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Harold R. Collier

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harold R. Collier
Harold R. Collier 93rd Congress 1973.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 6th district
In office
January 3, 1973 – January 3, 1975
Preceded byGeorge W. Collins
Succeeded byHenry Hyde
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 10th district
In office
January 3, 1957 – January 3, 1973
Preceded byRichard W. Hoffman
Succeeded bySamuel H. Young
Personal details
Born(1915-12-12)December 12, 1915
Lansing, Michigan
DiedJanuary 17, 2006(2006-01-17) (aged 90)
West Palm Beach, Florida
Political partyRepublican

Harold Reginald Collier (December 12, 1915 – January 17, 2006) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Illinois.

Collier was born and raised in Lansing, Michigan. He attended and graduated from Morton College in Cicero, Illinois. After earning his degree, he was hired by the publishing company that created Life Magazine and worked in the editorial department. In 1941, he began what would be a ten-year career as a marketing executive for Match Corporation of America. In 1951, he was elected to the Berwyn, Illinois city council and also began a new career as public relations director for McAlear Manufacturing.

In 1952, Collier was an unsuccessful candidate for Illinois Secretary of State. In 1953, he was elected as Townsip Supervisor of Berwyn Township. In 1957, Collier won an election for a seat in Congress. He was a longtime member of the House Ways and Means Committee. A fiscal conservative, he was a strong advocate of a balanced budget. Collier was admired by colleagues in both parties, as he was excellent at finding compromise ground between two sides on issues.

In 1975, Collier retired from Congress. He moved to West Palm Beach, Florida, where he died on January 17, 2006.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Music Theory Of Jacob Collier
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Transcription

hey, welcome to 12tone! if you're the sort of person who watches my videos, you probably already know who Jacob Collier is, but just in case, he's a Grammy-winning singer, songwriter, arranger, and multi-instrumentalist who rose to fame for his intricate one-man arrangements of popular songs on YouTube. but he's also a really talented theorist who's done some awesome videos about the ideas behind his work. plus he's five years younger than me and I'm totally not jealous. anyway, today I want to take a closer look at one idea that seems to be pretty central to his conceptions about harmony: the duality between fifths and fourths. that is, his idea that perfect 5ths are effectively major, whereas perfect 4ths are minor. Jacob often justifies this by comparison to the circle of 5ths. we've covered this before, but basically, it's a mnemonic device for remembering how key signatures work. we start at the top with C major, whose key signature is empty, then we go clockwise around the circle, moving up a perfect fifth every time, so G, D, A, and so on, until we get back around to Bb, F, and finally C, completing the circle. we can also move counter-clockwise, going down a perfect 5th at a time, which is equivalent to going up a perfect 4th. they're the same thing, just different directions. so what does this give us? well, if we look at the various major scales associated with these notes, we see that going one step clockwise around the circle means raising one note in the scale, so going from A major (bang) to E major (bang) means taking this D natural and making it sharp. in a sense, then, moving to a key whose root is a perfect fifth higher does result in a brighter tonality, because the set of notes we can use has shifted slightly upwards. and going the other way round the circle works similarly: going from E major back to A major means lowering the D# to D natural, darkening the overall pitch collection. of course, all of this is relative: there is no objectively brightest key. that's why it's a circle: you can keep rising or falling forever, depending on which way you want to go. but Jacob expands this idea far past simple key changes. he also applies it to the construction of individual chords, so that this (bang) would sound more bright and major than this (bang) even though I used the same notes both times. and here is where I want to focus, because Jacob isn't just pulling this out of thin air. you may have noticed at the beginning that I described his theory as "duality", and that was a very deliberate choice. I've never heard Jacob use that specific word to describe it, but his ideas trace their roots back to one of the most controversial ideas of the 19th century: Harmonic dualism. ok, maybe not the most controversial, but if we traveled back in time to around the 1860s and 70s, you'd see a battle raging among the theorist crowd between monism and dualism, because we theorists are very serious people who only fight about very important things. to quickly summarize the dispute, monism is the idea that the major triad is king, and the minor triad is just a corruption or shadow of it, whereas dualism puts both on equal footing. that's a one-sentence explanation of a decades-long argument, so it's admittedly missing a little of the nuance, but monism isn't really relevant here so let's dive in. probably the first important name is the German theorist Moritz Hauptmann, who published The Nature of Harmony and Metre in 1853. in it, he broke the notes of a triad up into three different functions which he called "moments": each chord consists of the unity, the duality, and the union, which are defined by their relations to each other. if you play the unity and duality at the same time, you get a perfect fifth, while the unity and union make a major 3rd. the unity is effectively the root of the chord, in that it participates in both these relationships, but it doesn't have to actually be the root in the classic sense of the word. in a major chord, it is: if we take A as our unity, then we can have E as the duality a perfect fifth up and C# as the union in between. but if we have A minor, then it's no longer really an A chord at all: the only note that's part of both a perfect fifth and a major third is E, so that becomes our unity even though it's actually the fifth of the chord. this is where the comparison to Jacob's theory comes from: in a major chord, the duality is a perfect 5th above the unity, whereas in a minor one the duality is a perfect 5th down, or a perfect 4th up. in effect, Hauptmann believed that the minor triad was just like the major one, but upside-down. this idea is at the heart of the dualist philosophy, but it received some significant pushback. perhaps one of the most famous critics was Hermann von Helmholtz, who argued that the minor triad couldn't be equivalent to the major one, because its overtones were significantly messier. you see, Hauptmann had been assuming that going up and going down were the same thing, but in a real, acoustic sense, they're not. when you play a note, you're creating a soundwave with a specific frequency, but you're also creating what are called overtones, which are just all the multiples of that frequency. so the A I just played was 220 hertz, or cycles per second, but there were also shades of 440 hertz, 660, 880, and so on, forever. these overtones are real acoustic phenomena, and one of the reasons a major triad sounds so pleasant is that the base frequencies of the notes line up to create a fairly simple overtone series. but there's no downward equivalent, at least not a real one. plenty of people, including Helmholtz, have theorized about a sort of undertone series, where 220 hertz would create 110, 73, 55, and so on, but it's not an actual thing that actually happens when you play the note on an actual instrument. it's just an idea, and while ideas are great, they're not the same as sounds, so Helmholtz argued that Hauptmann's symmetries, while lovely in concept, fell apart in the harsh realities of practice. but that wasn't the end for dualism. its next advocate was Arthur von Oettingen, who was actually a physicist by training. Oettingen's approach was based on two ideas he called "phonicity" and "tonicity". the phonicity of an interval or chord has to do with which overtones all the notes share, so if we have, say, 220 and 330 hertz, the lowest note they both create is 660 hertz, which is called their phonic overtone. tonicity, on the other hand, is about which fundamental note generates all the others as overtones, so if we again take 220 and 330, we find they're both overtones of 110 hertz, which we call the tonic fundamental. in a major triad, the tonic fundamental is consonant: that is, it's a note that's already part of the chord. with A major, for instance, it's a low A. however, the phonic overtone isn't: it's a G#, which is a whole new note. A minor, on the other hand, has a phonic overtone of E, which is in the chord, re-establishing a real symmetry between the two and reinforcing Hauptmann's idea that the actual root of a minor triad is its fifth. it's worth noting that this is based, in part, on Helmholtz's own work, combining it with Hauptmann's models in order to rescue them from Helmholtz's attack, because sometimes music theory is just wonderfully petty. Oettingen also developed the idea of laying notes out on a grid, like this, in order to build chords. here, the rows represent movement by perfect fifth, and the columns go by major third. he claimed that all proper triads could be found along diagonals like this one, connecting notes a minor third apart. the only difference is that major triads also include the note above the line, while minor triads use the one below instead. if you've heard me talk about Neo-Riemannian theory before, this may look familiar: it's a tonnetz. normally those are rotated a bit so the triangles are equilateral, but structurally it's the exact same thing. if you don't know what that is, don't worry, it's not that important right now, I just needed a segue to talk about our last and most famous dualist, Hugo Riemann. Riemann further formalized these dualist relationships by developing a set of transformations that could take you from one chord to another. the first of these are Schritte, or step transformations, which slide the chord up or down to a new root without changing the quality. of particular note is the Quintschritt transformation, which moves to a chord whose root is your starting chord's duality, to borrow Hauptmann's terms, so like from A major to E major or A minor to D minor. the second transformation is the Wechsel, or change transformation, which flips the chord across its unity, changing it from major to minor or vice versa. most notable of these is the Terzwechsel, which moves it to the chord's union, then flips it, so like A major to F# minor or vice versa. these two relationships formed the basis of Riemann's theories of functional harmony, but we've talked a lot about that elsewhere and this video is getting long enough already, so let's get back to Jacob Collier. what does all of this say about Jacob's theory that fifths are major and fourths are minor? is he right? well, that's where this all kinda falls apart, because in music theory, the ideas of right and wrong are sorta meaningless. it's all just expert interpretation, and Jacob's an expert, so in a sense he's inherently right, even if his ideas don't really match mine, or Helmholtz's, or anyone else's. thinking about harmony the way he does has allowed him to make some awesome songs, and if his models help you write or understand music better, that's what matters. that's all any of us are trying to do, and I'd say Jacob's doing it really well. anyway, thanks for watching, and thanks to our Patreon patrons for supporting us and making these videos possible. if you want to help out, and get some sweet perks like sneak peeks of upcoming episodes, there's a link to our Patreon on screen now. you can also join our mailing list to find out about new episodes, like, share, comment, subscribe, and above all, keep on rockin'.

External links

  • United States Congress. "Harold R. Collier (id: C000629)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Richard W. Hoffman
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 10th congressional district

1957–1973
Succeeded by
Samuel H. Young
Preceded by
George W. Collins
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 6th congressional district

1973–1975
Succeeded by
Henry Hyde



This page was last edited on 9 May 2019, at 09:28
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