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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harry E. Hull
Harry E. Hull

Harry Edward Hull (March 12, 1864 – January 16, 1938) was a five-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 2nd congressional district, and Commissioner General of Immigration in the Coolidge and Hoover administrations.

Born near Belvidere, New York, Hull moved with his parents to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in 1873. He attended the grammar and high schools. He was employed as a clerk and bookkeeper for a grain company. He moved to Palo, Iowa, in 1883, and to Williamsburg, Iowa, in 1884 and engaged in the grain business. He also engaged in the manufacture of brick and tile. He was president of the Williamsburg Telephone Co.. He served as one of Williamsburg's aldermen from 1887 to 1889, as its mayor from 1889 to 1901, and as its postmaster from 1901 to 1914. He also served as president of the Williamsburg Fair Association from 1900 to 1915. He also has a son, Harris B. Hull.

In 1914, Hull was elected as a Republican to represent Iowa's 2nd congressional district in the U.S. House, defeating Democrat W.J. McDonald.[1] He served in the Sixty-fourth Congress and in the four succeeding Congresses. He was one of only fifty representatives who voted against the resolution authorizing the United States' entry into World War I,[2] and one of the few of those fifty to stave off challengers in the wartime primary and general elections in 1918.[3]

In May 1917, during Hull's second term, his wife, Mary Louise Harris Hull, died when she mistook poison tablets for a headache remedy.[4]

When seeking renomination in 1924, he was defeated in the Republican primary by Judge F. Dickinson Letts.[5] In all, he served from March 4, 1915 to March 3, 1925.

On May 15, 1925, he was appointed by President Calvin Coolidge as Commissioner General of Immigration[6] and served in that position until 1933, when he retired.

He continued to reside in Washington, D.C., until his death there on January 16, 1938. He was interred in Oak Hill Cemetery in Williamsburg.

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  • ✪ Why Black Holes Could Delete The Universe – The Information Paradox
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Transcription

Black holes are the most powerful things in the universe, strong enough to rip whole stars into atoms sized pieces While, this is scary enough. They have an even more powerful and dark property: they might delete the universe itself [music] Black holes in a nutshell A black hole appears when an extraordinary amount of matter is concentrated in a tiny space At their center gravity is almost infinitely strong and whatever gets too close is ripped into its elementary particles Not even light can escape black holes and so we perceive them as spheres of blackness If you were to fall into a black hole nothing bad would happen until well after you crossed its outer border: the event horizon You can imagine this as swimming in a river that ends in an enormous waterfall As you float along, imperceptibly the stream gets faster and faster, even if you can't see the waterfall yet You could swim to safety until, without even noticing it, you cross the point of no return No matter how fast you try to swim now, the stream will pull you towards certain death Nothing can escape a black hole waterfall once it gets too close This border completely separates black holes from the rest of the universe: we can't access them unless we're willing to never return So there's no way of telling what's really going on inside black holes But we have a few ideas about what's going on right at their very edges Black holes radiate their mass away like a hot pot on a stove losing its water as steam This is called hawking radiation Black holes constantly lose an extremely tiny amount of their mass a process that's unbelievably slow it will take a black hole with a mass of our sun 10,000 billion billion billion billion billion billion years to lose 0.0000001% of its mass This is happening constantly and unstoppably and as it goes on it speeds up more and more In the far far future when the last star in the universe has been dead for trillions of years Black holes will become tinier and tinier until they evaporate and disappear leaving behind just a bit of radiation But this is a problem because in the process of disappearing black holes might delete something fundamental: information 2 - what is information? Information is nothing tangible. It's typically understood as a property of the arrangement of particles. What does this mean? Imagine a bunch of carbon atoms. Arrange them in a certain way and you get coal Arrange them in a different way, and you get a diamond The atoms are the same what changes is the information. If we make this more complex and add in a few more atoms We get a banana Change the arrangement of the atoms and we get a squirrel the basic building blocks of everything in the universe Are the same and don't care if they're part of a bird or a rock or a cup of coffee Without information everything in the universe would be the same According to the theory of quantum mechanics information is indestructible It might change shape But it can never be lost: for example if you burn a piece of paper you get ash That ash will never become paper again But if you were able to carefully collect every single carbon atom in the ash and measured the exact properties of the smoke and heat Radiating from the fire you could in theory reconstruct the paper The information of the paper is still in the universe. It's not lost It's just hard to read If you could somehow measure Every single atom and particle and wave of radiation in the universe you could see and track every bit of information there is hypothetically you could see the entire history of the universe right back to the Big Bang And here black holes trip us up Information tells us how things are different from each other and what used to be what Black holes do the opposite: they take different things and make them the same. They destroy information This creates the information paradox, and this is a serious problem The information paradox It's fundamental for all our laws of physics that information can never be lost Existing not existing without information Everything is relative When it comes to our understanding of reality we need absolute How could we solve this paradox? There are a few possibilities 1) Information is lost Irretrievably and forever This means we have to nix all our laws of physics throwing out a lot of stuff That's worked very well so far and to start from scratch What those new laws of physics would look like or what that means for us nobody knows This is a little frightening, but also kind of exciting 2) Information is hidden Maybe a little part of the black hole splits off and forms a baby universe The information would be transferred into this new weird place where we could never observe or interact with it But technically it would not be lost It's like having a broken hard drive with all your family photos that you could never access Sure, it's nice that they've not been deleted, but also not very helpful Or maybe black holes don't disappear completely after the end of their life cycles, but a little piece is left an information diamond like a clown car filled with an infinite amount of information clowns But there's a third option Information is safe after all, not lost or hidden Perhaps we've just been looking at this whole thing the wrong way We know that black holes trap information and might delete it later, but we never thought about what they do with it in the meantime Where do black holes store their information? Cosmic housekeeping Let's create a black hole with dirty laundry First, we fill up a room with laundry baskets: the more laundry you want to store, the more baskets you put in the room But at some point every single basket is full and the room is completely stacked, not a single extra sock fits in The room is at maximum capacity but if we still squeeze the sock in with a lot of energy and violence the room collapses in on itself and forms a black hole But the capacity of the room itself has not changed fitting in more stuff for information is still impossible So what happens if we throw more laundry into it? The room itself gets a little bit bigger to make space for the new information It turns out a black hole grows its surface by a tiny pixel for each bit of information we throw into it In a nutshell, more information means more surface area The information gets painted on the surface similar to what happens when we throw a stone into a pond After the stone sinks to the bottom we can't see it anymore But we can tell that something went in from the ripples on the surface of the pond Even the smallest black hole can store more information on its surface than all the data ever produced in human history They do this by storing information in a type of pixel that is unbelievably tiny Black Holes are the ultimate hard drive This is a bit like taking a paper bag and turning it into an e-book, two things that look completely different But their content is the same, it's just encoded and memorized in another way Black holes swallowing stars and planets is a bit like transferring a whole library onto an e-reader This solution is called the holographic principle, but if it's correct then everything we thought we knew about the universe is wrong The universe is a hologram if Information is actually stored on the boundary of a black hole the Hawking radiation has a chance of learning about the information Encoded there and can carry it away So information is not lost when black holes fade away And we do not need to redo physics: the information paradox is resolved but we still have to change our understanding of reality in a fundamental way If everything that falls into the black hole is stored on its event horizon that basically means that three-dimensional stuff is encoded on a flat surface We have a name for this: a hologram A hologram is like a 3D photo, a flat piece of plastic that encodes a three-dimensional image A black hole is like a hologram because everything inside it is encoded on its event horizon A person inside a black hole will experience their usual three-dimensional life but for us on the outside they are flattened images on the surface of the black hole The consequence of this is counterintuitive, but stay with us for a moment Black holes are very extreme objects, but they're still bound to the same rules as everything else so if this crazy duality between 2D and 3D works for black holes then it might work for the whole universe and you in it Since a person inside a black hole would not realize that they're encoded on a flat surface We might share the same fate: you really might be stretched over a flat screen at the end of the universe The science behind this is complicated and really weird, with toy universes to play with, string theory and a lot of mass We'll talk about this more in another video Regardless of what the true nature of the universe really is we just know that it's strange and Complicated and we have to do a lot more physics to understand it But black holes might be key to understanding the nature of reality itself This video was supported by the swiss national science foundation and realized with the scientific advice of Alessandro Sfondrini

References

  1. ^ "Second is Republican," Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, 1914-11-04 at p. 6.
  2. ^ "House Votes for War," Iowa City Citizen, 1917-04-06 at p.1.
  3. ^ "Election Returns are Mixed - Missouri seems Republican - Clark is probably defeated," Iowa City Citizen, 1918-11-06 at p.5.
  4. ^ "Mrs. Harry Hull to be Buried in Williamsburg," Iowa City Citizen, 1917-05-23, at p.6.
  5. ^ "Brookhart has 30,000 Majority,' Oelwein Daily Register, 1924-06-04, at p. 1.
  6. ^ "Mr. Coolidge's Week," Time Magazine, 1925-05-25.
  • United States Congress. "Harry E. Hull (id: H000941)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Henry Vollmer
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Iowa's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1915 - March 3, 1925
Succeeded by
F. Dickinson Letts

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

This page was last edited on 15 May 2019, at 15:25
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