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Helene Fuld College of Nursing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Helene Fuld College of Nursing
Helene Fuld College of Nursing logo.png
Former names
Helene Fuld School of Nursing (1964–1996), Helene Fuld School of Practical Nursing (1955–1964), Hospital for Joint Diseases School of Practical Nursing (1945–1955)
Type Private, Nonprofit, Nonsectarian, Coeducational
Established 1945
President Wendy Robinson, PhD, RN, FNP, CNE
Academic staff
16
Location 24 East 120th Street
(at Madison Avenue)
New York
, New York 10035
40°48′09″N 73°56′36″W / 40.80247°N 73.94336°W / 40.80247; -73.94336
Campus Urban, commuter
Colors Blue, Green, Purple, Black
                   
Website www.helenefuld.edu

The Helene Fuld College of Nursing is a private, nonsectarian college in New York City that focuses exclusively on nursing education. The college offers associate and comprehensive baccalaureate science degrees as continuing education to Licensed Practical and Registered Nurses. The college is located in East Harlem section of Manhattan in the Mount Morris Park Historic District at Marcus Garvey Park. It was founded seventy-two years ago in 1945.[1]

Admissions and curriculum

The college offers two continuing education programs:

  1. The college offers a program for licensed practical nurses and registered nurses who desire to earn associate degrees at the registered nurse level.
  2. The college also offers a baccalaureate degree program for registered nurses with associate degrees.

On May 2, 2014, the college made history by conferring its first Bachelor of Science degrees.

Enrollment

As of 2017, there were approximately 450 full- and part-time students enrolled in the associate degree and upper division baccalaureate programs.

Honors program

The Honors Program — now in its ninth year (founded in February 2010) — was established to enhance academic enrichment for exceptional students in the LPN to RN Associate degree program — and to officially recognize and support their collegiate achievements. Honorees are selected bi-annually — in February and August. The selection process is based on pre-entrance test scores, grades received in the pre-admission math/chemistry course, professional references, and faculty reviews. All candidates must have a minimum of a 3.75 GPA (out of 4) at the end of the first quarter to qualify and must maintain a 3.5 GPA overall until graduation to continue in the honors program.

Academic calendar

The Helene Fuld College of Nursing follows the quarter system.

Charter, accreditation, and affiliations

Charter and registration

Accreditation

Regional affiliations

  • Member, Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities in New York
  • Member, Council for Associate Degree Nursing in New York State, Inc.
  • Member, Greater Harlem Chamber of Commerce, the Greater New York Chamber of Commerce
  • Member, New York Metropolitan Reference and Research Library Agency, founded in 1966

National affiliations

Facilities

College building

The College, since 1992, and as of 2017, occupies 34,000 square feet (3,200 m2) on the third and fourth floors of a wing owned by Bethel Gospel Assembly Church, an evangelical church. The college is not affiliated with the church. The classroom facilities, reportedly, are well equipped. But the building – particularly the entrance – has a no-frills, unassuming, utilitarian appearance. As was the case with North General Hospital, the decision to remain in the neighborhood represents a civic commitment to Harlem.

Rankings

History

Constituent school of the Hospital for Joint Diseases

A school of nursing was founded October 15, 1945, by New York City's Hospital for Joint Diseases, offering a one-year curriculim leading to becoming a Licensed Practical Nurse. Its inaugural class graduated October 29, 1946. By 1950, the program was named "Hospital for Joint Diseases School of Practical Nursing".

The school, in 1955, received a grant from the Helene Fuld Health Foundation and was subsequently named the "Helene Fuld School of Practical Nursing".

In 1964, under the leadership of Justine Hannan, RN, Director of Nursing Services and Nursing Education, the school launched the first program in the country to offer licensed practical nurses an accredited curriculum in higher education leading to a degree as a Registered nurse. In 1973, Mary Ahl-Heugel (née Mary Ellen Ahl; born 1918), PhD, RN, became Director of Nursing Education. In 1976, the school received a permanent charter from New York State with the authority to confer the Associate degrees in Applied Science with a nursing concentration, becoming one of the first hospital-based schools in New York State to offer the associate degree.

In 1978, the school phased out its practical nurse program. The last class of about 300 in practical nursing graduated in October 1978.

In 1979 the Hospital for Joint Diseases relocated downtown on East 17th Street and a new, private, non-profit corporation named "Joint Diseases North General Hospital" became the new tenant at 1919 Madison Avenue location in East Harlem. Helene Fuld College of Nursing had been, since October 15, 1945, a New York State Registered Nursing School.

Constituent college of North General Hospital

In 1980, Margaret Wines, PhD, RN, became Dean. In 1981, the school's associate degree program became the first such hospital program to be accredited by the National League for Nursing. On October 27, 1987, the hospital was renamed North General Hospital.[5] In 1988, the school became the first hospital-based nursing school to become accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.

On December 12, 1991, North General Hospital moved into a newly built, modern facility at 1879 Madison Avenue, between 120th and 121st Streets, two blocks south of its old location.[i] In 1992, the Helene Fuld School of Nursing moved into its current location at 24 East 120th Street, New York.

In February 1996, with the permission of the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, the name "Helene Fuld School of Nursing" was changed to "Helene Fuld College of Nursing", reflecting the depth and breadth its curricular programs in higher education.

Independent college

In July 2007, the College separated from North General hospital and amended its charter with the New York State Board of Regents as an independent not-for-profit college.[ii] North General Hospital – its former parent institution – closed July 2, 2010, and filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[iii] In 2012, Wendy Robinson, PhD, RN, became President of the College and the New York State Education Department authorized the College to confer Bachelor of Science degrees for registered nurses.[6]

Colors

The college uses blue, green, purple, and black in its publications. Moreover, the interior design color palette of the college's main reception area uses those colors. With the exception of black, nurses commonly wear scrubs in those colors. Since 2010, there has been a growing trend for hospitals and health care organizations to assign scrub color codes to help identify healthcare professional by discipline or department. Color coded uniforms, however, have been widely criticized by healthcare workers for various reasons, one being that it cultivates a caste mentality in an environment that requires teamwork across all disciplines. In any event, the colors at the college do not represent a particular discipline or academic level.

Notable people

Hospital executives

  • Abraham Rosenberg (1900–1976) was appointed Executive Director of Hospital for Joint Diseases in 1952; he had been associated with the hospital since 1929.
  • Eugene Louis McCabe (1937–1998), a healthcare activist, was Founding President and CEO of North General Hospital until his death. With philanthropist Randolph Guggenheimer, McCabe was co-founder of North General Hospital. McCabe was married to, divorced from, but remained close friends with Jewell Jackson McCabe, feminist, business executive, and social and political activist. When Gene McCabe died, he was married to Elsie, (née Elsie Alberta Crum), who, in 2009, married New York City Comptroller Bill Thompson. Before marrying McCabe, Elsie had been divorced from Roger Ellington Coy, whom she married in 1990.
  • Harold Page Freeman, MD, was named President and CEO North General Hospital in 1999.[iv] He was the former President of the American Cancer Society and, before being appointed, was Chief of Surgery at NGH.
  • Samuel J. Daniel, MD (né Samuel Jeremiah Daniel; born 1950), was President and CEO North General Hospital from 2001 to 2010.[7] Daniel is married to Cheryl Joan McKissack (maiden; born 1961), granddaughter of Moses McKissack III (1879–1952). Moses III and his brother, Calvin Lunsford McKissack (1890–1968) co-founded in 1905 the family architectural and engineering firm, McKissack & McKissack, the first African-American-owned architectural firm in the United States and currently the oldest African American-owned architecture and engineering firm in the country

College directors, deans, presidents

  • Bernice ("Bernie") Burnside Huffman (née Evangeline Bernice Burnside; 1900–1979), in 1945, was appointed Superintendent of Nurses at HJD, replacing "Delia" G. Dowling (née Bridget G. Dowling; 1881–1966), who retired after having served as Superintendent of Nurses at HJD for 21 years.[8] In 1946, Huffman became the Founding Director of the School of Nursing at HJD.
Huffman had earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Illinois (Physical Education) in 1923[9][10] and a Graduate Nurse degree from the School of Nursing at Washington University in St. Louis in 1936.[v] In 1940, Huffman was appointed Superintendent of Nurses at the Ellis Fischel Cancer Center in Columbia, Missouri. During World War II, around 1943, Huffman had been a representative and recruiter for the Cadet Nurse Corps.[vi][vii] From October 1943 through December 1943, Huffman served on the field staff of the Nursing Council on National Defense, an organization that ran from 1940 to 1951, with an objective to analyze the country's needs for the education, procurement, and distribution of professional nursing and auxiliary nursing services in relation to national defense. Surveys by the National Nursing Council revealed the there was an acute shortage of nurses, nationwide. On January 5, 1944, Huffman became a vocational assistant in the hospital and nursing school fields at Nurse Placement Service, based in Chicago. The Nurse Placement Service was a not-for-profit organization established in 1931 by the Midwest Division of the American Nurses Association.
Huffman grew-up in Abingdon, Illinois. She married Lester Morton Huffman (1899–1988) around 1927 and divorced him sometime before 1935. In 1949, she married Wilbur John Schult (1901–1979) in Manhattan and remained married to him until her death. Her obituary in the Fort Lauderdale News stated that she had founded of the first school of practical nursing in the nation.[viii]
  • Kathryn "Kate" Goodman Frentzos (née Kathryn Shaw Goodman; 1912–2015), RN, BSN, Major ANCR Retired. Goodman had served in the United States Army Nurse Corps until 1946. After receiving an honorable discharge, she became Assistant Director of Nursing and Assistant Director of the School for Practical Nursing at HJD. In 1950 Goodman was promoted to Director of Nursing and Director of the School for Practical Nursing at HJD. Goodman married Charles Xavier Frentzos on February 22, 1952.[ix]
  • Justine Hannan (née Justine Estella Hannan; 1914–1973) was Dean from 1955 until her death. The title "Dean" was interchanged with other titles, but the upshot was that Hannan was both the Director of Nursing at the Hospital and the Director of the School. Before joining HJD, Hannan had been a nurse and nurse instructor at Israel Zion Hospital in Brooklyn. She subsequently served as Director of the Wyckoff Heights Hospital School of Nursing (practical nursing) in the early 1950s.[11] Hannan was born and raised in Ohio, graduating in 1932 from Fredericktown High School, then, graduating December 21, 1938, from Ohio State University with a Bachelor of Science in Education with a Certificate of Graduate Nurse.[12] Hannan also earned a Master of Arts degree from New York University. Hannan resigned December 1972 after 17 years serving as Director the Nursing Department and Nursing College for the Hospital for Joint Diseases. She died one month later – on January 4, 1973. She had been married to Eugene Rizzi.
  • Mary Ahl-Heugel (née Mary Ellen Ahl; born 1918), PhD, RN, in 1973, became Director of Nursing Education. Around 1972, she married Andrew Anthony Heugel, PhD (1909–1999).
  • Margaret ("Peggy") Wines (née Elder; 1936–2012) retired September 7, 2012 – after 31 years as head of the college. Wines died 10 weeks later, on November 17, 2012.[13] Her reign as head of the college is the longest in its history. In her honor, the college named its library the Peggy Wines Memorial Library.
  • Wendy Robinson (born 1954), PhD, RN, FNP, CNE (certified nurse educator)[x] was appointed President in September 2012 and is now in her sixth year in that role and fifteenth year at the college. Robinson was Vice President Academic Affairs from 2008 to 2012. She began at the college as an instructor in 2002.

Trustees

  • Stephen C. Frauenthal (1939–2015), a math teacher, was a long-term Trustee of the Helene Fuld College of Nursing and the Hospital for Joint Diseases. His paternal grandfather, Herman C. Frauenthal, MD (1866–1942), was a brother of Henry William Frauenthal, MD (1863–1927), who founded the Hospital for Joint Diseases in 1905.[14] Herman C. Frauenthal, MD, had been a physician at the Hospital for Joint Diseases.
  • James C. Frauenthal, PhD (born 1944), had been a long-term Trustee of the Helene Fuld College of Nursing and the Hospital for Joint Diseases. He is the brother of Stephen C. Frauenthal.

Neighborhood

The immediate neighborhood, until about 1992, had been blighted. This was the case with many neighborhoods and districts throughout the five boroughs. In 1992, when North General Hospital moved into its new quarters two blocks south, Maple Plaza, an eight-story, 155-unit residential co-op, designated for affordable housing, was built in its place at 1919 Madison Avenue.[15] Maple Plaza was developed in the 1990s under a plan by the city and North General Hospital to revive the area around the hospital. Eugene Louis McCabe (1937–1998), President and CEO of North General Hospital from its inception in 1979 until his death in 1998, was a strong advocate of developing Maple Plaza. Maple Court, another similar project in the area with 135 units, was completed before Maple Plaza. Since then, the area around Garvey Park has developed. The neighborhood is no longer blighted. While gentrification is typically criticized by civic leaders for making neighborhoods unaffordable – particularly to those who, for generations have thrived and lived there – the neighborhood surrounding Garvey Park, by design, offers a mix of affordable housing. At the same time, adjusting to gentrification throughout Harlem is an ongoing concern of policy makers, citizens, civic leaders, and religious leaders.

Two blocks west of the college, in the Mount Morris Park Historic District, there has been considerable recent (since 2000) residential development and restoration. The stretch of 122nd Street between Mount Morris Park West and Malcolm X Boulevard (aka Sixth Avenue and Lenox Avenue) is known as "Doctors' Row".[xi] As has been the case in many neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs, old, historic residential buildings, including brownstones, fell into disrepair.[xii] Until around 1999, on Mount Morris Park West, between 120 and 121st Streets, there was a row of brownstones, built around 1885, which, according to the New York Times, were so deteriorated that they came known as "The "Ruins". That row has been completely rebuilt into luxury condominiums that were initially priced for mixed income buyers.[xiii] Revitalization since the 1990s has occurred in many neighborhoods, including the Mount Morris Park Historic District, notably brownstones, and in particular the brownstones at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 West 122nd Street, on the south side of the street, which date back to 1888 and 1889. Those particular brownstones were designed by William Tuthill. St. Martin's Episcopal Church, featuring a tower that houses the city's second largest carillon (40 bells), is at 18 West 122nd Street – at the corner of Malcolm X Boulevard. It is a New York City Designated Landmark.[16]

"Fifth on the Park," Harlem's first Upper East Side-style high-rise condominium tower is one block east from the college, at the southeast corner of 120th Street and Fifth Avenue – at 1485 Fifth Avenue. Its architects are FxFowle. The tower, 28 stories, 26 of which are residential, includes a 38,000 square foot (3,500 m2) church with a four-story, 1,800-seat sanctuary for the Bethel Gospel Assembly, who sold the development rights for a full block. There are 194 residences, of which 47 are church-owned affordable rental apartments, and 147 are market-rate condominiums. The spa includes a 55 foot (16.76 m) lap pool.[xiv]

Selected publications

By Elisabeth Cogswell Phillips (1902–2001), Margaret Candace Esau (1910–1997), Eleanor A. Tourtillott (1909–2002), Kathryn Goodman Frenzos, Barbara Rafter Fallon (1916–2007) – daughter of famed New York attorney William J. Fallon
Edited by Cordelia W. Kelly (née Cordelia Wood; 1905–1966) (ed.)
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons; Toronto: McAinsh and Co. Ltd.
Ryerson Press was the Canadian agent for F.A. Davis Co.
Biographical note on co-author: Marilyn Gottehrer Freedman (née Marilyn Theodora Gottehrer; 1928–2008), in 1957, married Lawrence Freedman; Marilyn Freedman had served as Director of Education at the Helene Fuld School of Nursing.
  • "Perceptions of Nurse and Physician Educational Administrators in New York State Concerning the Compatibility of Selected Nurse Activities with the 1972 Legal Definition of Nursing" (PhD dissertation), by Mary Ellen Ahl, St. John's University (1975); OCLC 648376689
  • "Patient Anxiety Before Cardiac Catheterization: An Intervention Study," by M Peterson, Helene Fuld School of Nursing, North General Hospital, New York, New York, Heart & Lung: The Journal of Critical Care, Vol. 20, No. 6, November 1991, pps. 643–647; OCLC 117231751; ISSN 0147-9563
Note: To increase access to cardiac catheterization for residents of East and Central Harlem, a cardiac catheterization laboratory was opened in 2005 at North General Hospital.

Other schools by the same name

  • The Helene Fuld School of Nursing in Trenton, New Jersey, was founded in 1895 as "Training School for Nurses" at Trenton City Hospital. The hospital and school changed their names in 1902 to William McKinley Memorial Hospital and William McKinley Memorial Hospital School of Nursing. In 1951 school changed its name to Helene Fuld School of Nursing, honoring the mother of its benefactor, Leonhard Felix Fuld – the same benefactor as the Helene College of Nursing in New York City. The Trenton school closed in 2011, citing, among other things, changes in nursing education.[xv] The Trenton school was not related to the New York school.
  • Coppin State University, College of Health Professions, Helene Fuld School of Nursing in Baltimore was founded in 1973 and, as of 2017, offers baccalaureate degrees for RN, BSN, accelerated BSN, and a graduate program that began in fall 1999. The School offers a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) and a post-masters certification track with a Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) role concentration. From 1963 to 1973, it was known as the Helene Fuld School of Nursing at Provident Hospital. At its founding in 1895, it was named the Provident Hospital Training School of Nursing. Luci V. Ashton (1870–1948),[a] who graduated from Freedmen's Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1895, served as the school's first director for a year and a half before becoming Superintendent of Nurses at Douglass Hospital in Kansas City, Kansas. The Baltimore school is not related to the New York School.

Notable alumni

  • 1962: Dorothy A. Campbell, RN (retired) (née Dorothy Anne Patterson; born 1938), graduated from the Fuld College of Nursing in 1962. She is a poet and author. Her books include:
  1. Pearl – A Journey of a Lifetime,’’ (2014)[17]
  2. It Happened in Manhattan (2017), an autobiography wherein Campbell reflects upon, among other things, her experiences attending the Helene Fuld School of Nursing.[18]

Notes and references

General

  • Leonhard Felix Fuld archives at the Helene Fuld School of Nursing, Trenton; OCLC 39184568
Also at University of Pennsylvania, Leonhard Felix Fuld archives

Notes

  1. ^ Luci V. Ashton (née Lucinda V. Ashton; 1870–1948) had been married to and divorced from the Rev. Reginald Grant Barrow (1889–1980). His son (and her stepson), Errol Walton Barrow (1920–1987) became the first Prime Minister of Barbados in 1961. His daughter (and her stepdaughter), Ruth Nita Barrow became the first and, as of 2017, only female Governor-General of Barbados. (Notable Caribbeans and Caribbean Americans: A Biographical Dictionary, by Serafín Mendez Mendez, Gail Cueto, Neysa Rodríguez Deynes, Greenwood Press, 2003, pps. 36–41; OCLC 70916055)

Books, magazines, journals, and videos

  1. ^ "In Our Community: Advancing Careers and Lives", by Irene M. Wielawski, American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 108, No. 12, December 2008, pps. 86–87 (retrieved August 29, 2017, via JSTOR at www.jstor.org/stable/40385094)
    Note: Wielawski is married to journalist Thomas S. Mulligan (born 1951); her father, Joseph Wielawski (né Józef S.L. Wielawski; 1905–1968), MD, was a physician in psychiatry
  2. ^ Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing, Inc. (official website)
  3. ^ "2016’s Best & Worst Community Colleges", Richie Bernardo, Senior Writer, WalletHub, August 22, 2016 (retrieved August 15, 2017)
  4. ^ "Fruenthal Family History, Starting in 1849, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, with Samuel and Henry Frauenthal, owners of S. Frauenthal Boots & Shoes" (video), interviewee: James C. Frauenthal, Trustee of the Helene Fuld College of Nursing, interviewer: Michael Roy Stoler (born 1947), Building New York: New York Stories, (BUNY12010), CUNY TV, taped November 15, 2016 (alternate link via YouTube)
  5. ^ New York State Department of State, Division of Corporations, State Records & UCC
    Entity:
    Name: North General Hospital
    Name ID: C0D447F927820350
    Corp. ID: 29D18B96406B6F67
    (retrieved August 16, 2017, via "Search entities" at appext20.dos.ny.gov/corp_public)
  6. ^ "2014 Annual Report – Celebrating 70 Years: 1945–2015", Helene Fuld College of Nursing (2014)
  7. ^ "Alumni Profile – Samuel Daniel: At the Helm of Harlem's North General Hospital," by Peter Wortsman, P&S Journal (now Columbia Medicine), Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Vol. 24, No. 2, Spring/Summer 2004; ISSN 1074-1585, ISSN 2159-2225
  8. ^ "News About Nursing", American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 45, No. 12, December 1945, p. 1071 (retrieved August 24, 2017, via JSTOR at www.jstor.org/stable/3417027)
  9. ^ "Evangeline Bernice Burnside", The 1924 Illo (yearbook), University of Illinois (1924), p. 38
  10. ^ "Evangeline Bernice Burnside", University of Illinois, 1923 Commencement Program (1923)
  11. ^ "Obituaries: Justine Hannan Rizzi", American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 73, No. 3, March 1973, p. 534 (retrieved August 22, 2017, via JSTOR at www.jstor.org/stable/3422697)
  12. ^ Record of Proceedings of the Board of Trustees of the Ohio State University, Columbus: July 1, 1938, to June 30, 1939, Ohio State University, pps. 164 & 165; OCLC 919515833
  13. ^ "Saying Goodbye to Dr. Margaret (Peggy) Wines", Alumni Newsgram, Helene Fuld College of Nursing, Vol. 28, No. 5, December 2012
  14. ^ Hospital for Joint Diseases, 1905–2005: One Hundred Years of Excellence, by Baynon McDowell, William S. Green, Joseph D. Zuckerman, MD; assisted by Frank J. Martucci, Elliot Friedman, Hugh M. Nachamie, published by NYU–Hospital for Joint Diseases (2005); OCLC 63532470
  15. ^ "Revitalizing Harlem," Journal of Housing and Community Development (published by the National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials), Vol. 59, No. 2, March/April 2002, pg. 13 (retrieved August 23, 2017, via search.proquest.com/docview/230143105)
  16. ^ 40 Perfect New York Days: Walks and Rambles In and Around the City – Walks and Rambles In and Around the City, by Joan Gregg, Serena Nanda, Beth Pacheco, iUniverse Star (2004); OCLC 60573286
  17. ^ Pearl – A Journey of a Lifetime, by Dorothy A. Campbell, Staten Island: Page Publishing, Inc. (self publishing firm) (2014); OCLC 870844086
  18. ^ It Happened in Manhattan, by Dorothy A. Campbell, Staten Island: Page Publishing, Inc. (self publishing firm) (2017); OCLC 989793495; ISBN 978-1-68409-872-9

Newspapers

  1. ^ "At North General, Moving a Whole Hospital, One Patient at a Time", by Lisa Belkin, The New York Times, December 12, 1991
  2. ^ "Nursing School Goes Out on Its Own", by Audrey Williams June, Chronicle of Higher Education, Vol. 54, No. 7, October 12, 2007, p. A-28 (retrieved August 23, 2017, via ProQuest Health Management Database at search.proquest.com/docview/214664135)
  3. ^ "North General Hospital in Harlem to Close July 2, File for Bankruptcy, Shocking Patients and Workers", by Sam Levin and Corky Siemaszko, New York Daily News, June 28, 2010 (retrieved August 15, 2017)
  4. ^ "Public Lives; A Cancer Fighter Keeps Fighting Injustice," by Joyce Wadler, New York Times, July 1, 1999 (retrieved August 17, 2017)
  5. ^ "Washington U. to Confer 708 Diplomas at 75th Annual Commencement on Tuesday", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 7, 1936, p. 12, col. 5 (bottom), "Bernice Burnside Huffman" (retrieved August 24, 2017, via www.newspapers.com/image/138964684)
  6. ^ "Staff Heads Named for New Cancer Hospital", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 17, 1940, p. 2H (retrieved August 24, 2017, via www.newspapers.com/image/139062300)
  7. ^ "Girls Interested in Nursing to Hear Executive", Nebraska State Journal, October 31, 1943, p. 19 (retrieved August 24, 2017, via www.newspapers.com/image/42127040)
  8. ^ "Deaths – Bernice E. Schult", Fort Lauderdale News, January 18, 1979, p. 24 (retrieved August 28, 2017, via www.newspapers.com/image/233283762)
  9. ^ "Kathryn 'Kate' Goodman Frentzos", Post Star, June 2, 2015 (retrieved August 28, 2017)
  10. ^ "Helene Fuld College of Nursing Has new President with Healthy Vision for the Small Harlem School", by Douglas Feiden, New York Daily News, April 18, 2013 (retrieved August 15, 2017)
  11. ^ "Can Harlem's Heritage Be Saved? Many Jewels of Its Vibrant Past Are Gone. Now Some Residents Are Fighting to Landmark the Rest," by Nina Siegal, New York Times, February 7, 1999
  12. ^ "'Ruins' Reclaimed – Restorers Anticipate Revival of Once Tony Brownstones," by Tracie Rozhon, New York Times Service, Chicago Tribune, June 21, 1998
  13. ^ "Harlem Homeowners Exult at Neighborhood Prison's Closing," by Amy Waldman, New York Times, September 22, 1999
  14. ^ "Big Deal: Harlem's Newest Beacon," by Josh Barbanel, New York Times, March 11, 2007
  15. ^ "Final Nursing Class Graduates as Helene Fuld School of Nursing Closes", Trish Adkins, Gloucester Township Patch (Patch Media), December 17, 2011
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