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Embriaco family

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Embriaci Tower in Genoa
The Embriaci Tower in Genoa

The Embriaco were a prominent Genoese family, who played an important role in the history of the Crusader states. It also gave consuls, admirals and ambassadors to the Republic of Genoa.[1]

The family ruled the city of Byblos (in present day Lebanon), styling themselves "Lord (Signore) of Gib(e)let" or "Gibelletto", the name which the city was called at the time. Their rule lasted for almost 200 years, from 1100 to the late 13th century.[2]

History

Guglielmo Embriaco portrayed on the main façade of the Palazzo San Giorgio, Genoa
Guglielmo Embriaco portrayed on the main façade of the Palazzo San Giorgio, Genoa

They arrived in the Kingdom of Jerusalem as early as 1099, with Guglielmo Embriaco and his brother Primo di Castello.[3] They had Byblos, given to Ugo I Embriaco by Bertrand of Toulouse, from about 1110, thanks to Embriaco's military assistance in the creation of the Crusader states, on behalf of the Republic of Genoa.

Guglielmo Embriaco's son, Ugo I, was the first administrator of "Gibelletto" in the name of the Genoese republic, he then obtained the city as a hereditary fief, undertaking to pay an annual fee to Genoa and to the church of San Lorenzo.[1]

The family always protected the Genoese traders in the Levant, exempting them from all duties.[1] Their power in Byblos lasted, apart from occupation by Saladin 1187–1197, to the end to the thirteenth century, when they were defeated by Bohemond VII of Tripoli, and finally pushed out by Muslim advances.

The Embriacos were Lords of lands in Liguria and in Lunigiana. And had properties and a square in Genoa. The family died out in the half of the 15th century.[1]

Embriaco family tree

  • Guglielmo I Embriaco of Gibelletto, Lord of Gibelletto (b. 1040) (r. 1109 – after 1118)
    • Ugo I Embriaco of Gibelletto (de), Lord of Gibelletto (c. 1110 – ?) (r. before 1127 – 1135), married Adelasia
      • Guglielmo II Embriaco of Gibelletto (de), Lord of Gibelletto (r. 1135−1157), married Sancha from Provence
        • Ugo II Embriaco of Gibelletto (de), Lord of Gibelletto (r. 1157−1184) (d. 1184)
        • Raimondo Embriaco of Gibelletto (es) (before 1135 – after 1204), married a noblewoman from Principality of Antioch, Constable of Tripoli
          • Guglielmo Embriaco of Gibelletto, married Eva
            • John de Embriaco (de) (before 1228 – around 1262), Marshal of Jerusalem, married Femia de Cesarea, daughter of Walter III of Caesarea, lord of Cesarea, with whom he had Isabel, who married Guillermo Filangieri; then he married Juana de Lanelée, with whom he had Balian, Juan and Femia (Eufemia), who married Guido de Soissons.
        • Bertrando I Embriaco of Gibelletto (d. after 1217), married Doleta, daughter of Stephen of Armenia
          • Ugo Embriaco of Gibelletto (d. after 1264), married Marie Porcelet
            • Bertrando II Embriaco of Gibelletto (es) (murdered 1258)
              • Barthelemy Embriaco of Gibelletto (killed on 26 April 1289 during the Fall of Tripoli), married Helvis, daughter of Pierre de Scandelion
                • Bertrando III Embriaco of Gibelletto
                • Ugo Embriaco of Gibelletto, married Catherine de la Roche
                • Agnes Embriaco of Gibelletto, married Gauvain de la Roche, then Peter Embriaco of Giblet
              • Guglielmo Embriaco of Gibelletto (murdered in January 1282 in Nephin)
              • Lucie Embriaco of Gibelletto, married Juan de Botron (es)
              • Marguerite Embriaco of Gibelletto, married Baudouin Ibelin
        • Guglielmo III Embriaco of Gibelletto (de), (d. after December 1204), married Fadie, daughter of Manasses of Hierges
        • Agnes Embriaco of Gibelletto, married Guermond II (de), with whom she had a daughter, Helvis who later married Roland de Lucca

Offspring of Guglielmo III

  • Guglielmo III Embriaco of Gibelletto
    • Ugo di Gibelletto (de) (d. c. 1220), Lord of Besmedin, married Agnes de Ham and had:
      • Raimondo di Gibelletto (de) (d. c. 1253), Lord of Besmedin, married firstly Marguerite de Scandelion and secondly Alix de Soudin, and had:
        • Giovanni I di Gibelletto, married Poitevine, daughter of a Marshal of Tripoli
          • Giovanni II di Gibelletto (d. c. 1315), married Marguerite du Plessis, without issue.
          • Maria di Gibelletto
        • Ugo di Gibelletto, died young
        • Enrico di Gibelletto (de) (d. 1310), Lord of Besmedin, married Marguerite de Morf, without issue
        • Bertrando di Gibelletto, died young
        • Eschiva di Gibelletto, married Raymundo Visconti
        • Agnese di Gibelletto
        • Susanna di Gibelletto, died young
        • Maria di Gibelletto, married Guy de Montolif
      • Gerardo de Ham di Gibelletto (d. 1225)
      • Guglielmo II di Gibelletto (d. c. 1243), married Anne de Montignac, and had:
        • Eudes di Gibelletto, died young
        • Girard di Gibelletto, died young
        • Giovanni III di Gibelletto, Lord of Saint-Foucy, married Gillette d'Angiller, and had:
          • Guglielmo III di Gibelletto, married in 1318 Marie de Verny, without issue
          • Maria di Gibelletto
          • Eschiva di Gibelletto (d. c. 1350), married Simon Petit (d. 1355/1338)
        • Stefania di Gibelletto, married Amaury le Bernier
        • Maria di Gibelletto, married Amaury le Flamenc
        • Eufemia di Gibelletto, died young
        • Agnese di Gibelletto, died young
      • Adamo di Gibelletto (de), Lord of Adelon
      • Agnese di Gibelletto, married Thierry de Termonde

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "EMBRIACI in "Enciclopedia Italiana"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  2. ^ Thiollet, Jean-Pierre (2005). Je m'appelle Byblos (in French). Paris: H & D. ISBN 9782914266048.
  3. ^ "Genoa" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-09-28.
  4. ^ Steven Runciman. "A History of the Crusades". p. 407. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
  5. ^ Steven Runciman. "A History of the Crusades". p. 149. Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2007-02-06.

External links

This page was last edited on 4 April 2021, at 18:44
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