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Haworth, Cross Roads and Stanbury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Haworth, Cross Roads and Stanbury is a civil parish covering the far western hinterland of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 6,566, increasing to 6,994 at the 2011 Census.[1] As its name suggests, it covers Haworth, Cross Roads and Stanbury, with a large moorland area to the west of Stanbury. In total, the civil parish covers 1,737 hectares (4,290 acres).[2]

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  • Addingham: Founding of the Yorkshire Textile Industry

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Addingham was at the forefront of the industrial revolution - especially with regard to the mechanisation of weaving worsted cloth. These cottages in Addingham, known as The Rookery, at first sight don't look unusual. But to the west end a loom shop has been built across them. They were built in 1805 by John Cockshott, a local cotton manufacturer and grocer, who had started to control the local textile trade. He saw the economics of people working together, instead of one cottage with one loom. Here there were eight pairs of looms. Why did Addingham develop and not Ilkley? The answer is simple: The Vavasours sold all their land round here between 1619 and 1621 to individuals, whereas Ilkley was completely under control of one family: The Middletons. Addingham was very protective of its industry. If you moved into the village, you would have had to have found work within 40 days and be interviewed by the Village Overseers, to ensure that you wouldn't be a burden on the village. If they were satisfied, you would have received a settlement document such as this of Henry Battison and his family from Cowple in Bedforshire. George Bland and his family did become a burden to the parish of Addingham and were removed back to Keighley on the 22nd December 1768. Another part of the Overseers job was to look after the poor and orphans. 13 year-old Thomas Mason of Addingham was orphaned and he was apprenticed for the next eight years as a farm labourer to Ellen Spencer. Probably not the best start to your working life! John Cockshott went into partnership with John Cunliffe of Ilkley and built Low Mill in 1787 - the first textile mill in the area - later known as Old End. They successfully spun worsted here. In 1788 Cockshott took part of the new extension at High Mill. Although High Mill pre-dates Low Mill, it was used solely as a corn mill until then. Two other mills were built around the same time: Townhead in 1800 and what we now call the Sawmill in 1802 by Anthony Fentiman for spinning cotton. From the 1850's it was used as a sawmill and for furniture manufacture by William Brear & Sons, which closed in 2000. The mill has just been converted into housing. Other trades associated with textiles grew up in the area. This was a Bleach Mill - it stands between Menston and Burley. Nearly all of the textile processes demanded water - and the soft local water is perfect for washing, scouring and bleach processes - whether from streams, such as those running through Addingham, or harnessed from the moor in millponds like this here. The works closed in 1927. Roads barely existed, and if travelling, especially on the moors, you had to look for waymarkers: Cowper's Cross was probably erected as one. And this one on Middleton Moor gives a general idea of the way to Ripon! There were few bridges to cross the Wharfe as they kept being washed away in floods. However, Ilkley Old Bridge still stands from 1673. Look closely and you can see the mason's marks and the flood levels - this one recalls the flood of 1936. Tired of building bridges at Addingham, you had to use a ferry to cross here, before the suspension bridge was built - even the first of these was washed away! To get across the Wharfe to Denton you would have had to use these stepping stones, before the more modern bridge was built. Your only choice to cross the Wharfe between here and Otley Bridge is by the stepping stones to Askwith at Burley. And it doesn't take much to cover them! There are calls to build a footbridge here. Cloth would have had to have been carried to the main cloth markets in Leeds or Bradford - which started around 7am - a very long journey in those days. To overcome this problem Cockshott built a Piece Hall, somewhere where the weavers could come to trade their cloth, on Main Street in the early 1800's. The ground floor was a shop and the upper floor a cloth warehouse. The Rookery was a success, as was Cockshott's Place, built in 1817, where a loom shop extended over the whole of the top floor. The next project was to build much bigger premises - the Loom Shop on Chapel Street around 1817, which held 62 looms. Although it guaranteed a regular income for workers, the work was hard and the pay paltry. The new machinery did away with the old skills - and many made unemployed joined a movement called the Luddites that aimed at smashing the machines that put them out of work. One such incident took place at Low mill in May 1826 - the Luddites were repelled, but one drowned in a tank of urine! Addingham's population by 1800 had grown to 550 and by 1830 had reached 2,000. Ilkley's by contrast only grew from 426 to 897. But after 1840 this would change. The reason why? Water.

References

  1. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Haworth, Cross Roads and Stanbury Parish (1170210963)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  2. ^ "ONS Geography Linked Data | Haworth, Cross Roads and Stanbury". statistics.data.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 November 2018.

External links


This page was last edited on 19 November 2018, at 21:12
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