly politician Anthony C. Colby (1792-1873) and his son Daniel E. Colby (1816-1891). They were patriotic, but were overwhelmed with the complexity of their duties. The state had no track of men who enlisted after 1861; no personnel records or information on volunteers, substitutes, or draftees. There was no inventory of weaponry and supplies. Nathaniel Head (1828-1883) took over in 1864, obtained an adequate budget and office staff, and reconstructed the missing paperwork. As a result, widows, orphans, and disabled veterans received the postwar payments they had earned.[11]

Prosperity, depression and war: 1865–1950

1922 map of New Hampshire published in the bulletin of the Brown Company in Berlin
1922 map of New Hampshire published in the bulletin of the Brown Company in Berlin

Between 1884 and 1903, New Hampshire attracted many immigrants. French Canadian migration to the state was significant, and at the turn of the century, French Canadians represented 16 percent of the state's population, and one-fourth the population of Manchester.[12] Polish immigration to the state was also significant; there were about 850 Polish Americans in Manchester in 1902.[12]

The textile industry was hit hard by the depression and growing competition from southern mills. The closing of the Amoskeag Mills in 1935 was a major blow to Manchester, as was the closing of the former Nashua Manufacturing Company mill in Nashua in 1949 and the bankruptcy of the Brown Company paper mill in Berlin in the 1940s, which led to new ownership.

Modern New Hampshire: 1950–present

The post-World War II decades have seen New Hampshire increase its economic and cultural links with the greater Boston, Massachusetts, region. This reflects a national trend, in which improved highway networks have helped metropolitan areas expand into formerly rural areas or small nearby cities.

The replacement of the Nashua textile mill with defense electronics contractor Sanders Associates in 1952 and the arrival of minicomputer giant Digital Equipment Corporation in the early 1970s helped lead the way toward southern New Hampshire's role as a high-tech adjunct of the Route 128 corridor.

The postwar years saw the rise of New Hampshire's political primary for President of the United States, which as the first primary in the quadrennial campaign season draws enormous attention.

See also


  1. ^ "The Contact Era". Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-12. The largely unsung founder of New Hampshire is David Thompson (spelled "Thomson" by some accounts). Thompson's father worked for Sir Ferdinando Gorges of Plymouth, a most powerful English noble who had received the rights from King James I to set up the first two American "plantations" at Jamestown and Plymouth.
  2. ^ a b c d Sammons, Mark J.; Cunningham, Valerie (2004). Black Portsmouth: Three Centuries of African-American Heritage. Durham, New Hampshire: University of New Hampshire Press. ISBN 9781584652892. LCCN 2004007172. OCLC 845682328. Archived from the original on 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  3. ^ Acts and laws of His Majesty's province of New-Hampshire, in New-England: With sundry acts of Parliament. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Daniel Fowle. 1759. p. 40.
  4. ^ Edward H. Vetter. "The Clipper Ship "Nightingale"". Town of Eliot, Maine. Archived from the original on 2012-03-09.
  5. ^ "NH Firsts and Bests". State of New Hampshire official website. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  6. ^ Mara Vorhees; Glenda Bendure; Ned Friary; Richard Koss; John Spelman (1 May 2008). New England. Lonely Planet. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-74104-674-8. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
  7. ^ Lyford, James; Amos Hadley; Howard F. Hill; Benjamin A. Kimball; Lyman D. Stevens; John M. Mitchell (1903). History of Concord, N.H. (PDF). Concord, N.H.: The Rumford Press. pp. 324–326. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-15.
  8. ^ Richard F. Miller, ed., States at war: a reference guide for Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont in the Civil War (2013) 1: 368-69
  9. ^ a b Bruce D. Heald, New Hampshire and the Civil War: Voices from the Granite State (History Press, 2012).
  10. ^ a b c d Mike Pride & Mark Travis, My Brave Boys: To War with Colonel Cross and the Fighting Fifth, University Press of New England, 2001.
  11. ^ Miller, ed., States at war (2013) 1: 366-7
  12. ^ a b Wilfrid H. Paradis, Upon This Granite: Catholicism in New Hampshire, 1647-1997 (1998), pp. 111-12.


Further reading

This page was last edited on 1 August 2019, at 15:10
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