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One of the mosaics of Delos, Greece with the symbol of the Punic-Phoenician goddess Tanit
One of the mosaics of Delos, Greece with the symbol of the Punic-Phoenician goddess Tanit

Hellenization (other British spelling Hellenisation) or Hellenism[1] is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion, and, to a lesser extent, language over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC. The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements, and these Greek influences spread from the Mediterranean basin as far east as modern-day Pakistan. In modern times, Hellenization has been associated with the adoption of modern Greek culture and the ethnic and cultural homogenization of Greece.[2][3]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Alexander the Great and the Situation ... the Great? Crash Course World History #8
  • ✪ Context: Hanukkah Part III, Hellenization
  • ✪ Hellenization with Uriel Rappaport
  • ✪ Dr. Dave Mathewson, New Testament Literature, Lecture 2, History and Hellenization


Hi there my name’s John Green, this is Crash Course: World History and today we’re gonna talk about Alexander the Great, but to do that we’re going to begin by talking about ideals of masculinity and heroism and Kim Kardashian and the Situation. Mr Green, Mr Green, Mr. Green! Which Situation? Oh, me from the past, I forgot you wanted to go to Columbia. Me from the present regrets to inform you that you do not get in. But since you live in the past, you have no way of knowing who I’m talking about, and it occurs to me that this video may be watched in some glorious future when Kim Kardashian and the Situation have mercifully disappeared from public life, and the supermarket tabloids, instead of talking about celebrities talk about Foucault and the Higgs-Boson particle, so Kim Kardashian is a professional famous person who rose to notoriety by scoodilypoopin with someone named Ray Jay, and Mike “The Situation” I forgot his last name is a professional stupid person with big muscles. They’re both known by millions, lives in luxury, and people literally pay to own their odors. Why do these people crave fame? Why do any of us? Well, I’d argue it’s not about money. If it were our tabloids would be devoted to the lives and times of bankers. I think we all want to leave a legacy. We want to be remembered. We want to be Great. [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] [music intro] For a long time, history was all about the Study of Great Men, and it was common to call people as “the Great,” but these days historians are less likely to do that, because they recognize that one man’s Great is generally another man’s Terrible. And also “the Great” has some misogynistic implications, like, it’s almost always associated with men. You never hear about Cleopatra the Great or Elizabeth the Great. There was, of course, Catherine the Great of Russia, but for her masculine Greatness she was saddled with the completely untrue rumor that she died trying to scoodilypoop with a horse. Saddled? Get it? Anybody? Saddled with the rumor? Anyway, they could’ve soiled Catherine the Great’s name just by telling the truth: which is that like so many other Great men and women, she died on the toilet. Get it? soiled? Toilet? Yes? Yes! So, quick biography of Alexander of Macedon, born in 356 BCE, died in 323 BCE at the ripe old age of 32. Alexander was the son of King Philip the 2nd, and when just 13 years old he tamed a horse no one else could ride named Bucephalus, which impressed his father so much he said: “Oh thy son, look thee at a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.” By that time he was already an accomplished general, but over the next decade he expanded his empire with unprecedented speed and he is famous for having never lost a battle. Today we’re going to look at Alexander of Macedon’s story by examining three possible definitions of greatness. First, maybe Alexander was great because of his accomplishments. This is an extension of the idea that history is the record of the deeds of great men. Now, of course, that’s ridiculous. For one thing, half of people are women for another, there are lots of historic events that no one can take responsibility for, like for instance the Black Plague. But still, Alexander was accomplished. I mean, he conquered a lot of territory. Like, a lot. No, not a lot, A LOT. Yes. His father, Philip, had conquered all of Greece, but Alexander did what the Spartans and Athenians had failed to do: He destroyed the Persian Empire. He conquered all the land the Persians had held including Egypt, and then marched toward India, stopping at the Indus River only because his army was like, “Hey, Alexander, you know what would be awesome? Not marching.” Also, Alexander was a really good general, although historians disagree over whether his tactics were truly brilliant or if his army just happened to have better technology, specifically these extra long spears called sarissas. Much of his reputation as a general, and his reputation in general, anybody? Puns? I should stop? OK. Is because of Napoleon. Napoleon like many other generals throughout history, was obsessed with Alexander the Great, but more on that in a moment. That said, Alexander wasn’t very good at what we might now call empire-building. Alexander’s empire was definitely visually impressive, but it wasn’t actually much of an empire. Like, Alexander specialized in the tearing down of things, but he wasn’t so great at the building up of institutions to replace the things he’d torn down. And that’s why, pretty soon after his death, the Greek Empire broke into three empires, called the Hellenistic Kingdoms. Each was ruled by one of Alexander’s generals, and they became important dynasties. The Antigones in Greece and Macedonia, the Ptolemies in Egypt, the Selucids in Persia, all of which lasted longer than Alexander’s empire. A Second Greatness: Maybe Alexander was great because he had an enormous impact on the world after his death. Like King Tut, Alexander the great was amazingly good at being a dead person. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. So, After Alexander of Macedon died, everyone from the Romans to Napoleon to Oliver Stone loved him, and he was an important military model for many generals throughout history. But his main post-death legacy may be that he introduced the Persian idea of Absolute Monarchy to the Greco-Roman world, which would become a pretty big deal. Alexander also built a number of cities on his route that became big deals after his death, and it’s easy to spot them because he named most of them after himself and one after his horse. The Alexandria in Egypt became a major center of learning in the classical world, and was home to the most amazing library ever, which Julius Caesar probably “accidentally” burned down while trying to conquer a bunch of land to emulate his hero, Alexander the Great. Plus, the dead Alexander had a huge impact on culture. He gave the region its common language, Greek, which facilitated conversations and commerce. Greek was so widespread that archaeologists have found coins in what is now Afghanistan with pictures of their kings and the word “king” written beneath the pictures—in Greek. This is also why, incidentally, the New Testament was eventually written in Greek. Although Alexander was mostly just conquering territory for the glory and heroism and greatness of it all, in his wake emerged a more closely connected world that could trade and communicate with more people more efficiently than ever before. Alexander didn’t make those things happen, but they probably wouldn’t have happened without him. But here’s a question: If you’re watching Keeping Up With the Kardashians and get so involved in Kim’s marital travails that you leave the bathwater running, thereby flooding your house and necessitating a call to a plumber, and then you fall in love with the plumber and get married and live happily ever after, does that make Kim Kardashian responsible for your marriage? Thanks, Thought Bubble. Okay, a third definition of greatness: Maybe Alexander is great because of his legend: Since no accounts of his life were written while he lived, embellishment was easy, and maybe that’s where true greatness lies. I mean the guy died at 32, before he ever had a chance to get old and lose battles, He was tutored by Aristotle, for God’s sakes. Then there’s Alexander’s single-minded Ahab-esque pursuit of the Persian king Darius, who he chased across modern-day Iraq and Iran for no real reason except he desperately wanted to kill him, and when Bessus, one of Darius’s generals, assassinated him before Alexander had the chance, Alexander chased Bessus around until he could at least kill him. These almost-comical pursuits of glory and heroism are accompanied in classical histories by stories of Alexander walking through the desert, and then suddenly raining, and these ravens coming to lead him to the army he’s supposed to fight, and stories of his hot Persian wife Roxanna, who supposedly while still a teenager engineered the assassinations of many of Alexander’s fellow wives. And even at his death, people tried to make Alexander live up to this heroic ideal. Like, Plutarch tells us that he died of a fever, but that’s no way for a masculine, empire building awesome person to die! So rumors persist that he died either of alcohol poisoning or else of assassination-y poisoning. I mean, no great man can die of a fever. Speaking of Great Men, it’s time to strip down for the Open Letter. So elegant. But first let’s see what’s in the Secret Compartment today. Oh. It’s Kim Kardashian’s perfume. Thanks Stan. I’ll wear this. I’ll check it out, I’ll give it a try. [sprays self with super nasty crap] C’ah. Wow. That is...’s like all the worst parts of baby powder and all the worst parts of cat pee. An Open Letter to the Ladies: Hello, Ladies, You’ve really been unfairly neglected in Crash Course World History and also in World History text books everywhere. Like, there will be a whole chapter exploring the exploits of great men and then at the end there will be one sentence that’s like “also women were doing stuff at the time and it was important, but we don’t really know what it was, so back to Alexander the Great...” HIStory has been very good at marginalizing and demeaning women and we’re going to fight against that as we move forward in the story of human civilization. Ladies, I have to go now because my eyes are stinging from the biological weapon known as Kim Kardashian’s Gold. Seriously, don’t wear it. Best wishes, John Green So in Alexander the Great we have a story about a man who united the world while riding a magical horse only he could tame across deserts where it magically rained for him so that he could chase down his mortal enemy and then leave in his wake a more enlightened world and a gorgeous, murderous wife. But of course it’s not just Assassin’s Creed and Call of Duty that celebrate the idea that ennobled violence can lead to a better world. And that takes us to my opinion of how Alexander really came to be Great. Millennia after his death in 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt, not because he particularly needed to invade Egypt but because he wanted to do what Alexander had done. And long before Napoleon, the Romans really worshipped Alexander particularly the Roman General Pompey, AKA Pompeius Magnus, AKA Pompey the Great. Pompey was so obsessed with Alexander that he literally tried to emulate Alexander’s boyishly disheveled hair style. In short, Alexander was Great because others decided he was Great. Because they chose to admire and emulate him. Yes, Alexander was a great general. Yes, he conquered a lot of land. The Situation is also really good at picking up girls...of a certain type. And Kim Kardashian is good at- Stan, what is Kim Kardashian good at? Oh. Ah. I guess just a body type then. Something... We made Alexander Great, just as today we make people great when we admire them and try to emulate them. History has traditionally been in the business of finding and celebrating great men, and only occasionally great women, but this obsession with Greatness is troubling to me. It wrongly implies, first, history is made primarily by men and secondly, that history is made primarily by celebrated people, which of course makes us all want to be celebrities. Thankfully we’ve left behind the idea that the best way to become an icon is to butcher people and conquer a lot of land, but the ideals that we’ve embraced instead aren’t necessarily worth celebrating either. All of which is to say we decide what to worship and what to care about and what to pay attention to. We decide whether to care about The Situation. Alexander couldn’t make history in a vacuum, and neither can anyone else. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and Directed by Stan Muller, the show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself. Our script supervisor is Danica Johnson and our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was "Thinly Sliced Trees". If you want to take a guess at this week’s phrase or suggest new ones you can do so in comments. If you have questions about today’s video you can also ask those in comments and our team of historians will attempt to answer them. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as they say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome.



The first known use of a verb meaning "to Hellenize" was in Greek (ἑλληνίζειν) and by Thucydides (5th century BC), who wrote that the Amphilochian Argives were Hellenized as to their language by the Ambraciots, which shows that the word perhaps already referred to more than language.[1] The similar word Hellenism, which is often used as a synonym, is used in 2 Maccabees[4] (c. 124 BC) and the Book of Acts[5] (c. AD 80–90) to refer to clearly much more than language, though it is disputed what that may have entailed.[1]


Map of the Hellenized Macedonian Empire, established by the military conquests of Alexander the Great in 334–323 BC.
Map of the Hellenized Macedonian Empire, established by the military conquests of Alexander the Great in 334–323 BC.

By the 4th century BC the process of Hellenization had started in southwestern Anatolia's Lycia, Caria and Pisidia regions. (1st century fortifications at Pelum in Galatia, on Baş Dağ in Lycaonia and at Isaura are the only known Hellenistic-style structures in central and eastern Anatolia).[6] When it was advantageous to do so, places like Side and Aspendos invented Greek-themed origin myths; an inscription published in SEG shows that in the 4th century BC Aspendos claimed ties to Argos, similar to Nikokreon of Cyprus who also claimed Argive lineage. (Argos was home to the Kings of Macedon.)[7][8] Like the Argeads, the Antigonids claimed descent from Heracles, the Seleucids from Apollo, and the Ptolemies from Dionysus.[9]

The Seuthopolis inscription was very influential in the modern study of Thrace. The inscription mentions Dionysus, Apollo and some Samothracian gods. Scholars have interpreted the inscription as evidence of Hellenization in inland Thrace during the early Hellenistic, but this has been challenged by recent scholarship.[10][11]

Hellenization, however, had its limitations. For example, areas of southern Syria that were affected by Greek culture entailed mostly Seleucid urban centres, where Greek was commonly spoken. The countryside, on the other hand, was largely unaffected, with most of its inhabitants speaking Syriac and clinging to their native traditions.[12]

Archaeological evidence alone gives only an incomplete picture of Hellenization; it is often not possible to state with certainty whether particular archaeological findings belonged to Greeks, Hellenized indigenous peoples, indigenous people who simply owned Greek-style objects or some combination of these groups. Thus, literary sources are also used to help researchers interpret archaeological findings.[13]

Modern times

In 1909, a commission appointed by the Greek government reported that a third of the villages of Greece should have their names changed, often because of their non-Greek origin.[2] In other instances, names were changed from a contemporary name of Greek origin to the ancient Greek name. Some village names were formed from a Greek root word with a foreign suffix or vice versa. Most of the name changes took place in areas populated by ethnic Greeks in which a strata of foreign or divergent toponyms had accumulated over the centuries. However, in some parts of northern Greece, the population was not Greek-speaking, and many of the former toponyms had reflected the diverse ethnic and linguistic origins of their inhabitants.

The process of the change of toponyms in modern Greece has been described as a process of Hellenization.[2] A modern use is in connection with policies pursuing "cultural harmonization and education of the linguistic minorities resident within the modern Greek state" (the Hellenic Republic): the Hellenization of minority groups in modern Greece.[3] The term Hellenisation (or Hellenization) is also used in the context of Greek opposition to the use of the Bulgarian language in the Greek province of Macedonia[14]

In 1870, the Greek government abolished all Italian schools in the Ionian islands, which had been annexed to Greece six years earlier. That led to the diminution of the community of Corfiot Italians, which had lived in Corfu since the Middle Ages; by the 1940s, there were only 400 Corfiot Italians left.[15]


Hellenization reached Pisidia and Lycia sometime in the 4th century BC, but the interior remained largely unaffected for several more centuries until it came under Roman rule in the 1st century BC.[16] Ionian, Aeolian and Doric settlers along Anatolia's Western coast seemed to have remained culturally Greek and some of their city-states date back to the Archaic Period. On the other hand, Greeks who settled in the southwestern region of Pisidia and Pamphylia seem to have been assimilated by the local culture.[17]


Panticapaeum (modern day Kerch) was one of the early Greek colonies in Crimea. It was founded by Miletus around 600 BC on a site with good terrain for a defensive acropolis. By the time the Cimmerian colonies had organized into the Bosporan Kingdom around much of the local native population had been Hellenized.[18] Most scholars date the establishment of the kingdom to 480 BC, when the Archaeanactid dynasty assumed control of Panticapaeum, but classical archaeologist Gocha R. Tsetskhladze has dated the kingdom's founding to 436 BC, when the Spartocid dynasty replaced the ruling Archaeanactids.[19]


The Hellenistic Seleucid and Ptolemaic kingdoms that formed after Alexander's death were particularly relevant to the history of Judaism. Located between the two kingdoms, Israel experienced long periods of warfare and instability. Judea fell under Seleucid control in 198 BC. By the time Antiochus IV Epiphanes became king of Judea in 175 BC, Jerusalem was already somewhat Hellenized. In 170 BC, both claimants to the High Priesthood, Jason and Menelaus, bore Greek names. Jason had established institutions of Greek education and in later years Jewish culture started to be suppressed including forbidding circumcision and observance of the Sabbath.[20]

Hellenization of members of the Jewish elite included names, clothes but other customs were adapted by the rabbis and elements that violated the halakha and midrash were prohibited. One example is the elimination of some aspects of Hellenistic banquets such as the practice of offering libations to the gods, while incorporating certain elements that gave the meals a more Jewish character. Discussion of Scripture, the singing of sacred songs and attendance of students of the Torah was encouraged. One detailed account of Jewish-style Hellenistic banquets comes from Ben Sira. There is literary evidence from Philo about the extravagance of Alexandrian Jewish banquets and The Letter of Aristeas discusses Jews dining with non-Jews as an opportunity to share Jewish wisdom.[21]


Head of a statue of a Parthian wearing a Hellenistic helmet from Nisa. The Parthians adopted both Achaemenid and Hellenistic cultures.
Head of a statue of a Parthian wearing a Hellenistic helmet from Nisa. The Parthians adopted both Achaemenid and Hellenistic cultures.

Pisidia and Pamphylia

Pamphylia is a plain located between the highlands of Lycia and Cilicia. The exact date of Greek settlement in the region is not known; one possible theory is that settlers arrived in the region as part of Bronze Age maritime trade between the Aegean, Levant and Cyprus, while another attributes it to population movements during the instability of the Bronze Age Collapse. The Greek dialect established in Pamphylia by the Classical period was related to Arcado-Cypriot.[22]

Mopsus is a legendary founder of several coastal cities in southwestern Anatolia, including Aspendos, Phaselis, Perge and Sillyon.[22][23] A bilingual Phoenician and neo-Hittite Luwian inscription found at Karatepe, dated to 800 BC, says that the ruling dynasty there traced their origins to Mopsus.[17][22] Mopsus, whose name is also attested to in Hittite documents, may originally have been an Anatolian figure that became part of the cultural traditions of Pamphylia's early Greek settlers.[22] Attested to in Linear B texts, he is given a Greek genealogy as a descendant of Manto and Apollo.[23]

For centuries the indigenous population exerted considerable influence on Greek settlers, but after the 4th century BC this population quickly started to become Hellenized.[17] Very little is known about Pisidia prior to the 3rd century, but there is quite a bit of archeological evidence that dates to the Hellenistic period.[24] Literary evidence, however, including inscriptions and coins are limited.[17] During the 3rd and 2nd centuries, native regional tongues were abandoned in favor of koine Greek and settlements began to take on characteristics of Greek polis.[17][24]

The Iron Age Panemoteichos I may be an early precursor to later regional Hellenistic settlements including Selge, Termessos and Sagalssos (believed to be the three most prominent cities of Hellenistic Pisidia).[17][24] The site is evidence of "urban organization" that predates the Greek polis by 500 years. Based on Panemoteichos I and other Iron Age sites, including the Phrygian Midas şehri and the Cappadocian fortification of Kerkenes, experts believe that "behind the Greek influence that shaped the Hellenistic Pisidian communities there lay a tangible and important Anatolian tradition."[24]

According to the writings of Arrian the population of Side, who traced their origins to Aeolian Cyme, had forgotten the Greek language by the time Alexander arrived at the city in 334 BC. There are coins and stone inscriptions that attest to a unique script from the region but the language has only been partially deciphered.[22][17]


The latest dateable coins found at the Phrygian capital of Gordion are from the 2nd century BC. Finds from the abandoned Hellenistic era settlement include imported and locally produced imitation Greek-style terracotta figurines and ceramics. Inscriptions show that some of the inhabitants had Greek names, while others had Anatolian or possibly Celtic names.[25] Many Phrygian cult objects were Hellenized during the Hellenistic period, but worship of traditional deities like the Phrygian mother goddess persisted.[26] Greek cults attested to include Hermes, Kybele, the Muses and Tyche.[25]


Greek art and culture reached Phoenicia by way of commerce before any Greek cities were founded in Syria.[27] but Hellenization of Syrians was not widespread until it became a Roman province. Under Roman rule in the 1st century BC there is evidence of Hellenistic style funerary architecture, decorative elements, mythological references, and inscriptions. However, there is a lack of evidence from Hellenistic Syria; concerning this, most scholars view it as a case of "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence".[28][29]


The Bactrians, an Iranian ethnic group who lived in Bactria (northern Afghanistan), were Hellenized during the reign of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and soon after various tribes in northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent underwent Hellenization during the reign of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

Early Christianity

The periodization of the Hellenistic Age, between the conquests of Alexander the Great up to Octavian's victory at the Battle of Actium, has been attributed to the 19th-century historian J. G. Droysen. According to this model the spread of Greek culture during this period made the rise of Christianity possible. Later, in the 20th century, scholars questioned this 19th-century paradigm for failing to account for the contributions of Semitic and other Near Eastern cultures.[1]

The twentieth century witnessed a lively debate over the extent of Hellenization in the Levant, particularly among the ancient Jews, which has continued until today. Interpretations on the rise of Early Christianity, which was applied most famously by Rudolf Bultmann, used to see Judaism as largely unaffected by Hellenism, and the Judaism of the diaspora was thought to have succumbed thoroughly to its influences. Bultmann thus argued that Christianity arose almost completely within those Hellenistic confines and should be read against that background, as opposed to a more traditional Jewish background. With the publication of Martin Hengel's two-volume study Hellenism and Judaism (1974, German original 1972) and subsequent studies Jews, Greeks and Barbarians: Aspects of the Hellenisation of Judaism in the pre-Christian Period (1980, German original 1976) and The 'Hellenisation' of Judaea in the First Century after Christ (1989, German original 1989), the tide began to turn decisively. Hengel argued that virtually all of Judaism was highly Hellenized well before the beginning of the Christian era, and even the Greek language was well known throughout the cities and even the smaller towns of Jewish Palestine. Scholars have continued to nuance Hengel's views, but almost all believe that strong Hellenistic influences were throughout the Levant, even among the conservative Jewish communities, which were the most nationalistic.

In his introduction to the 1964 book Meditations, Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth discussed the profound influence of Stoic philosophy on Christianity:

Again in the doctrine of the Trinity, the ecclesiastical conception of Father, Word, and Spirit finds its germ in the different Stoic names of the Divine Unity. Thus Seneca, writing of the supreme Power which shapes the universe, states, 'This Power we sometimes call the All-ruling God, sometimes the incorporeal Wisdom, sometimes the holy Spirit, sometimes Destiny.' The Church had only to reject the last of these terms to arrive at its own acceptable definition of the Divine Nature; while the further assertion 'these three are One', which the modern mind finds paradoxical, was no more than commonplace to those familiar with Stoic notions.[30]

Eastern Roman Empire

The Greek East was one of the two main cultural areas of the Roman Empire and began to be ruled by an autonomous imperial court in 286 AD under Diocletian. However, Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts of the empire and Latin was the state language. When the Roman Senate sent the regalia of the Western Emperor to the Eastern Emperor Zeno in 476 AD, Constantinople (Byzantium in Ancient Greek) was recognized as the seat of the sole Emperor. A process of political Hellenization began and led, among other reforms, to the declaration of Greek as the official language in 610 AD.[31]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d Hornblower 2014, p. 359
  2. ^ a b c Zacharia 2008, p. 232.
  3. ^ a b Koliopoulos & Veremis 2002, pp. 232–241.
  4. ^ 2 Maccabees 4:13
  5. ^ Acts 6:1,Acts 9:29
  6. ^ Mitchell 1993, p. 85
  7. ^ Hornblower 1991, p. 71
  8. ^ Hornblower 2014, p. 360
  9. ^ Patterson 2010, p. 65
  10. ^ Graninger, Charles Denver (18 July 2018). "New Contexts for the Seuthopolis Inscription (IGBulg 3.2 1731)". Klio. 100 (1): 178–194. doi:10.1515/klio-2018-0006. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  11. ^ Nankov, Emil. "Beyond Hellenization: Reconsidering Greek Literacy in the Thracian City of Seuthopolis". Retrieved 29 July 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Boyce & Grenet 1975, p. 353: "South Syria was thus a comparatively late addition to the Seleucid empire, whose heartland was North Syria. Here Seleucus himself created four cities—his capital of Antiochia-on-the-Orontes, and Apamea, Seleucia and Laodicia—all new foundations with a European citizen body. Twelve other Hellenistic cities are known there, and the Seleucid army was largely based in this region, either garrisoning its towns or settled as reservists in military colonies. Hellenisation, although intensive, seems in the main to have been confined to these urban centers, where Greek was commonly spoken. The country people appear to have been little affected by the cultural change, and continued to speak Syriac and to follow their traditional ways. Despite its political importance, little is known of Syria under Macedonian rule, and even the process of Hellenisation is mainly to be traced in the one community which has preserved some records from this time, namely the Jews of South Syria."
  13. ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, pp. 91–92
  14. ^ "DENYING ETHNIC IDENTITY – The Macedonians of Greece" (PDF). Human Rights Watch/Helsinki. 1994. ISBN 978-1-56432-132-9.
  15. ^ Giulio 2000, p. 132.
  16. ^ Hornblower 2014, p. 94
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Mitchell 1991, pp. 119–145
  18. ^ Boardman & Hammond 1982, pp. 129–130
  19. ^ Tsetskhladze 2010
  20. ^ Martin 2012, pp. 55–66
  21. ^ Shimoff 1996, pp. 440–452
  22. ^ a b c d e Wilson 2013, p. 532
  23. ^ a b Stoneman, Richard (2011). "6. The Oracle Coast: Sibyls and Prophets of Asia Minor". The Ancient Oracles: Making the Gods Speak. Yale University Press. pp. 77–103. ISBN 978-0-300-14042-2.
  24. ^ a b c d Mitchell 2013, pp. 97–118
  25. ^ a b Kealhofer, Lisa (1 January 2011). The Archaeology of Midas and the Phrygians: Recent Work At Gordion. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-1-934536-24-7.
  26. ^ Roller 2011
  27. ^ Jones 1940, p. 1
  28. ^ Jong 2017, p. 199
  29. ^ de Jong, Lidewijde (1 July 2007). Narratives of Roman Syria: A Historiography of Syria as a Province of Rome. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  30. ^ Aurelius, Marcus (1964). Meditations. London: Penguin Books. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-140-44140-6.
  31. ^ Stouraitis 2014, pp. 176, 177, Stouraitis 2017, p. 70, Kaldellis 2007, p. 113



External links

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