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Henry Chadwick (writer)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Henry Chadwick
Henry Chadwick (NYPL b13537024-56451) (cropped).jpg
Born(1824-10-05)October 5, 1824
Exeter, Devon, England, United Kingdom
DiedApril 20, 1908(1908-04-20) (aged 83)
Brooklyn, New York, United States
Resting placeGreen-Wood Cemetery
NationalityEnglish, American
Periodcirca 1850–1908
  • Baseball
  • cricket
Notable works
  • Beadle's Dime Base-Ball Player (1860–1881)
  • DeWitt's Base-Ball Guide (1869–1885)
  • Spalding's Official Base Ball Guide

Henry Chadwick (1824 – April 20, 1908) was an English-American sportswriter, baseball statistician and historian, often called the "Father of Baseball" for his early reporting on and contributions to the development of the game. He edited the first baseball guide that was sold to the public. He is credited with creating box scores, as well as creating the abbreviation "K" that designates a strikeout. He is said to have created the statistics of batting average and earned run average (ERA). He was posthumously inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
  • ✪ Coach Andy Kennedy's Post-Georgia Press Conference (1-9-16)


Meaning this. I was telling Ross, obviously, I've been a part of a few of them, there hasn't been as many as we would all like, but there's been some good moments in the history of this program. We've had a team that goes Sweet 16. Winning NCAA tournament games is not an easy thing to do. Winning an SEC championship, when the commissioner hands you a trophy, and they pull out a ladder, that's a special moment. But I'm not sure, really, what you can do to top these last 72 hours. It's really been an incredible, incredible voyage. We come in here for the game, the soft opening, that's what Thursday was, a soft opening. It was soft for everybody but me. We had the soft opening on Thursday and won a game, win, magical moment, never be forgotten as it relates to the opening of a gorgeous facility. And then you come right back, and I think I reflected upon this after Alabama, the bad thing about trying to buy a day on the front end is that you have zero prep time. I thought we were really, really fatigued. I mean, obviously, Sebastian Saiz, even though he goes for 14 and 10, that's all off guts. I see Dabo Swinney on one of the 97 TVs in this room. And BYOG - bring your own guts, I love it, man. And that's what Sebas did. I thought we were a step slow, based off not only the toughness of the game Thursday, but the emotion that was spent and the fact that my bench is very very thin for obvious reasons. I think you guys are seeing those reasons now. When you're not making shots, it is so demoralizing. And when you're not making free throws, it is demoralizing. And for us to continue to stay the course, continue to stay the course, get stop after stop after stop after stop, under 90 seconds to play, made a play, you win in that dramatic a fashion, I'm not sure there's ever been a 72-hour period, you know, from the ribbon-cutting earlier, and the emotion that was displayed during that because of all the people in disbelief that this is now our new home, all of the people that made that happen, to winning a game in that magnitude, what a 72 hours for Ole Miss basketball. - [Reporter] What kind of shot did you want for Moody at the end, or did you tell him just not to pass it? - You know what, if he would do everything I said, we'd all live happier lives. I'm going to admit something to you that I just admitted to television. I was calling timeout. Coaches can't get timeouts. And I was calling it initially, when Moody was coming down I saw we had no spacing. Did you see - from my vantage point they had a guy on Moody and he just really had nowhere to go. So I was gonna call timeout, and it was about nine seconds or so to play, maybe 10. And then try to draw something up where obviously we would try to get him a shot, duh. But I'm yelling, and I forget the official, and he says, "Coach, one of your players. You can't call timeout, you can't call timeout." So by the end, after we had had that lengthy conversion, Moody had gotten to the right side of the floor and he had had an angle. So I said hey, there's nothing more we can ask for. Downhill to his right hand, he's so much more effective and that's why everybody plays him that way because when he goes left, he can get the same separation, but guess what, he has to shoot it with his right hand. So all of that separation that he has created now is negated when he brings the ball back. That's why we try to get him right. He got right, he's strong as an ox. He'd been battered and bruised, he's like our Derrick Henry, man. We're just riding him, riding him, riding him. He turns that corner, boom. Players make plays. - [Reporter] We're all going to write about that shot, obviously. Brooks' three after they made a three. - Huge. - [Reporter] Do you have to have shots like that if... - You gotta make plays, man. You know, look at our stat line. We were down 7 on the glass at the half, and I said, hey, if we win the battle of the boards we're going to win this game. I said, we have to keep it, we had I think eight turnovers with about 12 to go in the game. And I said, we need to keep that to 11, well, we got it to 14. Certainly the script did not involve Anthony Perez going one for six from the free throw line. That was just a little added bonus he gave you as a parting gift. But it was typical, then we went to that one-three-one. And just like we did against Alabama, and it's kind of a game changer. With Maten out of the game, no one can drive those gaps. So we went one-three-one, the one guy you don't want to shoot it is the guy that shot it. And he made it. And that's what led to the Rasheed shot. And it was not by any means as clean as many he's missed throughout the year, where he was stepping in. He tried to dribble it, he's got to pull it back, ball's everywhere, made a play. - [Reporter] This is going to sound crazy, but what about defensively? You held them ... - 29 percent in the second half. - [Reporter] Yeah, and they were like two of their last 16. - That was the difference in the game, obviously. Because when you shoot 36 percent in your own building, when you shoot 68 percent from the free throw line you're not supposed to win SEC games. Against a very good Georgia team, a Georgia team that most everyone coming into the season thought was a NCAA tournament team. And I think they still will be. So you're not supposed to win those games unless you make spectacular plays down the stretch. And that's what we did. And then at the end, your 3.8, I've got visions of South Carolina in the SEC tournament, let's don't let them get it to their strong hand, I don't know if you noticed, but we went one-three-one again. Where we knew one pass, maybe two, now Gaines got a shot, but it was a very, very difficult catch release. He'll live with that one. - [Reporter] Rasheed kinda tipped that pass before the three point shot. - Yep. - [Reporter] If he doesn't tip that, it's wide open. - Yeah, at least he gets a look, exactly, cause they got behind us. The whole point of the one-three-one is you're setting up a perimeter. And if they penetrate the perimeter, you got problems behind it. And that was a huge play. He made big plays. He's growing up. 14 and 10 - he got 10 rebounds. Incredible. - [Reporter] How much different have these two games in totality [drowned out by audio] Ole Miss basketball feel for you? - It feels different to me, man. And you're talking to a guy that's seen the good, the bad and the ugly. It feels different to me in here. I think our players sense that. I know our crowd senses it. You know, we've become a basketball school. Overnight. It's amazing, you spent 96 million, see what you get? What a bargain. [Laughter] - [Reporter] Along those lines, I know you can't talk about specific recruits at all, but you've obviously interacted with some of the kids who'd been here the last couple of nights. What are they saying? - "Wow. Wow." Everybody, Mark Fox, "wow." Everybody that sees it has the same reaction that we have, "wow." I think it's one thing to look at the building and say, man, this is beautiful, we should be very, very proud of this, and we are, but it's another thing then to play inside of it. You've covered a lot of games, and trust me, I've been in many in Tad Smith where it gets loud there too, man. That concrete, and it gets loud. But it's just a different feel here to me. You know, the students being around the court is huge, because of the energy. And there's no question, again, this has been a draining 72 hours for everybody. Myself included. And your emotions are such a big part of this game. And without that energy so close to the court, where it's almost tangible, I'm not sure we're sitting here 2-0 in the building. - [Reporter] 48 fouls in the game, does that hurt the rhythm at all? - Yeah, definitely think so. You're trying to get me in trouble. I work hard for my money, I don't wanna give it to the SEC, they got enough. - [Reporter] You mentioned you guys were a little fatigued and a step slow. What allowed you to come back and have that furious ending? - Guts. Shout out to Dabo. Bring your own guts, and we brought it. We said, listen, toughest team's gonna win. Obviously, that was the scouting report Georgia. Mark Fox does a tremendous job, and they do what they do. Senior guards, Maten, wow, what a good player he is. Made shot after shot. I thought we were about to bust this thing, you know, where we could put a little game pressure on 'em. We never really put much game pressure on 'em cause after the initial blow, and then Moody tries to split a double, ball gets tipped, I got a player who shall remain nameless who's from Poland who did not jump on the ball. And they pick it up and they shoot a layup, and it changed the whole flow of the game, I thought. And then all of a sudden now they relax, and then boom boom boom, it's almost like the Alabama game. Man, you weren't here, thanks. But it was almost like the Alabama game and then we have to battle back but we're up two, four, then Maten. Big three, big faceups. When he fouled out, then it's completely dependent upon those guards and we were able to get enough stops. - [Reporter] Are you just kinda what you are at this point, a seven-point something man team? - Yeah, I think from a rotation standpoint I tried tonight. And it's hard to throw those guys in there. And then we make scouting report errors. That's why I can't play 'em, honestly. It's been proven, pull up our season stats, it's not about oh, if you miss shots, you're not going to play. Everybody's missing 'em. It's about, guys, you can't make scouting report errors. If you're looking for opportunity and I give you one and you leave a shooter or you foul a driver or you're not disciplined enough to be where you're supposed to be then you can't play. Now what we've gotta do is our guys, with the exception of Moody and Sebas, everybody else on this team has room for improvement and that's where we're gonna focus. Thank you.


Early life

Chadwick was born in Exeter, England.[1] His grandfather, Andrew Chadwick, had been a close friend of theologian John Wesley.[2] His father, James Chadwick, was a supporter of the French Revolution who also tutored John Dalton in music and botany.[3] James Chadwick had served as editor of a publication known as the Western Times.[4] Edwin Chadwick's mother had made James Chadwick a widower shortly after Edwin's birth.

Chadwick was the younger half brother of Sir Edwin Chadwick, England's sanitary philosopher who developed environmental measures and laws designed to counteract the effects of the Industrial Revolution.[5] Chadwick moved to Brooklyn with his family at the age of 12. Biographer Andrew Schiff writes that Henry Chadwick "was not brought up to value possessions or with an understanding of commerce and trade; rather he received an education that was drenched in moral philosophy and science."[6] He began to write music and to teach piano and guitar.[7]

In 1848, Chadwick married Jane Botts from Richmond, Virginia. Botts' father Alexander had been president of the Virginia State Council. She was also related to politician John Botts.[8] Chadwick edited John Botts' work titled The Great Rebellion. Chadwick and his wife had three children, Richard Westlake Chadwick, in 1849, Susan Mary Chadwick, in 1851, and Rose Virginia Chadwick, 1853.[9]

Chadwick became a frequent player of cricket and similar ball games such as rounders. He began covering cricket for numerous local newspapers such as the Long Island Star. He first came across organized baseball in 1856 as a cricket reporter for The New York Times; he watched a match between New York's Eagles and Gothams.[10] In 1857 he focused his attention as a journalist and writer on baseball after joining the New York Clipper, and was also soon hired on to provide coverage for other New York papers including the Sunday Mercury.[11]

Contributions to baseball

Promotion of the game

Chadwick was one of the prime movers in the rise of baseball to its popularity at the turn of the 20th century. A keen amateur statistician and professional writer, he helped sculpt the public perception of the game, as well as providing the basis for the records of teams' and players' achievements in the form of baseball statistics. He also served on baseball rules committees and influenced the game itself. He is sometimes referred to as "the father of baseball" because he facilitated the popularity of the sport in its early days.[12]

Early baseball had a provision known as the "bound rule", which held that a fielder could catch a batted ball on one bounce and that it would still be recorded as an out. Chadwick was an outspoken critic of the rule for many years, stating that fielders should have to catch a ball on the fly for it to count as an out. In 1864, the bound rule was eliminated for balls hit into fair territory. The bound rule for foul balls persisted into the 1880s.[13]

Chadwick edited The Beadle Dime Base-Ball Player, the first annual baseball guide on public sale, as well as the Spalding and Reach annual guides for a number of years and in this capacity promoted the game and influenced the infant discipline of sports journalism. In his 1861 Beadle guide, he listed totals of games played, outs, runs, home runs, and strikeouts for hitters on prominent clubs, the first database of its kind. His goal was to provide numerical evidence to prove which players helped a team to win.

In 1867 he accompanied the National Base Ball Club of Washington D.C. on their inaugural national tour, as their official scorer. The next year, Chadwick wrote the first hardcover baseball book, The Game of Base Ball.[10] In 1874 was instrumental in organizing a tour of England which included games of both baseball and cricket. In his role as journalist, he campaigned against the detrimental effects on the game of both alcohol and gambling.

Despite a friendship with Albert Spalding, Chadwick was scornful of the attempts to have Abner Doubleday declared the inventor of baseball. "He means well", said Chadwick, "but he don't know". Chadwick later willed his baseball library to Spalding.[14]

Author William Cook wrote that "Chadwick was at times a bit self-aggrandizing, but his heart was always deeply rooted in looking after the best interest of the game."[15] An 1876 Chicago Tribune article attacked Chadwick's status as the father of baseball, saying in part that Chadwick "has had enough experience to have made himself a man of respect had heaven but given him a head ... he proceeded to call himself the '"Father of the Game,' and to assume much on the strength of the title. But he found an unruly child, and one which disinherited him with rapidity and ease."[15] Cook writes that Chadwick may have been a victim of "Western journalism", a sensationalized style of writing.[15]

Box scores and statistics

Box score from 1876
Box score from 1876

Chadwick is credited with devising the baseball box score[16] (which he adapted from the cricket scorecard) for reporting game events. The first box score appeared in an 1859 issue of the Clipper. It was a grid with nine rows for players and nine columns for innings. The original box scores also created the often puzzling abbreviation for strikeout as "K" – "K" being the last letter of "struck" in "struck out".[17] Chadwick assigned numbers to each defensive position for scorekeeping purposes, a system that remains in modern baseball scorekeeping.[18]

Newspapers had previously tallied runs scored, but Chadwick's 1859 box score looked similar in structure to modern ones. Baseball researcher Bill James credits Chadwick's creation of the box score with his interest in the game, but he criticized Chadwick's omission of the walk from calculation of a player's batting average: ""What they failed to understand is that actually the batter has as much or a little more to do with when the walk occurs as the pitcher does. They ignored that element of it and that did distort the game for a lot of people."[17][19] The box score was popularized in 1925 when Baseball Magazine republished Chadwick's 1859 Clipper article.[17]

Chadwick is credited with devising statistical measures such as batting average and earned run average (ERA). He felt that batting average was the best representation of a batter's offensive skills. He initially scored walks as errors charged to the pitcher. Walks did not exist in cricket (though there is a penalty run for a wide) and upon learning about them in baseball, he felt that they did not have anything to do with offensive skill. He later removed walks entirely from baseball statistics.[20] ERA originated not in the goal of measuring a pitcher's worth but to differentiate between runs caused by batting skill (hits) and lack of fielding skill (errors). He is also noted as believing fielding range to be a superior skill to avoiding errors.

Journalistic style

The following description of a game was written by Henry Chadwick and appeared in his Base Ball Memoranda. It is typical of his style of sports journalism, and that of his time:

A Base Ball tourney had been held in Chicago on July 4, 1867, in which the Excelsiors of that city and the Forest City Club, of Rockford, had been the leading contestants. The former had defeated the Forest City nine in two games, by the very close scores of 45–41 in one, and 28–25 in another, when the Forest Citys were invited to meet the Nationals at Chicago on July 25, a day which proved the most notable of the tour. The contest took place at Dexter Park, before a vast crowd of spectators, the majority of whom looked to see the Nationals have almost a walk-over. In the game A. G. Spalding was pitcher and Ross Barnes shortstop for the Forest City nine; these two afterwards becoming famous as star players of the Boston professional team of the early seventies. Williams was pitcher for the Nationals and Frank Norton catcher. The Nationals took the lead in the first innings by 3 to 2; but in the next two innings they added but five runs to their score, while the Forest Citys added thirteen to theirs, thereby taking the lead by a score of fifteen to eight, to the great surprise of the crowd and the delight of the Rockfords. The Nationals tried hard to recover the lost ground. The final result, however, was the success of the Forest Citys by a score of 29 to 23 in a nine innings game, twice interrupted by rain.

Later life

Late in life, Chadwick continued editing the Spalding Base Ball Guides and producing a column for the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.[21] In late 1905, he wrote the editor of The New York Times to propose widening of the baseball bat to overcome the advantage that pitchers had established in the game. In his letter, Chadwick noted that some cricket experts had advocated for the narrowing of the cricket bat to bring balance to the advantage that belonged to the batter in that game.[22]

In the winter before the 1908 baseball season, Chadwick was struck by an automobile and was bedridden for several weeks.[21] He recovered and attended an exhibition game at the Polo Grounds the week before the season began. He caught a cold while at the game, and the illness worsened when he attended an Opening Day game at Washington Park in Brooklyn.[23]

On April 19, Chadwick was moving furniture from the fourth floor of his apartment to the second floor when he fell unconscious. He was diagnosed with pneumonia and heart failure. He awakened briefly and asked about the game between Brooklyn and New York, but he died the next day.[24] Henry Chadwick is interred at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.


For his contributions to the game of baseball, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee in 1938. He was inducted in the same ceremony as Alexander Cartwright.[14]

In 2009, the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR) established the Henry Chadwick Award to honor the outstanding contributions of baseball researchers. Bill James and John Thorn are among the award's recipients.[25]

A collection of historical baseball items, which featured a letter written by Chadwick on the origins of baseball, sold at auction in 2004 for $310,500.[26]


  1. ^ Birkett, Andy (6 July 2015). "The Englishman dubbed 'the father of baseball'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  2. ^ Schiff, p. 24.
  3. ^ Schiff, p. 25.
  4. ^ Vaughn, Stephen (ed.) (2007). Encyclopedia of American Journalism. Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 1135880204. Retrieved November 8, 2014.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Schiff, pp. 27–29.
  6. ^ Schiff, p. 26.
  7. ^ McGuiggan, Amy W. (2009). Take Me Out to the Ball Game: The Story of the Sensational Baseball Song. University of Nebraska Press. p. 3. ISBN 0803218915. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  8. ^ Swanson, Ryan A. (2014). When Baseball Went White: Reconstruction, Reconciliation, and Dreams of a National Pastime. University of Nebraska Press. p. 207. ISBN 0803255179. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  9. ^ Goode, G. Brown (2009). Virginia Cousins. Genealogical Publishing Company. p. 365. ISBN 080635173X. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  10. ^ a b "Chadwick, Henry". Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  11. ^ Spink, Alfred Henry. The national game, p. 356 (1911)
  12. ^ Arango, Tim (November 12, 2010). "Myth of baseball's creation endures, with a prominent fan". The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  13. ^ Thorn, John. "The Knickerbocker Rules—and the Long History of the One-Bounce Fielding Rule". Major League Baseball. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  14. ^ a b Corcoran, Dennis (2010). Induction Day at Cooperstown: A History of the Baseball Hall of Fame Ceremony. McFarland. p. 26. ISBN 0786491477. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  15. ^ a b c Cook, William A. (2005). The Louisville Grays Scandal of 1877: The Taint of Gambling at the Dawn of the National League. McFarland. p. 169. ISBN 1476616396. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  16. ^ His Hall of Fame plaque states, in part: "Inventor of the box score. Author of the first rule-book ... Chairman of rules committee in first nationwide baseball organization." Lederer, Rich. By the Numbers: Computer technology has deepened fans' passion with the game's statistics. Memories and Dreams (Vol. 33, No. 6; Winter 2011[–2012], pp. 32–34). National Baseball Hall of Fame official magazine.
  17. ^ a b c Pesca, Mike (July 30, 2009). "The Man Who Made Baseball's Box Score A Hit". National Public Radio. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  18. ^ "Famous Resident: Henry Chadwick". Green-Wood Cemetery. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  19. ^ James himself is responsible for popularizing "On-base percentage" (OBP), hits plus walks divided by plate appearances, which amounts to the "batting average" he would have preferred Chadwick had instituted
  20. ^ Lewis, Michael (2004). Moneyball: The Art of Winning an Unfair Game. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 70. ISBN 0393066231. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  21. ^ a b Schiff, p. 215.
  22. ^ Chadwick, Henry (October 13, 1905). "Defects in baseball rules" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  23. ^ Schiff, p. 219.
  24. ^ Schiff, pp. 219–20.
  25. ^ "Henry Chadwick Award". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  26. ^ "1907 Henry Chadwick "The Graves Fraud Letter" and "Origins of Baseball" Collection". Robert Ward Auctions. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2014.


  • Tygiel, Jules. Past Time.
  • Schwarz, Alan (2004). The Numbers Game: Baseball's Lifelong Fascination With Statistics. New York: Thomas Dunne Books.
  • Schiff, Andrew (2008). "The Father of Baseball": A Biography of Henry Chadwick. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 May 2019, at 00:17
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