To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

History (European TV channel)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History
History Logo.svg
Launched11 November 1995; 23 years ago (1995-11-11)
Owned byA+E Networks UK (A&E Networks/Sky)
Picture format1080i HDTV
(downscaled to 16:9 576i for the SDTV feed)
Audience share
  • Netherlands: 0.3% (2018)[1]
  • UK: 0.18% (January 2019)[2]
SloganMade Every Day
Country
Broadcast areaArab world, Balkans, Benelux, Central Europe & Eastern Europe, France, Iberian Peninsula, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Scandinavia, South Africa, United Kingdom
Headquarters
Formerly calledThe History Channel (1995–2008)
Sister channel(s)
Timeshift serviceHistory +1
Website
Availability
Satellite
Sky (UK & Ireland)
  • Channel 130 (SD/HD)
  • Channel 230 (+1)
  • Channel 825 (SD)
  • On Demand
NOVA Greece (Greece)Channel 404
CanalDigitaal (Netherlands)Channel 19 (HD)
Sky Deutschland
  • Channel 407 (HD)
  • Channel 427
Canal+ (Spain)Channel 35
Sky Italia
  • Channel 407 (SD/HD)
  • Channel 408 (+1)
Digiturk
  • Channel 188 (SD/HD)
  • Channel 386
DStv (South Africa)Channel 186
OSN (MENA)Channel 508 (HD)
Cable
Virgin Media (UK)
  • Channel 270
  • Channel 271 (+1)
  • Channel 299 (HD)
  • On Demand (including HD)
Virgin Media Ireland
  • Channel 217
  • Channel 220 (HD)
WightFibre (UK)Channel 82
Ziggo (Netherlands)Channel 28 (HD)
Primacom (Germany)Channel 112
UPC Cablecom (Switzerland)
  • Channel 102 (HD)
  • Channel 103
UPC AustriaChannel 531
ONO (Spain)Channel 91
R (Spain)Channel 53
TeleCable (Spain)Channel 22
Euskaltel (Spain)Channel 55
NOS (Portugal)Channel 112
Cabovisão (Portugal)Channel 24
UPC RomaniaChannel 312 (SD) Channel 180 (HD)
IPTV
BT (UK)
  • Channel 327
  • Channel 379 (HD)
KPN (Netherlands)Channel 389
Movistar TV (Spain)Channel 84
MEO (Portugal)Channel 123
Optimus Clix (Portugal)Channel 134
TalkTalk TV (UK)Channel 327
Plusnet (UK)
  • Channel 327
  • Channel 379 (HD)
T-Mobile (Netherlands)Channel 91
eir Vision (Ireland)
  • Channel 529
  • Channel 545 (HD)
Streaming media
TVPlayerWatch live (UK only) (TVPlayer Plus subscription required)
Sky GoSky (UK & Ireland only)
Virgin TV AnywhereVirgin Media (UK only)
Ziggo GOZiggoGO.tv (Netherlands only)
Horizon GOhorizon.tv (Ireland only)

History (formerly known as History Channel UK) is a European television channel which broadcasts programs related to historical events and persons. It is owned by a joint venture of A&E Networks, owner of the American History, and Sky (the UK's largest pay-TV provider). TVT Media is responsible for signal distribution in Europe, with local subsidiaries of A&E Networks as distribution representatives on the continent.[3][4] Its programming, primarily in English, is subtitled or dubbed into regional languages. The channel is available through a number of satellite, cable, terrestrial and IPTV distributors across Europe, the Middle East and South Africa. In some countries, advertisements and announcements between programs are localized.

On November 6, 2018, in the wake of the Disney-Fox merger, the European Commission required The Walt Disney Company to sell A&E's European channels, including History.[5]

History has separate versions for Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal:

  • History Germany: Operated by A&E Networks Germany.
  • History Italy: Formerly a joint venture of A&E Networks and Fox International Channels Italy, it became a sole venture of A&E Networks in 2012.
  • History Netherlands, airing in the Netherlands and Flanders. Operated by A&E Networks Benelux. RTL Nederland became responsible for advertising sales on 1 January 2016.[6]
  • Canal de História (also known as História): The History Channel Iberia joint venture of A&E Networks and AMC Networks International Southern Europe.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    19 013
    18 865
    2 091 736
    154 982
    1 762 027
  • ✪ European History Documentary
  • ✪ Operation Cowboy and the 1945 Rescue of Europe's Stolen Horses
  • ✪ History of England - Documentary
  • ✪ Episode 2: Age Of Ancestors | The World of Stonehenge | BBC Documentary
  • ✪ The French Revolution History Channel HD

Transcription

Europe's relationship with culture, even at the most basic level, dates back to at least 20,000 BCE. The Venus of Willedorf and the cave paintings of Altamira and Lascaux are examples of the presence of civilization in Europe thousands of years ago. By 5000 BC, evidence proves that areas of Europe had begun to show hierarchical societies and a firm agricultural background had been formed by many of these societies. While a clear division of boundaries did not exist back then, the history of Europe if we go back to thousands of years ago, during the Neolithic age, can be mainly traced through their settlements and tools. A strong political and social era did not emerge before the Roman and Byzantine period. Thus, Europe's history began to take form when the Roman's empire rose to its glory. Europe has undoubtedly seen different periods of settlement before the Roman Empire as well, but evidence, clear dates and archaeology is at its minimal during these periods. While many people completely believe that history is somewhat similar to story-telling, the only thing that makes a difference is the presence of facts and evidence when it comes to history. Every historian has to comb through each fact closely before choosing what actually happened from what is being purported as may have happened. Every era had some striking events that changed the way Europeans led their lives. From periods of anarchy to golden rules and back to chaos again, Europe, from the time it has known power and politics, has been controlled and ruled by many powerful people. The boundaries within which these events happened may not have been recognized as what is considered Europe today. At that time, rulers knew their empires and they knew the regions across which their powers lay, and as historians try to gather evidence today, we can finally put the pieces together to understand and study the great European history. While civilization was gaining pace in Europe as long back as 5000 BCE and the presence of a society could be traced way back, the Greeks still considered most of the Europeans who were not Greeks to be barbarians. Megalithic tombs came into existence in Europe by 4300 BC and by 3500 BC, farming was a mainstream occupation that existed throughout the continent. By the time Europeans entered into 2000 BC, bronze work had been introduced to the people of the continent by the Wessex culture and by 1860 BC, one of the most impressive and mysterious architectures of the world - The Stonehenge - began taking form in Europe. The period of time after 1000 BC to about 500 BC was when the Greek city state rose to glory. A conflict between Sparta and Athens led to alliances formed by the two powers as both grew against each other. Eventually, this friction among the people of Greece led to the Macedonians gaining control of all of Greece. As Macedonia rose to power in Greece, Rome felt threatened and soon Rome extended its dominion over Greece. Rome also began to expand its control in the surrounding regions, initially through alliances but also by aggression for those who wouldn't comply. Rome wanted to secure a central role in the region. Rome continued to grow and reached its zenith during the reign of Augustus. The Augustan period is seen as the golden age in Rome's history. The period of stability during the era encouraged writers and artists to flourish. The Roman Empire collapsed by the 4th century CE and by then, Rome had driven many forms of urbanization among its centers and provinces. With international trade and various forms of banking and commerce gaining pace at this time, this is a good place to start the history of Europe when boundaries became more prevalent and Europe's states and cities began to gain more attention. This is somewhat the period of time when Europe's ancient and modern history can be differentiated between each other. The end of the Roman Empire marked the end of an era when Europe's ancient practices ended and a more modern form of society and culture started forming. Although it was still difficult to geographically mark the whole of Europe at that time and many cultures in Europe mixed very easily with cultures of other continents like those of Italy and Spain had influences from North Africa while many eastern European states were influenced by Asian cultures. So as the Roman Empire fell and its diminishing powers gave rise to stronger local powers and the barbarians began to unite. Many dynasties were formed as barbarians rose in power in various regions throughout Europe. The cultures that grew from here onwards had a stronger impact on Europe and many of them bear their mark even today. From art in the form of sculptures, paintings and poetries to architecture in the many forms of buildings and structures that dot the cities of Europe till this day, history plays an important role in forming any land. Europe has a rich history that ranges across the many mountains, rivers and lands that it spans from east to west and north to south. Here the modern European history will be discussed and the manner in which it left its impact on the people of Europe till today. From the cultures that were formed and the lives they lead. The middle ages The middle ages may sound like a short span of time, but it actually encompassed almost 1,000 years which began at the time when the Roman Empire began to decline and it is generally known to come to an end with the Protestant reformation which took place in the 16th century. When the Roman rule ended, a political anarchy led to a massive change in the demographics of Europe. Numerous cities as well as rural estates were abandoned because of the spread of diseases, the weather conditions and the lack of an established governance. By the time Europe stepped into the 9th century, the population had reached an all-time low and Europe began to regress into a rural, backward region. An Islamic conquest was successful during the 7th and 8th centuries and they began ruling most of Spain but in 732, an attempt to enter France crushed their aspirations when they were defeated by the Frankish kingdom. Gradually, the weather conditions became more supportive of agriculture and population and kings and cities consolidated to rule over the lands of Europe once again. After 900AD the feudal system of agriculture was formed which helped in providing Europe with a certain level of Economic stability. The introduction of horse collar led to better agricultural methods and commerce aided the growth of many towns in England, France and the Low Countries of Europe. Monks and peasants began clearing forests and Eastern Europe and the Baltic region was turned into small settlement regions by these monks and peasants. The era was marked by a notable amount of growth and influence by the city states of northern Italy. In Spain, Christian, Muslims and Jews co-existed in religious amity. This period of time between 1000AD to 1250AD was a period of growth and prosperity for Europe and it is often referred as the High Middle Ages. Once it reached its peak in 1250, Europe began to notice a decrease in its prosperity once again. A demographic change began to take place once again and the population of Europe gradually began to subside. Conflict between powerful kingdoms like that of France and England led to a decline in a peaceful era. The Hundred Years' War between the two kingdoms tore Europe and the spiritual authority of the Christian Church started losing its charm as it sunk deeper in financial corruption. The bubonic plague that came in 1348 shook Europe and led to a massive catastrophe that lasted for three years. It is estimated that almost one-third of the Europeans were killed in it. The plague lasted for long and many felt like it was going to be the end of the world. Europe began to notice a change as most of the feudal fiefdoms began to decline. Rulers and nobles were not seen to be powerful any longer and rich merchant classes were able to exude more power than the knights and those who belonged to royal families. The printing press made the future brighter for common people as literacy became an easier task for everyone. With literacy came a greater power to understand religion and take part in political discussions. This led to conflicts in many countries while it rendered peace in others. By the 14th century, Christopher Columbus had sailed to the New World while Martin Luther was gearing up to challenge the Roman Papacy. All these changes put an end to the Middle Ages as Europe moved ahead to embrace a modern era of history. Art and Literature The Middle Ages invigorated many artists and writers as they got the chance to voice their opinions and showcase their talents in different ways. Painters like Giotto helped in understanding the human form more realistically. While you may find these paintings to be somewhat primitive when compared with the paintings of the Renaissance period, for his time, Giotto gave the human body more understanding than what they had before. When the Papacy began to lose its importance, many writers took to Literature to voice their sense of National consciousness. Writers chose to write in the national language or in the local language of the people to make their work available for the public rather than write in Latin which was considered to be the language of the higher classes. This is one of the reasons why The Canterbury Tales written by Chaucer is considered to be one of the best works of the time because it depicts the life of the people during the times when they were written exposing the materialistic and worldly interests of the people. On the other hand Dante's works have garnered a lot of appreciation as well because of The Divine Comedy which was written by Dante in his vernacular Tuscan dialect. The book is considered an important piece of Literature to this day. Art and Literature became more popular once the feudal Lords began to decline and a more open and advanced form of government began to replace it. Once literacy began to increase among common people, they began taking notice of the works that were available to them, but the society continued to accept oral culture as the most accepted form of culture for a long period of time. This is why works of very few authors exist from the Middle Ages. The Hundred Years' Wars The complex war that was fought between France and England raged on from 1337 to 1453. The main reasons for the war was control over the Gascony region in France, the rebellions supported by Britain in the cloth production towns of France and the claims of England to the French throne when Charles IV died. The war that began after the death of Charles IV gradually converted into a complex and multi-faceted war. This included three major wars in which the English were victorious but they were unable to subdue the armies of Southern France which was relatively richer than England. Eventually, the French won the war because of the financial conditions of England. These three major battles were Crecy, Poitiers and Agincourt. Rise of Trade and Commerce The Middle Ages was a time when trade and commerce flourished in Europe. As new trade routes were established around other regions, long distance trade became easier for the people in Europe. Craftsmen took advantage of the situation and moved to the growing centers of trade. Trade and commerce helped towns to forms leagues and communities which helped them fight against crime and also prevent monarchies and nobilities from trying to take control over the craftsmen. It also forced the nobles and Lords to reduce their control over the serfs and offer more lenient terms to the peasants. The peasants were able to claim freedom in return for an annual payment to the Lords and this helped many peasants to free themselves and boosted agriculture. During the High Middle Ages, Crusaders who returned from the Middle East also brought back spices, materials, fruits and drugs that were produced in foreign countries. This helped in enhancing the trade opportunities as Europeans craved for better products. The End of the Middle Ages The Middle Ages was a period of time when the church practiced dominion over the people in all respects of life. The church claimed that it was the provider of salvation. The deathly plague was one of the reasons why people began to lose faith in the church being able to provide salvation. This began to reduce the church's hold over the people and movement and people began to challenge the authority of the church and the Papacy towards the end of the Middle Ages. From the free spirits who advocated mysticism and felt that the church was not capable of meeting the spiritual needs of the people to John Wycliffe who was an English priest and a professor at Oxford who founded the Lollard movement. According to the Lollards, salvation did not come from the pope and they believed that the king was more important than the pope. John Wycliffe's teachings showed that reading the Bible was important to the religion and the manner in which it was interpreted by the priests was not as important. On the same lines of preaching as that of John Wycliffe, Jan Hus in Bohemia tried to bring reforms in the manner in which the church practiced dominion over the people. While many people did not agree to his teachings, Jan Hus still had a group of followers who called themselves the Hussites. Jan Hus was invited in 1413 to a council which claimed to help in the reformation of the church but he was arrested for his views once he came. While a trial did take place to prove him guilty, his guilt was proven at the moment when he had stepped in the council. He was burned on the stake for going against the church on July 6, 1415. Renaissance The 13th and 14th centuries were a period of enlightenment when Europe experienced a revival of art, education and society. The Italian Renaissance marked the beginning of a new era as it spread through the whole of Europe creating a renewed interest in science and experimentation. The importance of leading a good life rather than depending on afterlife for a happy life started settling in among the people of Europe. Earlier the church stressed on salvation and afterlife. The Renaissance introduced new techniques and fundamentals as artists removed the shroud of the colder and darker styles of the Middle Ages. With such a burst of art and culture, this period marks the time when Europe stepped out of backwardness into a more modern era and embraced trade and exploration along with gaining insight to its own art and culture. While the Middle Ages was a phase that gave rise to some modern institutions which have their roots in the institutions created during the Middle Ages, Many changes took place during the Renaissance period. Social Order and Cultural Change Florentine Social Divisions The people of Florence were divided into four main classes which in simple words were the rulers, the merchants, the smaller businessmen and the paupers. A successful revolt in 1378 known as the Ciompi Revolt led the paupers who were also known as the Popolo minuto against the rulers and the rich merchants. The revolt helped the popolo minute to reign over Florentine for a period of four years before Cosimo de' Medici came into power and helped Florence regain its stability. The plague created a void in many households where women had to take up work to continue supporting their families. This helped in the creation of more favorable working conditions for women. Underclass When the Renaissance began, the underclass people were often treated as criminals. Many women who belonged to the underclass were unable to find respectable jobs and found prostitution to be the only means of survival. Business Trade and commerce suffered when Europe was going through the Hundred Years' War. An overall decrease in trade caused businessmen to suffer a lot of losses after the War. Renaissance helped in uplifting the society and helping Europe move towards a more open society. With humanists trying to educate the people about the stereotypes that people must let go of and the importance of leading a life that is virtuous and humane. Many Renaissance scholars helped in reviving the concepts in classical books and in ancient learning helping people get a better insight of their scriptures. Some of the humanists of the era were Francesco Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Pico della Mirandola, Sir Thomas More and Desiderious Erasmus. The Renaissance period also saw an explosion of talent when it came to art. One of the best masters during the Renaissance was Leonardo da Vinci of Florence. Some of his most famous paintings are The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa. He was a very talented person and his expertise was in more than one areas. This is one of the reasons why he is still remembered as one of the most prominent figures from the Renaissance period. Michelangelo was another artist who helped in the revival of arts and sculptures. He adorned the walls of the Sistine Chapel and is known for his monumental sculpture, David. Another artist who got a lot of recognition during the Renaissance period is Raphael. He was a painter and architect who created some very popular paintings. The period of Renaissance is known mainly for the explosion of art and culture in Europe which helped people lead better lives and enter a more modernized era. The age of exploration The 15th and 16th centuries saw a lot of sea voyages which is why everyone calls it the time of exploration for Europe. This is when sea voyages was at its peak and a huge exchange of cultures and new trading opportunities began to build. When the sea voyages began, many of them were started so that explorers can find shorter routes for trading. Better ship designs and new technology during the time helped the explorers of Spain and Portugal to travel longer distances and find new routes. In 1415, Portuguese explorers claimed certain cities on the region that is recognized as the Kingdom of Morocco today. When the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella united their crowns and formed the Kingdom of Spain, Christopher Columbus set sail on their behalf in 1492 and reached Bahamas thinking that he had discovered a route to the East Indies. Very soon, European countries, especially those of Spain and Portugal, began to compete for more land and new expeditions. Some of the most prominent explorers were Prince Henry who was also known as “The Navigator” who supported numerous voyages financially, Bartolomeu Dias who was the first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama who sailed to India, Pedro Alvares Cabal who discovered Brazil, Ferdinand Magellan who set on an expedition to circumnavigate the globe but sadly died before the voyage could be completed, Francis Xavier who was a missionary who travelled extensively to many countries around the world. While these were Portuguese explorers who helped discover some very important lands, there were Spanish explorers who led important expeditions too. Some of the most prominent Spanish explorers were Francisco Pizzaro who claimed a huge part of South America for Spain, Christopher Columbus who discovered the Caribbean Islands and led to the Grand Exchange, Vasco Nunez Balboa who founded the colony of Darien in Panama and Hernando Cortes who successfully conquered the Aztecs and looted large amounts of Aztec gold. Among the English explorers the most popular ones are Sir Francis Drake and John Cabot. There were French and Dutch explorers too who started on many expeditions helping spread their religion, exchanges cultures, enhance trade and commerce and explore new lands. As a results, the age of exploration many new trade routes were established from Europe to other parts of the world. However, the Europeans caused the end of many native tribes in places that they explored as they fought for land and tried to conquer new places. From 1580 to 1640, Spain gained the right to rule over Portugal. Under the Spanish leader Philip II, Spain became more powerful and helped the Papacy fight against reformation. But countries soon began to challenge the powers of Spain and the country started losing its authority. The Reformation Religion was the most powerful thing in Europe for a long period of time. Christian religion had been able to bring all the European countries together even though there were a lot of differences in their cultures. However, churches began to misuse their authority and began growing corrupt as they started to accumulate wealth and coerce their dominion over the people. During the time when the church started getting corrupt, it began purchasing numerous offices and selling forgives from God. This was a practice that was questioned the morality of the priests and those who were a part of the church. Abusing the powers vested in the priests for accumulating wealth became one of the biggest reasons for reformation. Many people wanted to change the manner in which the church exuded its authority over common people. Even some clergy and monarchs resented the tithes that had to be paid by them. Even the Latin use of the Bible made it difficult to understand and interpret. People began to protest as they wanted the church to use the local language to preach so that they can understand the message of God in a better way. When John Wycliffe began the translation of the Bible to English, many people took this to be the point from where the Reformation began. What started as a religious movement soon gained political grounds and had an impact that was social as well as economic. Some of the most important figures during the Reformation were: Martin Luther Martin Luther was a young German monk who openly questioned the works of the church and took up the issue of immorality of the church. His ideology formed a new set of followers and according to Lutheranism, education was necessary for males and females, although it stressed on men controlling the household while the women controlled the economy and stayed at home and took care of the household needs. Luther's doctrines also said that the church was wrong in believing that good works alone can be the reason why a Christian enters heaven. According to him, humans are flawed so they can only rely on the grace of God when it comes to entering heaven. He also drove the fact that the Bible was supreme authority and all the Christians should be able to read and interpret the Bible. This also led to the translation of the Bible into German by Luther when he was in hiding. Ulrich Zwingli Zwinglianism was introduced by Ulrich Zwingli in Switzerland who enforced similar beliefs as Martin Luther and it rejected the elaborate rituals indulged by the Catholic Church. His doctrines also advocated reform through education. John Calvin John Calvin was a young reformer who wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion at the age of 26. He had a huge impact on the people with his works and it led to the founding of Calvinism in Geneva, Switzerland. The beliefs of those who followed the doctrines of Calvin were different from those of Luther and Zwingli although they all bore contempt towards the corruption of the Catholic Church. With these reformations taking place in various parts of Europe, the Catholics decided to restore their control over Europe and a counter-reformation began taking place as the Catholic Church tried to amend and make changes to its policies. While the core beliefs remained the same, the Church worked to defend its ideologies and reform some of its doctrines. The church in its attempt to reform, took to Baroque art which was used to help the church put through versus of the Bible in the form of art for the common people. It also sent missionaries around the world so that the religion can gain more attention and finally the church decided to remove all books that were considered heretical. Enlightenment After a period of chaotic reformations, there came the era of Absolutism when rulers throughout Europe had power on their nations. The war of religions had ended by now and the current state of affairs asked for a balance of powers. With an era of absolutism, many rules throughout the continent had absolute power. This era also marked a period of enlightenment for the continent when many new concepts and doctrines were introduced to the European society. Absolutism slowly began to be replaced with the enlightenment period which brought rulers like Fredrick II the Great Hohenzollern of Prussia and Joseph II Hapsburg of Austria. Catherine II who was the Great Romanov of Russia was also considered to be a powerful ruler of the period. The period of Enlightenment was marked with leaders who believed in their position based on their usefulness to the state. These rulers helped in bringing unified laws to the society and they repressed the authorities of the nobles and the church and they usually acted at a fast rate. Many rulers tried to end feudalism and created equal punishment and taxation for all. The period of Enlightenment was noted for the explosion of science and technology which helped Europe grow further. Some thought leaders who helped in the growth of science and technology are Descartes and Bacon who came up with deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning respectively. Even Astronomy saw some notable progress in the field. Luminaries like Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton boosted the advancements of science and technology during the period. The field of medicine saw progress with minds like Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey during the period. People had a better idea of life and religion because of the studies and researches conducted during the period. A well-developed lifestyle and a society that wanted to learn ideas. Enlightenment brought the ideology that we were capable of unlimited progress and ideas related to atheism and deism became very prominent during the period. Even the European markets experienced a change with Adam Smith's concept of free market capitalism. Education and literacy got a much needed boost and the people began to realize the importance of intellectual freedom of speech and thought. While many ideas that sprung during this period challenged the ideology of the Church, it must be noted that this period did not mark conflicts with the church. Instead, the rulers promoted religion tolerance which helped the people in many ways. French revolution An important event in the history of France and Europe is the French Revolution of 1789. France, at that time, was being ruled by King Louis XVI who was seen as a weak ruler, Queen Marie Antoinette was believed to be a lavish queen and the people felt that they led a luxurious life in Versailles. The French Revolution resulted partly because of the concepts of the Enlightenment period according to which governments that do not respect and represent their people well should be overthrown. When France went through a massive food shortage and the continuous war over inequalities grew, a weak king and queen were unable to suppress the growing concerns of the people effectively. A harsh winter caused a huge problem and with dwindling food supplies, poverty, death and destruction spurred the anger of the people and led to the French Revolution. The tax laws of France exempted the nobles from paying any taxes, and all attempts of Louis XVI to tax them failed. This created a period of financial crisis and France went into a lot of debt from the Seven Years War and by helping the American Revolution. With rising concerns like these, the king decided to call the Estates General for assistance. The Estates General is made of three estates. The first estate consisted of the clergymen, the second estate consisted of the nobles while the third estate was made of commoners. This third estate found rebelled and after three days the members of the third estate took the Oath of the Tennis Court and drew up a list of grievances against the king. This sparked a rebellion and soon the king along with the royal family were forced to leave Versailles and go to Paris. The next four years was spent in utter misery as the royal family led a life of imprisonment. They were stripped of their royal names and were nicknamed the Carpets. The king was charged with treason and sentenced to death while the queen, now known as the 'Widow Carpet' had her children taken away from her and after spending four years in imprisonment, she was found guilty of treason and executed on October 16th, 1793. The revolutionaries in France led to the establishment of a new government according to their desires. The members of the third estate became members of the National Assembly. They helped in the establishment of equality of rights and the freedom of religion, taxation of equality and freedom of expression and the press. A directory was formed which was the first constitutional republic which had an executive body of five directors. This was along with a bicameral legislative which consisted of the Council of Ancients and the Council of 500. When the elections were held a majority of royalists were elected. People began to grow fearful of the possibility of a return of terror from the monarchist rules so when Napoleon Bonaparte and Abbe Sieyes headed the coup of 18 Brumaire in order to bring an end to the directory and establish a consulate then it faced very little opposition. Napoleon Napoleon was sent by the members of Bourgeois to take control of the situation and bring down the Directory. However, he took advantage of the situation and after the Brumaire coup, he took control of the nation. He began leading the nation by taking it through some Enlightenment reforms which helped the country get freedom of religion, uniform law codes and equality of rights. Napoleon was seen as a military dictator and he remained undefeated by Austria, Russia and Prussia. He took control of many regions in Europe but he was unable to take control over England. Napoleon then employed the continental system of economic warfare through which he prohibited trade with the British but this did not work as effectively because they were still able to smuggle their goods and trade with the other British colonies established in Asia and United States. When Alexander I of Russia chose to withdraw the Continental System, Napoleon invaded Russia but failed in his attempt. He quickly raised a new army but he was defeated once again by an alliance formed by England, Austria, Russia and Prussia. His defeat from the alliance in 1813 in the battle of Nations led to his exile to the island of Elba. However, Napoleon managed to escape and returned in 1815. He was crushed by the same Quadruple Alliance once again and was exiled to the Island of St. Helena. He spent the rest of the days of his life here till he died in 1821. World Wars With increasing German nationalism, Germany was progressing vigorously when it came to trade and industry. It even challenged Great Britain which was, at that time, considered to be the premier industrial nation of the continent. This heralded rivalries that bore many facets between Britain and Germany. Britain and France sought an alliance with each other so that they can balance the power of Germany. Germany had also allowed the lapse of an alliance with Russia which led to the development of hostile nations around the country. Germany's foreign policies were one of the reasons for the outbreak of World War I. There are many historians who suggest that Germany had willed the war while others feel that the war was a result of a poor leadership. The war erupted in 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and it ended when allied troops broke through the German fortifications on September 1918. On November 11, 1918, an armistice agreement was signed by the Germans which ended the First World War. With Europe losing an entire generation of young men, the war had cost more than just money and land, it had led to a huge loss of lives and an imbalance in the social and economic lives of the people of Europe. The continent was devastated from the effects of the war. The German, Austrian and Russian monarchies ended as democratic and revolutionary governments took its place. The alliances that were victorious in the war quickly blamed Germany for the devastation and took to punishing the nation through the Treaty of Versailles which came down harshly on Germany. The Treaty gave rise to resentment among nations like Germany, Italy and Hungary who felt that they did not get anything out of the Treaty. This led to aggression once again and Germany left the League of the Nations in 1934 and tried to annex Austria. Soon the nations began to feel guilty of their treatment of Germany in the Treaty. Germany annexed Austria in 1938 and in 1939, it annexed Poland which led Great Britain and France to declare war against Germany. This led to the Second World War with the signing of a Tripartite Treaty by Germany, Italy and Japan who formed the Axis powers. On the other hand, the rest of the Allies joined hands and after an immense bombing campaign in 1943, Germany weakened. On May 8, 1945 Europe celebrated victory as the Russians took Berlin. Two major conferences, The Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference helped in terminating the war successfully. After World War II, Europe entered a period where peace and prosperity has grown notably. With the dawn of the 21st century, the nation has embraced modern cultures and new ideologies. Europe has strengthened its economy and formed rules that can help the government progress with the advancements of the world. Today, Europe boasts of a stable economy and a stronger government with nations who sustain themselves on a well-established society leaving behind the norms of the past and the inequalities that their ancestors have known. The industries and the economy has gone through a substantial facelift and Europe has been able to recover from the world wars building itself into a continent that is stronger than it was before. Today, Europeans boats of a rich culture, religious tolerance, leading companies and great luminaries. It is home to art and culture that is recognized by the world and it has led its people into leading a life that not only helps them advance to modern ways, but also ensures that the teachings of the past help in building the future.

Contents

History

History Channel UK began on 11 November 1995 as a weekday three-hour block (4 to 7 pm), consisting of Biography (restyled for a British audience), History Alive and Our Century. The channel was A&E's first international venture.[7]

Sky Sports 2 began broadcasting all day in 1997, requiring other networks to move to another channel. The History Channel shared transponder 24 with Sky Soap and the Sci-Fi Channel.[8] The launch of Sky Digital allowed the channel to significantly increase its broadcast hours.

The History Channel began in Scandinavia in September 1997, broadcasting for three hours daily on the analogue Viasat platform. Initially time-sharing with TV1000 Cinema, it was later moved to the Swedish TV8 channel until November 2004 (when Viasat launched Viasat History).

History Channel launched in the Netherlands and Flanders on 1 May 2007.[9][10]

On 26 October 2006, History Channel HD launched in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The HD version was launching across Europe from October 2007,[11] beginning in the Nordic region on 13 December 2007, offering a schedule separate from the standard-definition version.[12] In January 2008, History Channel HD launched in the Netherlands.[13] In November 2008 the History Channel was re-branded as History,[14][15] and the high-definition channel became History HD.

The company behind the channel was known as The History Channel (UK) Limited until July 2009, when it was renamed AETN UK to reflect the company's several channels.[16] On 22 September 2011, AETN UK was re-branded A&E Networks UK.[17] The channel launched on British Telecom on 15 August 2013, and on TalkTalk on 28 August 2014.

A&E Networks UK operations

Since the introduction of History, the company has extended its line-up:

  • Bio., from October 2000 to 4 November 2013
  • Crime & Investigation on 10 July 2006
  • Crime & Investigation Network Africa on 26 February 2007
  • History HD on 26 October 2006
  • History Africa on 1 December 2003
  • Military History, from 28 July 2008 to 4 May 2013
  • H2 on 4 May 2013 (replacing Military History)
  • Lifetime on 4 November 2013 (replacing Bio.)
  • Lifetime Africa on 22 July 2014
  • Blaze on 20 September 2016

History Germany

In German-speaking countries, History is operated by History Channel Germany, which was a joint venture of A&E Networks and NBC Universal Global Networks Germany. The channel began as the History Channel on 15 November 2004, and changed its name to History on 11 January 2009.[18] Since 1 June 2017 the channel is fully owned by A&E Networks Germany.[19]

History is available on the Kabel Deutschland, Kabel BW-Unitymedia, Primacom and KabelKiosk cable networks in all German states, and is also available on cable in Austria and Switzerland. Although the channel was available on satellite on Arena, it was not available on Premiere until the latter was renamed Sky on 4 July 2009. At that time, History HD (a high-definition version of the channel) was introduced. The channel hosts the annual History Award, which has been given since 2005.[citation needed]

History Channel Iberia (Spain and Portugal)

Large yellow H and the word "Historia"
História logo used in Spain and Portugal

Since 1996, History has been distributed under the name Canal de Historia—and, more recently, História—in Spain and Portugal by AMC Networks International Southern Europe in a joint venture with A&E Networks[20] (owner of History). The channel has Spanish and Portuguese feeds with dubbed English programs and locally produced programming.

História is available in Spain on Movistar+, cable networks (Telecable, R, Euskaltel), IPTV providers (Vodafone, Orange TV) and streaming media (TotalChannel).[21] Historia HD became available in Spain on 3 November 2015.[22] In Portugal, História is available through cable providers (NOS, Cabovisão) and IPTV (MEO, Vodafone).[23]

Spanish locally-produced programming

  • Arqueólogo por un día (2015), where a local celebrity spends a day working with archaeologists on an excavation
  • La última cena (2014–2015)

Portuguese local-history programming

References

  1. ^ "Jaarrapport 2018" (PDF). SKO.
  2. ^ "Monthly viewing summary". BARB. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  3. ^ "History Channel UK Appoints Chello Zone As Distribution Representative". 4rfv.co.uk. 6 February 2008.
  4. ^ TVT Media clients
  5. ^ Roxborough, Scott (November 6, 2018). "Disney's Fox Deal Gets European Union Clearance Subject to Divestments". The Hollywood Reporter.
  6. ^ Robert Briel (3 December 2015). "RTL Netherlands to handle A+E ad sales". BroadbandTVNews.com.
  7. ^ "A & E Television Networks History". International Directory of Company Histories. 32. St. James Press. 2000. Retrieved 4 December 2013 – via Funding Universe.com.
  8. ^ "Report from the Sat-UK mailing list: Report #98".
  9. ^ Robert Briel (5 April 2007). "History Channel komt naar de Benelux". Broadband TV News.
  10. ^ Robert Briel (5 April 2007). "UPC digital met vier nieuwe kanalen". Broadband TV News.
  11. ^ Jarco Kriek (17 October 2007). "A&E Television Network breidt uit in Europa". Totaal TV.
  12. ^ "THE HISTORY CHANNEL HD TO LAUNCH IN SCANDINAVIA" (Press release). AETN International. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012.
  13. ^ Robert Briel (14 November 2007). "History Channel HD to launch in Holland". Broadband TV News.
  14. ^ "History Channel rebranded 'History'". Digital Spy. 19 November 2008.
  15. ^ Jan-Hein Visser (19 December 2008). "History Channel heet nu History". Totaal TV.
  16. ^ "The History Channel UK Changes Name to AETN UK". AETN International. 2 July 2009. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011.
  17. ^ "AETN UK rebrands as A+E Networks UK". Broadband TV News. 22 September 2011.
  18. ^ "The History Channel ab Januar in neuem Gewand". Digital Fernsehen. 19 December 2008.
  19. ^ "A+E Buys Out NBCUniversal From Its German Channels". Variety.com. 1 June 2017.
  20. ^ "The History Channel Iberia". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  21. ^ "Historia: Dónde vernos". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  22. ^ "Historia: Historia HD". Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  23. ^ "Canal História: Dónde vernos". Retrieved 10 November 2015.

External links

This page was last edited on 8 March 2019, at 18:54
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.