To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Canada's early fur trade was largely built on the fashion for beaver hats in Europe, particularly top hats. The steps in manufacturing hats are illustrated in this image from 1858.
Canada's early fur trade was largely built on the fashion for beaver hats in Europe, particularly top hats. The steps in manufacturing hats are illustrated in this image from 1858.
Hat-maker making a felt hat
Hat-maker making a felt hat

Hat-making or millinery is the design, manufacture and sale of hats and head-wear.[1] A person engaged in this trade is called a milliner or hatter.

Millinery is sold to women, men and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats.[2] Historically, milliners, typically women shop-keepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men, women, and children, and sold these garments in their millinery shop. More recently, the term milliner is more often used to describe a person who designs, makes, sells or trims hats primarily for a women clientele. The origin of the term is probably the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of Milan or one who deals in items from Milan,[3] once known for setting the fashion standards in Europe.[4]


Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events. They can be part of uniforms or worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, fedora, cowboy hat, and cocktail hat.

Women's hats

A great variety of objects are or formerly were used as trimmings on women's fashionable hats: see Trim (sewing).

In the early 1900s, feathers, wings, and whole stuffed birds were used as hat trimmings.[5] Plume hunting was so popular that the indiscriminate shooting of birds in search for the snowy egret contributed to the extinction of the Carolina parakeet.[5] Excessive plume hunting like this led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the passage of the Lacey Act of 1900.[6]

This link, with references to 1880s newspaper issues, describes trims on fashionable hats as including bird feathers, stuffed birds, and other small animals, fruit, flowers, ribbons, and lace. In 1889 in London and Paris, over 8,000 women were employed in millinery, and in 1900 in New York, some 83,000 people, mostly women, were employed in millinery. It also described a fashion for stuffed kittens' heads as hat ornaments in or around 1883 in Paris (France), often posed looking out from among foliage and feathers, to the point where some people were reported to breed kittens for the millinery trade.[7]

Notable hatters and milliners

This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on hat-making and millinery.



The Millinery Shop by Edgar Degas
The Millinery Shop by Edgar Degas

See also


  1. ^ "Millinery as a Trade for Women". Monthly Review of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 3 (5): 32–38. November 1916. JSTOR 41823177.
  2. ^ "Milliner". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 7 June 2012. Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th ed. (1999), also limits millinery to women's hats.
  3. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition
  4. ^ "Milan" (PDF). National Journal of Education. 9 (23): 359. 5 June 1879 – via JSTOR.
  5. ^ a b Saikku, Mikko (Autumn 1990). "The Extinction of the Carolina Parakeet". Environmental History Review. 14 (3): 9. JSTOR 3984724.
  6. ^ "William L. Finley". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 6 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  8. ^ Bowler hat makes a comeback Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 June 2012
  9. ^ Reynolds, William and Rich Rand (1995) The Cowboy Hat book. Pg 8 ISBN 0-87905-656-8
  10. ^ Jones, Stephen & Cullen, Oriole (editor) (2009). Hats: An Anthology. V&A Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85177-557-6.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Steele, Valerie (2010). The Berg Companion to Fashion. Berg. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-1847885920. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  12. ^ "John Boyd". The FMD -
  13. ^ "Mr. John, 91, Hat Designer for Stars and Society". 29 June 1993.
  14. ^ Biography of Stephen Jones on the V&A Museum website, accessed 1 April 2009
  15. ^ Hillier, Bevis (13 October 1985). "Hat Trick". LA Times. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  16. ^ Jess Cartner-Morley (16 April 2002). "Who wants to be a milliner". The Guardian. He has created hats to accompany the catwalk collections of Alexander McQueen and Valentino, has been named British Accessory Designer of the Year five times, and was the first milliner in 80 years to be invited by French fashion's governing body, the Chambre Syndicale, to take part in the Parisian haute couture shows

External links

This page was last edited on 2 May 2020, at 11:42
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.