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Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt
𐎸𐎭𐎼𐎠𐎹
Mudrāya  (Old Persian)
Province of the Achaemenid Empire
525 BC–404 BC
Western part of the Achaemenid Empire.jpg

Western part of the Achaemenid Empire, with the territories of Egypt.[1][2][3][4]
Government
Pharaoh 
• 525-522 BC
Cambyses II (first)
• 423-404 BC
Darius II (last)
Historical eraAchaemenid era
525 BC
• Rebellion of Amyrtaeus
404 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt
The Svenigorodsky cylinder seal depicting a Persian king thrusting his lance at an Egyptian pharaoh, while holding four other Egyptian captives on a rope.[5][6][7]
The Svenigorodsky cylinder seal depicting a Persian king thrusting his lance at an Egyptian pharaoh, while holding four other Egyptian captives on a rope.[5][6][7]

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy (Old Persian: Mudrāya[8]) was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, and was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt (343-322 BC).

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Transcription

From being lost in the ice for months, to falling from a plane and being stranded in outer space, here are 8 of the most famous survival stories ever. 8. Steven Callahan Steven Callahan spent his entire life around boats and is a seasoned inventor and sailor. When he was 29 years old he built a 6.5 meter sloop called “Napoleon Solo” and went out to fulfill his dream of crossing the Atlantic during a sailing competition that would start in the Canary Islands and finish in the Caribbean. He had been through many storms and knew his boat well but one night he woke up when something, he says maybe a whale or shark, smashed into the boat with a bang! Water came pouring and the boat began to sink fast. He was able to pack his life-raft, diving underwater to get supplies as his boat was sinking, then he was totally alone. He had the shirt on his back, a few pounds of food, 8 pints of freshwater, a solar still to make drinking water, and various gear that he could use like a fishing line and tackles. For the next 76 days, Steven Callahan drifted across the open waters with no one to talk to but himself. He saw a handful of boats but nobody ever saw him and as he drifted he became more and more stranded. Part of his raft ripped and there were many days he thought he would die in a few hours. The solar still stopped working, and while he was able to eat fish and birds, he started noticing his mind and body begin to shut down. Eventually, after 1800 miles of travel he was spotted by some fishermen off Guadeloupe after they saw all the birds hovering around his raft trying to get the fish guts he was throwing out. He was finally rescued although it took him 6 weeks before he was able to walk properly. He wrote a book where you can learn more about his story called Adrift: 76 Days Lost At Sea. 7. The Robertson Family Not to be confused with the "Swiss Family Robinson" story about a different kind of shipwrecked family, or the cast of Duck Dynasty, the Robertson's were on a journey to see the world. Or as their patriarch Dougal Robertson said, to see the "University of Life". Since Mr. Robertson had retired as a merchant navy officer, he and his wife Lyn ran a dairy farm with their 4 children. So to get out of the rural UK, they departed to see the world and go on an adventure on January 27th, 1971. However, the children reported that their father had no experience and that they didn’t even practice sailing around the bay before going around the world. But for a year and a half, they did rather well on the 43 foot wooden schooner called the Lucette. That is until they got near the Galapagos Islands and their boat was struck by a pod of killer whales- (which for the record is not something that happens often). The whales utterly destroyed the boat, but thankfully the family was able to survive by making it onto an inflatable liferaft and dinghy. But, they only had six days worth of food, and problems started right at the beginning. They were able to survive on rainwater and turtle meat but after 16 days the inflatable raft was no longer usable. They were able to crowd onto the dinghy and it wasn’t until 38 days later that they were finally spotted by a Japanese fishing trawler. The family wrote several books about their experience “Survive the Savage Sea and The Last Voyage of the Lucette. And now for number 6, but first be sure to subscribe if you haven’t already and share any travel adventure stories you’ve had in the comments below! 6. Juliane Koepcke Now known as “The girl who fell from the sky”, Juliane Koepcke’s story of survival is pretty incredible. Juliane and her mother boarded LANSA Flight 508 on December 24th, 1971, after her prom to meet with her father for Christmas. The flight was only supposed to last about an hour, but around half way through, the plane flew into a thunderstorm and was struck by lightning. The plane went into a nosedive, partially exploded, and Julienne felt herself falling and falling somewhere over the Peruvian rainforest. She was flung from the plane but still strapped into her seat and she says that she could feel the seatbelt squeezing her so tightly that she couldn’t breathe. She had fallen around 10,000 feet and landed in the middle of the jungle. Of the 93 people onboard, only 17-year-old Juliane survived. She suffered a broken collarbone, a gash on her leg and a swollen eye. But now, she had to survive the jungle. The good thing was that she had been living with her parents at a research center 30 miles away and so she tried to get her bearings and follow a stream to get out from the forest canopy. She remembers hearing the search planes overhead but had no way of getting their attention. She was starving and became infested with maggots that buried under her skin. All she had was a thin summer dress as she waded through the water, spending the nights along the river bank. It was not until 11 days later that she finally found a shack. She was discovered by forestry workers who delivered her to safety. Sadly her mother had also survived but was severely injured and died in the jungle. Julienne now works as a biologist and librarian in Bavaria and wrote a book called “When I fell from the Sky”. 5. Harrison Okene Harrison Okene truly defied the odds after surviving for 3 days trapped under a sunken ship. The 29-year-old was a chef on a tugboat and was in the bathroom when the boat began to capsize. On May 28th, 2013, rescue divers were sent down to search the sunken vessel miles off the coast of Nigeria. It is general practice for people on ships to lock themselves in their rooms at night in case there are pirates in this area. That, combined with the fact that the boat had sunk so quickly, gave the rescue team zero hopes of pulling out anyone alive. Okene had tried to get out of the bathroom but the ship was sinking quickly and he was unable to reach an emergency hatch. He scrambled and swam to the engineer’s office where he found a small air pocket. This random air bubble saved his life, as by now the boat was 100 feet underwater. He heard hammering on the deck after almost 60 hours and the divers were shocked to find Harrison Okene sitting in water in an air pocket. It was a miracle! He spent two days in a decompression chamber and was the only one to survive the accident. 4. Hiroo Onoda During World War II, a Japanese soldier by the name of Hiroo Onoda was given an order by his commanding officer before departing on a mission. That order? "No Surrender!" He must stay and fight at all costs. He survived in the jungles of the Philippines for 30 years before accepting that the war was over. At 20, he had enlisted in the Imperial Japanese Army as an intelligence agent and was trained in martial arts and guerrilla warfare. During the tail-end of WWII, he was sent on a mission in 1944 to destroy the pier of the island of Lubang and in general halt the American advance. Once he was dropped off in the jungle, he and his unit of 3 avoided capture, terrorized the locals and remained hidden. When Japan surrendered on August 15, they refused to acknowledge defeat. There were many searches for them, including airdrops of written pleas from their families and notes people would leave them telling them the war was over. But there was no reply and they continued to “fight” for 30 years. Onoda was officially declared dead in 1959. Onoda was finally located in 1974 by a student explorer but refused to stand down until he heard the words from his commanding officer. Luckily, he was still alive and told him that there was no longer any combat activity and to lay down his arms. 3. The Donner Party The Donner Party (also known as the Donner-Reed Party) was a group of pioneers, lead by brothers Jacob and George Donner and James Frasier Reed. This party of families travelling in covered wagons represented a new age of promise in American history and they were all hoping to build their fortune in the rich land of California. They set out in April, 1846 following the directions set out in a book, called the Emigrant’s Guide to Oregon and California written by Lansford W. Hastings. This is very important because this man claimed to have found a new route that would save pioneers 400 miles. Turns out this route had never been tested, and this information would lead to their doom. A series of very bad choices, and bad luck left them very behind schedule. The 87 members of the party got stuck in the snow of the Sierra Nevada in early November and their food began to run out. Rescuers were sent out but they didn’t arrive until February of 1847, 4 months later. Remember the game Oregon Trail? And all the bad stuff that would happen to you?? Well that all happened to the Donner Party, and more. Fights, disease, starvation, their draft animals were exhausted and anyone who couldn’t walk was left to die. They were attacked by indians and many of their animals were killed. When they couldn’t move any further, they started to eat the animals. Then they began boiling hides, twigs, bones, and bark, anything they could. Men went out to try to cross the pass on foot but several died. As others began to die at camp, they began to eat the only thing left, the bodies of those frozen in the snow. The survivors turned to cannibalism and they were later open about it in letters, journals, and later interviews. They were delirious from hunger and hypothermia and did what they could to survive. When they were rescued only 48 of the original 87 members of the party were alive and more died on the way out of the pass. Their story remains to this day one of the most haunting tales of survival and has become a major part of American folklore. 2. Sir Ernest Shackleton Explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton and the crew of his Trans-Antarctic Expedition will go down in history as one of the greatest survival stories of all time. Sir Shackleton was already a famous explorer, having reached a record southern latitude on his Antarctic expedition of 1907-09. The next expedition would be to cross Antarctica from sea to sea through the pole. So he prepared for the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914-1917, taking 56 men divided onto two ships, one was a support ship with supplies that would meet them later. They started the journey on the first ship, the Endurance, and started traveling through the thick, icy water and ice floes. After a couple of months, the Endurance got permanently stuck in the ice and so the crew created a makeshift shelter. The ship drifted for 10 months with the movement of the ice floes until it was finally crushed. Supplies dwindled and they had to start eating the sled dogs. The ice floe they were floating on began to break up and the 28 men crowded onto 3 lifeboats trying to navigate the icy waters. They finally landed on Elephant Island where they were able to live off of penguins and seals. 6 men including Shackleton set out on a raft to go search for help because they knew that otherwise, they wouldn’t make it. Winter had set in and for 14 days they endured the freezing spray and waters and managed to finally make it to civilization without capsizing. It took another 3 months before they were able to rescue the men stranded on elephant island. Amazingly, all 28 survived. 1. Apollo 13 The United States came very close to losing the astronauts on the Apollo 13 mission. It was supposed to be the 3rd lunar landing attempt but the mission was aborted after an explosion occurred in an oxygen tank. The mission was to follow in the footsteps of Apollo 11 and land on the moon. The three-man crew, Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert, and Fred Haise were all experience in their own right, with Lovell having been in space multiple times. The mission was a sure fire success...until they got into space and everything went wrong. Photos taken of the craft show that an entire side of the spacecraft was missing. Luckily, they were able to move into the lunar module as a sort of life boat- the module was supposed to be what they used to get to the moon’s surface and back and it wasn’t equipped to take them back to Earth by any means! It was only meant to support 2 men for 2 days, but now there were 3 men that needed about 90 hours. So now the new mission was to get the astronauts home safely. The goal was to use the gravity of the moon to slingshot them back into the Earth’s orbit and land in the Pacific Ocean- all the while rationing their food, being careful of their oxygen intake, and more. They came up with a makeshift system using only materials available on the craft to help manage the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. Though they didn't land on the moon, all three men were able to make it back home in one piece. It's considered one of the greatest feats of survival ever, especially in the Space Program. In fact, it was so grand, that President Richard Nixon was there to meet them and honor them when they landed. It was later made into a movie by legendary director Ron Howard and received many awards and nominations for its portrayal of the event. Thanks for watching! What did you think of these incredible survival stories? Which one was your favorite? Let me know if you would like to see another video like this!!! Be sure to subscribe, and I'll see you next time!

Contents

History

The last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II at the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in May of 525 BC. Cambyses was crowned Pharaoh of Egypt in the summer of that year at the latest, beginning the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (known as the 27th Dynasty). Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia to form the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with Aryandes as the local satrap (provincial governor).

As Pharaoh of Egypt, Cambyses' reign saw the fiscal resources of traditional Egyptian temples diminished considerably. One decree, written on papyrus in demotic script ordered a limitation on resources to all Egyptian temples, excluding Memphis, Heliopolis and Wenkhem (near Abusir). Cambyses left Egypt sometime in early 522 BC, dying en route to Persia, and was nominally succeeded briefly by his younger brother Bardiya, although contemporary historians suggest Bardiya was actually Gaumata, an impostor, and that the real Bardiya had been murdered some years before by Cambyses, ostensibly out of jealousy. Darius I, suspecting this impersonation, led a coup against "Bardiya" in September of that year, overthrowing him and being crowned as King and Pharaoh the next morning.

As the new Persian King, Darius spent much of his time quelling rebellions throughout his empire. Sometime in late 522 BC or early 521 BC a local Egyptian prince led a rebellion and declared himself Pharaoh Petubastis III. The main cause of this rebellion is uncertain, but the Ancient Greek military historian Polyaenus states that it was oppressive taxation imposed by the satrap Aryandes. Polyaenus further writes that Darius himself marched to Egypt, arriving during a period of mourning for the death of the sacred Herald of Ptah bull. Darius made a proclamation that he would award a sum of one hundred talents to the man who could produce the next Herald, impressing the Egyptians with his piety such that they flocked en masse to his side, ending the rebellion.[9]

Egyptian statue of Darius I, discovered in the Palace in Susa.[10]
Egyptian statue of Darius I, discovered in the Palace in Susa.[10]
Modern impression of an Achaemenid cylinder seal from Iran, with king holding two lion griffins at bay and Egyptian hieroglyphs reading "Thoth is a protection over me". Circa 6th–5th century BC.[11][12]
Modern impression of an Achaemenid cylinder seal from Iran, with king holding two lion griffins at bay and Egyptian hieroglyphs reading "Thoth is a protection over me". Circa 6th–5th century BC.[11][12]

Darius took a greater interest in Egyptian internal affairs than Cambyses. He reportedly codified the laws of Egypt, and notably completed the excavation of a canal system at Suez, allowing passage from the Bitter Lakes to the Red Sea, much preferable to the arduous desert land route. This feat allowed Darius to import skilled Egyptian laborers and artisans to construct his palaces in Persia. The result of this was a minor brain drain in Egypt, due to the loss of these skilled individuals, creating a demonstrable lowering of quality in Egyptian architecture and art from this period. Nevertheless, Darius was more devoted to supporting Egyptian temples than Cambyses, earning himself a reputation for religious tolerance in the region. In 497 BC, during a visit by Darius to Egypt, Aryandes was executed for treason, most likely for attempting to issue his own coinage, a visible attempt to distance Egypt from the rest of the Persian Empire.[13][14] Darius died in 486 BC, and was succeeded by Xerxes I.

Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 470 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.

Upon the accession of Xerxes, Egypt again rebelled, this time possibly under Psamtik IV, although different sources dispute that detail. Xerxes quickly quelled the rebellion, installing his brother Achaemenes as satrap. Xerxes ended the privileged status of Egypt held under Darius, and increased supply requirements from the country, probably to fund his invasion of Greece. Furthermore, Xerxes promoted the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda at the expense of traditional Egyptian deities, and permanently stopped the funding of Egyptian monuments. Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by Artabanus, beginning a dynastic struggle that ended with Artaxerxes I being crowned the next King and Pharaoh.

In 460 BC another major Egyptian rebellion took place, led by a Libyan chief named Inaros II, substantially assisted by the Athenians of Greece.[15] Inaros defeated an army led by Achaemenes, killing the satrap in the process, and took Memphis, eventually exerting control over large parts of Egypt. Inaros and his Athenian allies were finally defeated by a Persian army led by general Megabyzus in 454 BC and consequently sent into retreat. Megabyzus promised Inaros no harm would come of him or his followers if he surrendered and submitted to Persian authority, terms Inaros agreed to. Nevertheless, Artaxerxes eventually had Inaros executed, although exactly how and when is a matter of dispute.[16] Artaxerxes died in 424 BC.

Artaxerxes successor, Xerxes II only ruled for forty-five days, being murdered by his brother Sogdianus. Sogdianus was consequently murdered by his brother Ochus, who became Darius II.[17] Darius II ruled from 423 BC to 404 BC, and nearing the end of his reign a rebellion led by Amyrtaeus took place, potentially beginning as early as 411 BC. In 405 BC Amyrtaeus, with the help of Cretan mercenaries expelled the Persians from Memphis, declaring himself Pharaoh the next year and ending the 27th Dynasty. Darius II's successor, Artaxerxes II made attempts to begin an expedition to retake Egypt, but due to political difficulty with his brother Cyrus the Younger, abandoned the effort. Artaxerxes II was still recognized as the rightful Pharaoh in some parts of Egypt as late as 401 BC, although his sluggish response to the situation allowed Egypt to solidify its independence.

During the period of independent rule three indigenous dynasties reigned: the 28th, 29th, and 30th Dynasty. Artaxerxes III (358 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief second period (343 BC), which is called the 31st Dynasty of Egypt.

Pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty

The pharaohs of the 27th Dynasty ruled for approximately one hundred and twenty one years, from 525 BC to 404 BC. Rulers with violet background were native Egyptian pharaohs whom rebelled against the Achaemenid rule.

Name of Pharaoh Image Reign Throne Name Comments
Cambyses II
Stela Cambyses Apis closeup.jpg
525-522 BC Mesutire Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium in 525 BC
Bardiya/ Gaumata
Gaumata portrait on the Behistun inscription.jpg
522 BC Possible impostor
Petubastis III
Ignota prov., pannello decorativo del re sehibra, xxiii dinastia, 823-716 ac..JPG
522/521-520 BC Seheruibre Rebelled against the Achaemenid Pharaohs
Darius I the Great
Flickr - isawnyu - Hibis, Temple Decorations (III).jpg
522-486 BC Stutre
Psamtik IV 480s BC Proposed rebel against the Achaemenid Pharaohs
Xerxes I the Great
Xerxes Image.png
486-465 BC
Artabanus 465–464 BC Assassinated Xerxes I, later killed by Artaxerxes I
Artaxerxes I
Cartouche Artaxerxes I Lepsius.jpg
465-424 BC
Xerxes II 425-424 BC Claimant to throne
Sogdianus 424-423 BC Claimant to throne
Darius II
Darius ii.png
423-404 BC Last Pharaoh of the 27th Dynasty

Timeline of the 27th Dynasty (Achaemenid Pharaohs only)

Darius IISogdianusXerxes IIArtaxerxes IXerxes IDarius IBardiyaCambyses II

Satraps of the 27th Dynasty

Name of satrap Rule Reigning monarch Comments
Aryandes 525–522 BC;
518–c.496 BC
Cambyses II, Darius I Deposed following a revolt in 522 BC, later restored in 518 BC then deposed again by Darius I
Pherendates c.496–c.486 BC Darius I Possibly killed during a revolt
Achaemenes c.486–459 BC Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I A brother of Xerxes I, later killed by the rebel Inaros II
Arsames c.454–c.406 BC Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, Artaxerxes II Longest ruling satrap of Egypt

Historical sources

References

  1. ^ O'Brien, Patrick Karl (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 9780195219210.
  2. ^ Philip's Atlas of World History. 1999.
  3. ^ Davidson, Peter (2018). Atlas of Empires: The World's Great Powers from Ancient Times to Today. i5 Publishing LLC. ISBN 9781620082881.
  4. ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1989). The Times Atlas of World History. Times Books. p. 79. ISBN 0723003041.
  5. ^ "a Persian hero slaughtering an Egyptian pharaoh while leading four other Egyptian captives" Hartley, Charles W.; Yazicioğlu, G. Bike; Smith, Adam T. (2012). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. Cambridge University Press. p. ix, photograph 4.6. ISBN 9781139789387.
  6. ^ "Victor, apparently wearing the tall Persian headdress rather than a crown, leads four bareheaded Egyptian captives by a rope tied to his belt. Victor spears a figure wearing Egyptian type crown." in Root, Margaret Cool (1979). The king and kingship in Achaemenid art: essays on the creation of an iconography of empire. Diffusion, E.J. Brill. p. 182. ISBN 9789004039025.
  7. ^ "Another seal, also from Egypt, shows a Persian king, his left hand grasping an Egyptian with an Egyptian hairdo (pschent), whom he thrusts through with his lance while holding four prisoners with a rope around their necks." Briant, Pierre (2002). From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Eisenbrauns. p. 215. ISBN 9781575061207.
  8. ^ electricpulp.com. "ACHAEMENID SATRAPIES – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
  9. ^ Smith, Andrew. "Polyaenus: Stratagems - Book 7". www.attalus.org. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
  10. ^ Razmjou, Shahrokh (1954). Ars orientalis; the arts of Islam and the East. Freer Gallery of Art. pp. 81–101.
  11. ^ "Museum item, accession number: 36.106.2". www.metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  12. ^ Giovino, Mariana (2006). "Egyptian Hieroglyphs on Achaemenid Period Cylinder Seals". Iran. Iran, vol. 44. 44: 105–114. doi:10.1080/05786967.2006.11834682. JSTOR 4300705.
  13. ^ electricpulp.com. "DARIUS iii. Darius I the Great – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
  14. ^ Klotz, David (19 September 2015). "UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology - Persian Period". Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  15. ^ Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War.
  16. ^ Photius. "Photius' excerpt of Ctesias' Persica (2)". www.livius.org. Retrieved 2017-02-25.
  17. ^ S. Zawadzki, "The Circumstances of Darius II's Accession" in Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux 34 (1995-1996) 45-49

External links

See also

This page was last edited on 13 November 2019, at 16:57
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