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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Leafy green, cruciferous, and other raw vegetables may contribute to a healthy diet
Leafy green, cruciferous, and other raw vegetables may contribute to a healthy diet

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, macronutrients, micronutrients, and adequate calories.[1][2]

For people who are healthy, a healthy diet is not complicated and contains mostly fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and includes little to no processed food and sweetened beverages. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a non-animal source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a vegan diet.[3] Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health.[4]

A healthy lifestyle includes getting exercise every day along with eating a healthy diet. A healthy lifestyle may lower disease risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and cancer.[1][5]

There are specialized healthy diets, called medical nutrition therapy, for people with various diseases or conditions. There are also prescientific ideas about such specialized diets, as in dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ How to eat a heart-healthy diet
  • ✪ What's the Best Diet? Healthy Eating 101
  • ✪ Principles of a Healthy Diet: How Do We Know What to Eat?
  • ✪ इसे खाकर तो देखो टाॅप करोगे |Perfect Diet Plan For Student |Healthy Meal for study |Healthy eating
  • ✪ Principles of a Healthy Diet

Transcription

Hi, I’m Andrea Ho And I’m Daphna Steinberg, and we’re Registered Dietitians in the Schulich Heart Centre at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Healthy eating is an important way to maintain heart health. Over the next few minutes, we’d like to share answers to some of the most commonly asked questions about heart healthy eating. I have high cholesterol. Should I stay away from high-cholesterol foods like eggs and shellfish? Cholesterol in your food actually has very little effect on your blood cholesterol. This is because your liver makes most of the cholesterol in your body. What affects your blood cholesterol most is the amount and type of fat that you eat. The best way to lower your blood cholesterol is to choose foods that are lower in fat. Choose leaner cuts of meat, skinless poultry and lower-fat dairy products, and limit egg yolks, the yellow part of the egg, to 3 per week. Shellfish, like shrimp and squid, are a low-fat alternative to eating meat, and can be enjoyed once a week. Scallops, mussels, lobster, and crab are very low in cholesterol and can be enjoyed as often as you like. There are a lot of different diets out there. Should I really be limiting my fat intake? Fat has an awful lot of calories. Limiting your fat intake, as long as you’re not replacing the calories with unhealthy calories can be helpful for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. The type of fat you eat can also affect your cholesterol levels. Saturated fats and trans fats can raise your LDL cholesterol or your lousy cholesterol. Foods that have saturated fats typically come from animal sources, so meats and dairy products generally have the highest amounts of saturated fats. Make sure to choose lean cuts of meat and skinless poultry, and trim your meat of any visible fat. Enjoy low-fat dairy products, like skim or 1% milk and 0% yogurt Trans fat is primarily found in commercially processed foods. This type of fat is worse for your heart than saturated fat, so it’s important to choose foods that are trans fat free. Before buying any commercially processed foods, check the packaging to make sure it doesn’t have any trans fat in it. Look for phrases like “trans-fat free”, “0 trans fat”, or “no trans fat” Check the ingredient list – make sure that “shortening” or “partially hydrogenated oil” are not listed as ingredients. If they are, pick a product that doesn’t have these two ingredients listed. Avoid using hard margarine, which is high in trans fat. Instead, use a non-hydrogenated margarine, which is trans-fat free and has very little saturated fat. What’s the best oil to cook with? Cooking oils are a good source of healthy fats called unsaturated fats. The best oils to use in your cooking are olive oil and canola oil. Even though these are healthy oils, it’s still important to limit the amount of oil that you use when you’re cooking. Use heart healthy cooking methods that don’t need a lot of oil Such as steaming, poaching, baking, roasting, and stir-frying. Avoid deep-frying or pan-frying. Even if you are using a heart-healthy oil, your food will absorb too much extra oil during the cooking process. When you are adding oil to your cooking, use an oil spray or measure out the oil that you’ll be using. I’ve heard a lot about omega-3 being good for my heart, but I’m not really sure what it is. Can you tell me more about it? Omega-3 fats are healthy fats that we need to get from food because our bodies can’t make them. We need them to help raise our healthy cholesterol and make our blood vessels more elastic. The best sources are from fatty fish including salmon, tuna, trout, mackerel, herring and sardines. You can choose fresh, frozen, or canned fish. When you choose canned fish, make sure it’s packed in water instead of oil. You should try to eat these types of fish at least twice a week. If you don’t eat fish, you can also get omega-3 from walnuts, ground flax seeds, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds and wheat germ. You can enjoy these nuts and seeds every day, but make sure that they’re unsalted and haven’t been pre-roasted in oil. I know that fruits and vegetables are healthy. Should I be focusing on anything else? Fruits and vegetables are packed with vitamins and minerals, and they’re also a great source of fibre. Fibre can help to decrease your cholesterol and blood pressure. It also helps you to feel full for longer, which helps with achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. Of course, fibre is also useful for keeping your bowels regular. There are two kinds of fibre: Soluble fibre which is especially helpful for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure; and insoluble fibre which helps to keep your bowels regular. It's important to ensure you get both kinds of fibre every day. Foods that are rich in soluble fibre include psyllium, oat products like oatmeal and oat bran, legumes, and certain fruits and vegetables like apples, pears, berries, citrus fruit, broccoli, cauliflower and squash. Insoluble fibre is also known as “roughage”, and can be found in whole grain breads, cereals and pastas, leafy vegetables like spinach and lettuce; and more colourful fruit and vegetables like melons and peppers. If you’re not used to eating a lot of fibre, start slowly, and make sure to drink plenty of water to help prevent stomach upset. I don’t have diabetes, do I still need to watch my sugar intake? Sugar can be found naturally in food, or it can be added to food. Sugar is found naturally in foods like fruit and milk products. These foods are healthy and should be enjoyed throughout the day. Added sugars include table sugar, honey, syrups and foods that contain added sugars, such as sugar sweetened beverages, desserts, and sweetened cereals. Eating large quantities of added sugars can increase weight and increase the risk of developing heart disease, even in people who are not overweight So, it’s important to limit the amount of added sugars that you eat. Having an occasional treat is fine, just remember that if you have a treat every day, it’s no longer a treat, it’s a habit. I think I need to cut down on my salt intake. How do I do that? Salt contains sodium, and eating too much sodium can increase your blood pressure. Sodium is found naturally in fresh foods, but more than 75% of the sodium we eat comes from processed and packaged foods. To cut down your sodium intake, limit the amount of salt you eat by not adding any to your food at the table. When you’re cooking, only add a pinch of salt, or instead of salt, try adding flavour with dried or fresh herbs, such as basil, thyme, or rosemary, or try using a blend of herbs and spices. Choose fresh foods whenever possible, and limit foods that have been processed, pickled, smoked, or salted If you are using canned products, make sure to rinse them well under water first The foods I eat are healthy, but I’m just not sure how much to eat. Can you tell me more about heart healthy portion sizes? Portion control is important for achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. A simple way to do it is to follow the plate method. Fill up half of your plate with vegetables. A quarter of your plate should include lean protein like fish, legumes, skinless poultry or lean meat. The last quarter of your plate should be high-fibre starchy foods like whole grain breads, brown or wild rice, multi-grain pasta, potatoes with their skin still on, or corn. Then you can round off your meal with a glass of milk and some fruit for dessert. Not every meal will fit into the plate method. What do you do on pizza night? Yes, there can still be pizza night. Just apply the same ideas. Choose a pizza made with a whole-grain thin crust and topped with lots of veggies and some grilled chicken. Let that fill up half your plate. Then, have a big salad with it and enjoy some fruit for a sweet finish. What are some heart healthy tips for eating out? When eating out, choose dishes that have been prepared using heart healthy cooking methods. These include dishes that are steamed, poached, broiled, grilled, stir-fried or baked. Choose dishes with lean cuts of meat, skinless poultry, fish, or legumes. Choose dishes with higher fibre starch options, such as whole wheat or multigrain pasta, brown or wild rice, and sandwiches made with whole grain breads. Ask to have your salad dressings and sauces on the side. Choose non-creamy dressings and sauces. And of course, don’t forget the veggies! We hope these tips will help you make heart healthy eating part of your lifestyle and daily routine. If you have any additional questions, please don’t hesitate to let a member of your health care team know that you’d like to speak with a registered dietitian.

Contents

Recommendations

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following five recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals:[6]

  1. Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using.
  2. Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats. Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. Avoid trans fats.
  3. Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count). A healthy diet also contains legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), whole grains and nuts.
  4. Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better).[7]
  5. Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[8]

The WHO has stated that insufficient vegetables and fruit is the cause of 2.8% of deaths worldwide.[8]

Other WHO recommendations include:

United States Department of Agriculture

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends three healthy patterns of diet, summarized in the table below, for a 2000 kcal diet.[9]

It emphasizes both health and environmental sustainability and a flexible approach. The committee that drafted it wrote: "The major findings regarding sustainable diets were that a diet higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and lower in calories and animal-based foods is more health promoting and is associated with less environmental impact than is the current U.S. diet. This pattern of eating can be achieved through a variety of dietary patterns, including the “Healthy U.S.-style Pattern”, the “Healthy Vegetarian Pattern" and the "Healthy Mediterranean-style Pattern".[10] Food group amounts are per day, unless noted per week.

The three healthy patterns
Food group/subgroup (units) U.S. style Vegetarian Med-style
Fruits (cup eq) 2 2 2.5
Vegetables (cup eq) 2.5 2.5 2.5
Dark green 1.5/wk 1.5/wk 1.5/wk
Red/orange 5.5/wk 5.5/wk 5.5/wk
Starchy 5/wk 5/wk 5/wk
Legumes 1.5/wk 3/wk 1.5/wk
Others 4/wk 4/wk 4/wk
Grains (oz eq) 6 6.5 6
Whole 3 3.5 3
Refined 3 3 3
Dairy (cup eq) 3 3 2
Protein Foods (oz eq) 5.5 3.5 6.5
Meat (red and processed) 12.5/wk -- 12.5/wk
Poultry 10.5/wk -- 10.5/wk
Seafood 8/wk -- 15/wk
Eggs 3/wk 3/wk 3/wk
Nuts/seeds 4/wk 7/wk 4/wk
Processed Soy (including tofu) 0.5/wk 8/wk 0.5/wk
Oils (grams) 27 27 27
Solid fats limit (grams) 18 21 17
Added sugars limit (grams) 30 36 29

American Heart Association / World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research

The American Heart Association, World Cancer Research Fund, and American Institute for Cancer Research recommend a diet that consists mostly of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis on a wide range of whole grains, legumes, and non-starchy vegetables and fruits. This healthy diet includes a wide range of non-starchy vegetables and fruits which provide different colors including red, green, yellow, white, purple, and orange. The recommendations note that tomato cooked with oil, allium vegetables like garlic, and cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower, provide some protection against cancer. This healthy diet is low in energy density, which may protect against weight gain and associated diseases. Finally, limiting consumption of sugary drinks, limiting energy rich foods, including “fast foods” and red meat, and avoiding processed meats improves health and longevity. Overall, researchers and medical policy conclude that this healthy diet can reduce the risk of chronic disease and cancer.[11][12]

It is recommended that children consume less than 25 grams of added sugar (100 calories) per day.[13] Other recommendations include no extra sugars in those under 2 years old and less than one soft drink per week.[13] As of 2017, decreasing total fat is no longer recommended, but instead, the recommendation to lower risk of cardiovascular disease is to increase consumption of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, while decreasing consumption of saturated fats.[14]

Harvard School of Public Health

The Nutrition Source of Harvard School of Public Health makes the following 10 recommendations for a healthy diet:[15]

  • Choose good carbohydrates: whole grains (the less processed the better), vegetables, fruits and beans. Avoid white bread, white rice, and the like as well as pastries, sugared sodas, and other highly processed food.[16]
  • Pay attention to the protein package: good choices include fish, poultry, nuts, and beans. Try to avoid red meat.[17]
  • Choose foods containing healthy fats. Plant oils, nuts, and fish are the best choices. Limit consumption of saturated fats, and avoid foods with trans fat.[15]
  • Choose a fiber-filled diet which includes whole grains, vegetables, and fruits.[18]
  • Eat more vegetables and fruits—the more colorful and varied, the better.[15]
  • Include adequate amounts of calcium in the diet; however, milk is not the best or only source. Good sources of calcium are collards, bok choy, fortified soy milk, baked beans, and supplements containing calcium and vitamin D.[19]
  • Prefer water over other beverages. Avoid sugary drinks, and limit intake of juices and milk. Coffee, tea, artificially-sweetened drinks, 100-percent fruit juices, low-fat milk and alcohol can fit into a healthy diet but are best consumed in moderation. Sports drinks are recommended only for people who exercise more than an hour at a stretch to replace substances lost in sweat.[20]
  • Limit salt intake. Choose more fresh foods, instead of processed ones.[15]
  • Drink alcohol in moderation. Doing so has health benefits, but is not recommended for everyone.[15]
  • Consider intake of daily multivitamin and extra vitamin D, as these have potential health benefits.[15]

Other than nutrition, the guide recommends frequent physical exercise and maintaining a healthy body weight.[15]

Others

David L. Katz, who reviewed the most prevalent popular diets in 2014, noted:

The weight of evidence strongly supports a theme of healthful eating while allowing for variations on that theme. A diet of minimally processed foods close to nature, predominantly plants, is decisively associated with health promotion and disease prevention and is consistent with the salient components of seemingly distinct dietary approaches. Efforts to improve public health through diet are forestalled not for want of knowledge about the optimal feeding of Homo sapiens but for distractions associated with exaggerated claims, and our failure to convert what we reliably know into what we routinely do. Knowledge in this case is not, as of yet, power; would that it were so.[21]

Marion Nestle expresses the mainstream view among scientists who study nutrition:[22]:10

The basic principles of good diets are so simple that I can summarize them in just ten words: eat less, move more, eat lots of fruits and vegetables. For additional clarification, a five-word modifier helps: go easy on junk foods. Follow these precepts and you will go a long way toward preventing the major diseases of our overfed society—coronary heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis, and a host of others.... These precepts constitute the bottom line of what seem to be the far more complicated dietary recommendations of many health organizations and national and international governments—the forty-one “key recommendations” of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines, for example. ... Although you may feel as though advice about nutrition is constantly changing, the basic ideas behind my four precepts have not changed in half a century. And they leave plenty of room for enjoying the pleasures of food.[23]:22

For specific conditions

In addition to dietary recommendations for the general population, there are many specific diets that have primarily been developed to promote better health in specific population groups, such as people with high blood pressure (such as low sodium diets or the more specific DASH diet), or people who are overweight or obese (weight control diets). However, some of them may have more or less evidence for beneficial effects in normal people as well.

Hypertension

A low sodium diet is beneficial for people with high blood pressure. The Cochrane review published in 2008 concluded that a long term (more than 4 weeks) low sodium diet usefully lowers blood pressure, both in people with hypertension (high blood pressure) and in those with normal blood pressure.[24]

The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the NIH, a United States government organization) to control hypertension. A major feature of the plan is limiting intake of sodium,[25] and the diet also generally encourages the consumption of nuts, whole grains, fish, poultry, fruits, and vegetables while lowering the consumption of red meats, sweets, and sugar. It is also "rich in potassium, magnesium, and calcium, as well as protein".

The Mediterranean diet, which includes limiting consumption of red meat and using olive oil in cooking, has also been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes.[26]

Obesity

Most people who are overweight or obese can use dieting in combination with physical exercise to lose weight.

Diets to promote weight loss are divided into four categories: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and very low calorie.[27] A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between the main diet types (low calorie, low carbohydrate, and low fat), with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss in all studies.[27] After two years, all of the diets in the studies that reduced calories resulted in equal weight loss regardless of whether changes in fat or carbohydrate consumption were emphasized.[28]

Gluten-related disorders

Gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale),[29] causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis, and wheat allergy.[30] In these people, the gluten-free diet is the only available treatment.[31][32][33]

Reduced disease risk

There may be a relationship between lifestyle including food consumption and lowering the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. A diet high in fruit and vegetables appears to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and death, but not cancer.[34]

Eating a healthy diet and getting enough exercise can maintain body weight within the normal range and prevent obesity in most people, and thus prevent the chronic diseases and poor outcomes associated with obesity.[35]

Unhealthy diets

The Western pattern diet which is typically eaten by Americans and increasingly adopted by people in the developing world as they leave poverty is unhealthy: it is "rich in red meat, dairy products, processed and artificially sweetened foods, and salt, with minimal intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, and whole grains."[36]

An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer.[37]

The WHO estimates that 2.7 million deaths each year are attributable to a diet low in fruit and vegetables.[37] Globally such diets are estimated to cause about 19% of gastrointestinal cancer, 31% of ischaemic heart disease, and 11% of strokes,[5] thus making it one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide,[38] and the 4th leading risk factor for any disease.[39]

Popular diets

Some publicised diets, often referred to as fad diets, make promises of weight loss or other health advantages such as longer life without backing by solid science; many fad diets are based on highly restrictive or unusual food choices.[23]:296[40] Celebrity endorsements (including celebrity doctors) are frequently associated with such diets, and the individuals who develop and promote these programs often profit considerably.[22]:11–12[41]

Public health

Consumers are generally aware of the elements of a healthy diet, but find nutrition labels and diet advice in popular media confusing.[42]

Fears of high cholesterol were frequently voiced up until the mid-1990s. However, more recent research has shown that the distinction between high- and low-density lipoprotein ('good' and 'bad' cholesterol, respectively) must be addressed when speaking of the potential ill effects of cholesterol. Different types of dietary fat have different effects on blood levels of cholesterol. For example, polyunsaturated fats tend to decrease both types of cholesterol; monounsaturated fats tend to lower LDL and raise HDL; saturated fats tend to either raise HDL, or raise both HDL and LDL;[43][44] and trans fat tend to raise LDL and lower HDL.

Dietary cholesterol is only found in animal products such as meat, eggs, and dairy. The effect of dietary cholesterol on blood cholesterol levels is controversial. Some studies have found a link between cholesterol consumption and serum cholesterol levels.[45] Other studies have not found a link between eating cholesterol and blood levels of cholesterol.[46]

Vending machines in particular have come under fire as being avenues of entry into schools for junk food promoters. However, there is little in the way of regulation and it is difficult for most people to properly analyze the real merits of a company referring to itself as "healthy." Recently, the Committee of Advertising Practice in the United Kingdom launched a proposal to limit media advertising for food and soft drink products high in fat, salt or sugar.[47] The British Heart Foundation released its own government-funded advertisements, labeled "Food4Thought", which were targeted at children and adults to discourage unhealthy habits of consuming junk food.[48]

From a psychological and cultural perspective, a healthier diet may be difficult to achieve for people with poor eating habits.[49] This may be due to tastes acquired in childhood and preferences for sugary, salty and/or fatty foods.[50] In the UK, the chief medical officer of the government recommended in December 2018 that sugar and salt be taxed to discourage consumption.[51]

Other animals

Animals that are kept by humans also benefit from a healthy diet, but the requirements of such diets may be very different from the ideal human diet.[52]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lean, Michael E.J. (2015). "Principles of Human Nutrition". Medicine. 43 (2): 61–65. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.11.009.
  2. ^ World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2004). Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition (PDF) (2. ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 978-9241546126.
  3. ^ Melina, Vesanto; Craig, Winston; Levin, Susan (December 2016). "Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 116 (12): 1970–1980. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2016.09.025. PMID 27886704.
  4. ^ "Food information to consumers - legislation". EU. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
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  6. ^ "WHO | Diet". WHO.
  7. ^ "WHO guideline : sugar consumption recommendation". World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  8. ^ a b c "WHO - Unhealthy diet". who.int.
  9. ^ Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. "Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee." Washington (DC): USDA and US Department of Health and Human Services (2015).
  10. ^ "App. E-3.7: Developing Vegetarian and Mediterranean-style Food Patterns - 2015 Advisory Report - health.gov". health.gov. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
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  12. ^ "American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention" (PDF). Last Revised: 1/11/2012.
  13. ^ a b Vos, Miriam B.; Kaar, Jill L.; Welsh, Jean A.; Van Horn, Linda V.; Feig, Daniel I.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Patel, Mahesh J.; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Johnson, Rachel K. (22 August 2016). "Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children". Circulation. 135 (19): e1017–e1034. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000439. PMC 5365373. PMID 27550974.
  14. ^ Sacks, Frank M.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Creager, Mark A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Stone, Neil J.; Van Horn, Linda V. (15 June 2017). "Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association". Circulation. 136 (3): e1–e23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510. PMID 28620111.
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  16. ^ "Carbohydrates". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07.
  17. ^ "Protein: Moving Closer to Center Stage". 2012-09-18. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  18. ^ "The Bottom Line: Choose a fiber-filled diet, rich in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits". Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  19. ^ "The Bottom Line: Calcium is important. But milk isn't the only, or even best, source". Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  20. ^ "The Nutrition Source Healthy Beverage Guidelines". Retrieved October 27, 2012.
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  29. ^ Biesiekierski JR (2017). "What is gluten?". J Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review). 32 Suppl 1: 78–81. doi:10.1111/jgh.13703. PMID 28244676. Similar proteins to the gliadin found in wheat exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are collectively referred to as “gluten.” Derivatives of these grains such as triticale and malt and other ancient wheat varieties such as spelt and kamut also contain gluten. The gluten found in all of these grains has been identified as the component capable of triggering the immune-mediated disorder, coeliac disease.open access
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