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Harley Quinn
The classic and modern iterations of Harley Quinn.
Art by Terry Dodson and Rachel Dodson.
Publication information
PublisherDC Comics
First appearanceBatman: The Animated Series
"Joker's Favor" (September 11, 1992)
First comic appearanceThe Batman Adventures #12 (September 1993, non-canon)
Batman: Harley Quinn #1 (October 1999, canon)
Created byPaul Dini (writer)
Bruce Timm (artist)
In-story information
Alter egoDr. Harleen Frances Quinzel[1][2]
Place of originBrooklyn / Gotham City
Team affiliationsSuicide Squad
Gotham City Sirens
Gang of Harleys
Secret Six
Justice League of Anarchy
Batman family[3]
Poison Ivy
Bud and Lou
Janet Mitchell
The Carpenter
Notable aliasesHolly Chance[4]
Dr. Jessica Seaborn[4]
  • Trained psychologist
  • Enhanced strength, stamina and agility
  • Toxic immunity
  • Skilled gymnast and acrobat
  • Utilizes weaponized props and equipment

Harley Quinn (Dr. Harleen Frances Quinzel) is an anti-hero and reformed supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. She was created by Paul Dini and Bruce Timm for Batman: The Animated Series as a henchwoman for the Joker, and debuted in its 22nd episode, "Joker's Favor", on September 11, 1992. While intended to appear in one episode, Quinn became a recurring character within the DC Animated Universe (DCAU) as the Joker's sidekick and love interest, and was adapted into DC Comics' canon seven years later, beginning with the one-shot Batman: Harley Quinn #1 (October 1999). Quinn's origin story features her as a former psychologist at Gotham City's Arkham Asylum who was manipulated by and fell in love with the Joker, her patient, eventually becoming his accomplice and lover. The character's alias is a play on the stock character Harlequin from the 16th-century Italian theater commedia dell'arte.

Following her introduction to the comics in 1999, Harley Quinn was depicted as the sidekick and lover of the Joker as well as the criminal associate and best friend of Poison Ivy. Later stories depicted Quinn as an independent supervillain who has left her abusive and codependent relationship with the Joker behind, beginning with the publication of her ongoing series, Harley Quinn. After years of scarce appearances in comics, Quinn returned in a leading role in 2009 with the Gotham City Sirens series, as part of an unstable alliance with Poison Ivy and Catwoman. In 2011, DC's line-wide reboot The New 52 reintroduced Quinn in the relaunched Suicide Squad title, which changed the character's personality, design, and origin, replacing her original jester costume with a revealing ensemble and depicting her to be darker than her earlier counterpart. The character took a lighthearted and humorous direction with her second ongoing series in 2013, written by Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti, which features the character moving to her hometown of Brooklyn and starting her own life in Coney Island. The character has since been depicted as an antihero independent of the Joker and a recurring core member of the Suicide Squad, with Poison Ivy becoming her primary romantic interest.[5] In 2021, DC's line-wide Infinite Frontier relaunch brought Quinn back to Gotham City and reestablished her as a superhero seeking redemption for her past actions.

Harley Quinn's abilities include expert gymnastic skills, proficiency in weapons and hand-to-hand combat, complete unpredictability, immunity to toxins, and enhanced strength, agility, and durability. Quinn often wields clown-themed gag weapons, with an oversized mallet being her signature weapon. Additionally, she has a pair of pet hyenas, Bud and Lou, who sometimes serve as her attack dogs.

Harley Quinn has become one of DC Comics' most popular and profitable characters and has been featured in many of DC's comic books and adapted in various other media and merchandise. DC Comics Publisher Jim Lee considers Harley Quinn the fourth pillar of DC Comics' publishing line, behind Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman.

Originally voiced by Arleen Sorkin in the DC Animated Universe, she has since appeared in many other DC projects voiced by actresses such as Tara Strong, Hynden Walch, Laura Bailey, Jenny Slate, Melissa Rauch, Laura Post, and Kaley Cuoco; the latter provided the character's voice in the 2019 animated series Harley Quinn. Mia Sara portrayed the character in the 2002 television series Birds of Prey. Harley Quinn made her live-action cinematic debut in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU) film Suicide Squad (2016), where she was portrayed by Margot Robbie. Robbie reprised her role in Birds of Prey (2020) and The Suicide Squad (2021), with elements of her portrayal's design consequentially incorporated into comics. Lady Gaga will portray the character in Joker: Folie à Deux (2024).

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Harley Quinn is not very smart.
  • Harley Quinn vs Poison Ivy | Batman and Harley Quinn



Creation and development

Harley Quinn as she appears in the DC Animated Universe, art by Bruce Timm.

Harley Quinn was created by Paul Dini and Bruce Timm for the 1992 Batman: The Animated Series episode entitled "Joker's Favor" while Dini was writing the episode.[6] Initially written as an animated equivalent of a walk-on role, Harley Quinn was intended to appear in just one episode. With this, her origin was not supposed to be more than it was, making her popularity unexpected and a surprise success.[7][8] As Dini was putting together the story for the episode, he wanted to introduce a foil for the supervillain the Joker that would emphasize the Joker's comic book personality traits: funny, scary, and egotistical.[9][10] He then thought of giving Joker a henchwoman, inspired by the molls of the 1960s live-action Batman series,[8][11][12] and then decided she would be a "funny counterpart to the Joker to maybe work up a little Punch and Judy attitude between them";[9] Dini stated, "[...] she could crack a joke and the henchmen would laugh, and the Joker would kind of glare at her".[13] In 1991, after seeing his college friend Arleen Sorkin play a jester in a dream sequence in the soap opera Days of Our Lives, Dini decided to have Sorkin voice her.[9][12] Dini then based Harley Quinn on Sorkin, incorporating aspects such as her mannerisms and "very snappy, wisecracking, bubbly blonde" personality.[13][10][9] In recording Harley Quinn's voice, Sorkin spoke in her normal New York accent while putting in a "little Yiddish sound", since Dini made the character Jewish, another aspect of the character borrowed from Sorkin;[12][14][15][16] Dini described her voice for the character as having "a snappy blonde but also kind of a bad girl": "a little bit of Adelaide from Guys and Dolls, a little bit of Judy Holliday", and "a lot of Arleen", stating that it sounded "very close" to Sorkin's voice.[17]

External media
image icon Paul Dini's original design for Harley Quinn, a "crazy blond character in a miniskirt" based on actress Barbara Eden and "1940s screwballs" such as Betty Hutton, Gloria Grahame, and Claudette Colbert.[13][18]
video icon The dream sequence from Days of Our Lives in which Arleen Sorkin plays a jester, which served as inspiration for the character's creation. Dini came across the scene while watching a VHS tape of Sorkin's "favorite Days moments", which he had received from her.[9][12]

Dini had several names in mind while naming the character, such as Columbine, and eventually settled on the name "Harley Quinn".[19] Dini chose the name for the character to be in line with other Batman characters's names being puns, and also because he thought "Harley was a fun name for a girl".[17][13] The name Harley Quinn is a play on Harlequin, a stock character from the sixteenth-century Italian physical comedy theater commedia dell'arte.[8][20]

In designing the character, Timm did a "simplified supervillain version" of traditional Harlequin gear; from the commedia dell'arte original, he took the jester hat, ruffled collar, diamond pattern, and domino mask and put them on a red-and-black bodysuit, on which the diamonds were strategically placed for easier animation.[8][15] Timm took Harley Quinn's red and black color scheme from the Golden Age comic book character Daredevil.[8] Dini had previously made a rough design for the character, which Timm improved on.[12]

Expanded role

"Eventually each of the directors wanted to do a Harley episode, so the character began to appear in stories without the Joker. Over the years she allied herself with best gal pal Poison Ivy for occasional romps through Gotham and has even succeeded in giving Batman a hard time on her own. We now look upon Harley as our series' wild card, capable of showing up anytime to bedevil our heroes with her screwball antics".

Paul Dini[10]

After seeing Harley Quinn in the rough cut of "Joker's Favor", the producers of Batman: The Animated Series, which include Dini and Timm, were impressed with the result, with Dini wanting to bring the character back for more episodes.[21][8] Timm and another producer, Alan Burnett, were initially reluctant of this and thought that giving Joker a girlfriend "played more towards his comedic side" and would "humanize him too much", which contrasted their vision for Joker as a character who is "as serious a threat as possible to Batman".[21][8] Nevertheless, months after "Joker's Favor", Harley made a second appearance on the show in the episode "The Laughing Fish" and became the Joker's love interest.[8] Harley Quinn gained popularity with fans of The Animated Series, with the character being featured more on the show and eventually starring in her own episodes, such as 1993's "Harley and Ivy", which introduced a friendship between her and fellow supervillain Poison Ivy, and 1994's "Harlequinade" and "Harley's Holiday", which explored her life without the Joker.[22][23][24] Harley Quinn then became a recurring character in the DC Animated Universe, appearing in The Animated Series sequel The New Batman Adventures, the direct-to-video film Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker, and in non-Batman animation such as Superman: The Animated Series, Static Shock, and Justice League. In February 1994, she made her first appearance in a video game in The Adventures of Batman and Robin, an action platformer based on Batman: The Animated Series.[25][26]

Transition to comic books

"Tango with Evil" by Alex Ross, from the cover of Harley's canonical debut Batman: Harley Quinn. Widely described as iconic, the artwork depicts Harley dancing with a tuxedo-clad Joker and was later recreated in the 2016 film Suicide Squad.[27][21][28][29][30][31]

Because of her popularity, Harley Quinn was adapted into DC's comic books.[32] In September 1993, a year following Harley Quinn's first appearance in Batman: The Animated Series, the character made her comic book debut in the 12th issue of The Batman Adventures, a series set in the universe of The Animated Series, and became a regular character.[5][6] In 1997, she appeared in the story Batman: Thrillkiller, released under Elseworlds, a DC Comics imprint that published out-of-continuity alternate reality stories, as Hayley Fitzpatrick.[5] In 1999, she became a canonical character with the release of Batman: Harley Quinn.[5]

Origin story

"Bruce and I [...] were talking about what if there was some sort of surprise to her origin? What if she's not just a hench girl? We came up with the idea that she had been a doctor at Arkham Asylum and the Joker had gotten into her head and worked her into being his follower. ...Then we thought, what if Harley's in the role of the long-suffering girlfriend?"

Paul Dini about the creation of Mad Love[13]

In February 1994, the one-shot The Batman Adventures: Mad Love recounting Harley's origin was released. Written by Dini and drawn by Timm, the story marks their first comic book collaboration.[21] Mad Love introduces Harley Quinn as a former psychologist named Harleen Quinzel who fell in love with the Joker during her internship at Gotham City's Arkham Asylum and details her transformation into the Joker's villainous accomplice Harley Quinn, as well as the Joker's lack of respect for Harley.[21][23][33][34] Widely considered the definitive Harley Quinn story,[35][36][37] Mad Love added dimensions to the character, with Dini introducing Harley Quinn's motivations as well as establishing her as a tragic and sympathetic figure.[38][39][40][41][42] The story received wide praise and won the Eisner and Harvey awards for Best Single Issue in the same year and was later adapted into an episode of the same name in The New Batman Adventures in 1999.[43][44][24]

Name origin

Mad Love establishes Harley Quinn's full name to be Harleen Frances Quinzel. "Harleen Frances" was taken from Sorkin's first and middle name, Arleen Frances, while "Quinzel" came from one of Dini's former Emerson College instructors, who was surnamed Quenzel.[13]

Introduction to mainstream DC continuity

Harley Quinn was adapted into the mainstream DC Universe with the 1999 one-shot graphic novel Batman: Harley Quinn, written by Dini and illustrated by Yvel Guichet,[45] which put her origin in the middle of the Batman: No Man's Land story line.[46] Dini changed Harley and the Joker's relationship to be darker to match the Joker's character in the comics; in the story, the Joker attempts to kill Harley at the first opportunity. Harley's immunity to toxins and enhanced strength and agility, which were gained from a special formula created by Poison Ivy, were carried over from Batman: The Animated Series, with Dini stating that they would give her a sort of "physical edge" over Batman and other heroes.[21][45]

First ongoing series

"[The series] is an interesting assignment because the main character is a) insane and b) a criminal, and both of these things are pretty essential to the character, so we don't want to get rid of either of them. [...] [We] hammered out a direction for the book which [...] will establish a motivation and agenda for Harley. Depending on the storyline, she will be on the side of the angels sometimes, and on the side of the demons and devils on others. Like most great crime characters, she's not concerned with the law. What concerns her is something totally different. What that is will be revealed as the first half dozen issues progress".

Karl Kesel, 2000[47]

While pursuing new assignments at DC Comics' offices in New York City, Karl Kesel was approached by former DC editor Matt Idelson to create a pitch for Harley Quinn's first ongoing series, which Kesel accepted, being a fan of the character after having read Mad Love.[21] Kesel chose Terry Dodson as the artist for the series, whose art Kesel thought complemented the character's cartoonish roots and worldview.[21][48] Kesel called Dodson and asked him if he was interested on working on the comic, to which Dodson agreed, and the two worked for a month on their proposal for the series, which was to make a comic about "love gone horribly, terribly wrong".[48][21] The proposal was accepted by DC Comics, and the pair began work on the series, with Kesel and Dodson both being involved in the storytelling, and Dodson bringing in his wife, Rachel Dodson, to ink.[21] Kesel's run on the series began being published in December 2000, and was about Harley Quinn leaving the Joker and becoming a solo criminal, alongside a supporting cast of henchmen named the Quinntets.[21] Because of underwhelming sales, his 25-issue run ended in December 2002, and DC decided to change the creative team; the series was given to writer A.J. Lieberman and artists Mike Huddleston and Troy Nixey by Idelson, and took on a grittier and darker direction, contrasting Kesel's run.[49] The decision renewed interest in the character, but the sales remained lackluster and the series was cancelled in 2003.[49][12]

Gotham City Sirens

After years of scarce appearances in comics, Harley Quinn resurfaced in a leading role in July 2009 with Gotham City Sirens, a team-up title created by Dini.[50][5][12] The series brought together Batman's most popular female villains, Harley Quinn, Catwoman, and Poison Ivy, in an unstable alliance.[51][52][53] The series also expanded on Harley Quinn's background and early life; in Gotham City Sirens #7, Dini established the character's hometown being Brooklyn, based on her accent and also introduced her dysfunctional family, with her swindling father being described as the main reason for her pursuing psychology.[54][55][56]

The first several issues of Gotham City Sirens were written by Dini and illustrated by Guillem March. Other creatives who worked for the series include writers Tony Bedard and Peter Calloway, and artists David López, Andres Guinaldo, Peter Nguyen, Jeremy Haun, and Ramon Bachs.[52] The series was cancelled in August 2011 for The New 52, DC Comics' relaunch of their entire comic line.[53]

The New 52

Suicide Squad

"One thing that we're trying to show with her, and I don't think it gets played with enough with Harley, is here's a woman who was a very intelligent and very manipulative doctor. We're trying to play up that quality. She is crazy, but there is something behind the madness. In the new DCU maybe everyone doesn't get shipped off to Arkham Asylum. Some people may have to do hard time and get shipped off to Belle Reve [the prison the Suicide Squad operates out of], and her presence here doesn't mean she hasn't been or won't end up in Arkham. Basically, we needed a bad girl character, and the best bad girl character in the DCU is Harley Quinn".

Adam Glass, 2011[57]

As part of the New 52 reboot in September 2011, Harley Quinn was reintroduced by Adam Glass as a prominent member of the supervillain team Task Force X in the relaunched Suicide Squad series.[23][58] The character was heavily redesigned to fit the tone of the book, and was inspired by Harley's designs in the video games Batman: Arkham Asylum and Batman: Arkham City;[59][60] her color motif was changed to red and blue, her jester costume was replaced with a revealing ensemble consisting of a corset and hot pants, her skin was bleached white, and her previously blonde hair was altered to half-blue and half-red.[60][12][58][61] Her personality had also been depicted to be more violent and psychopathic than her former iteration.[12][32][58]

External images
image icon Art of Harley's New 52 redesign, from a presentation in 2011's San Diego Comic Con.[62]
image icon The controversial cover artwork for Suicide Squad (vol. 4) #1, which introduced Harley Quinn's revealing look for the relaunched title,[12] art by Ryan Benjamin.

In the series, Glass separated Harley Quinn from the Joker and explored her "becom[ing] her own person", with the Suicide Squad becoming a family to her;[63][64] Glass said: "Harley's always wanted to belong to something. And if not Joker, then the team – and she's finding herself in all this. She's finding her place in the world, that she's not just a sidekick".[64]

Suicide Squad was canceled in April 2014 to coincide with the conclusion of the "Forever Evil" storyline.[65]

New origin

In the seventh issue of Suicide Squad, Glass revised Harley Quinn's origin story, making it reflect the Joker's origins. In the story, the Joker takes Harleen Quinzel to the chemical plant where he originated and pushes her into a vat of chemicals against her will, which bleaches her skin and drives her insane, resulting in her transformation to Harley Quinn.[66] This origin was received negatively by fans, who felt that its removal of Harley Quinn's choice to become the Joker's accomplice willingly, as depicted in her previous origin stories, took out an essential part of her character.[66]

Second ongoing series

Textless cover art of the second series' first issue featuring Harley Quinn's roller derby-inspired costume, art by Amanda Conner and Paul Mounts. Harley Quinn co-creator Bruce Timm said of the design: "I really like Amanda's design a lot because it's modern and a little bit punk rock, but it's really fun without being trashy. I think the whole roller-derby look is really fun because it's tough but it's still playful. It's not...It's not skanky".[21]

Harley Quinn's second ongoing series, written by husband and wife Jimmy Palmiotti and Amanda Conner, with the interior art illustrated by Chad Hardin and John Timms, explored Harley Quinn leaving Gotham City and starting her own life in her hometown of Brooklyn, depicting her as a landlord in Coney Island, where she shares an apartment building with a supporting cast of "sideshow freaks".[67][12][68][69][70] Considered to be the most defining writers to work on the character since Dini and Timm, Palmiotti and Conner reinvented Harley Quinn as an antihero who has left her controlling relationship with the Joker behind.[23][71][72]

In contrast to Harley Quinn's depiction in Glass' Suicide Squad, Palmiotti and Conner wrote Harley Quinn with a lighthearted, cartoonish, and humorous tone. Her costume has also been changed with a roller derby-inspired costume designed by Conner, which incorporates Conner's favorite aspects of Harley Quinn's early costume and her costume in Glass' run of Suicide Squad.[69][73][67] The series also brought back Harley Quinn's red and black motif.[61]

The series began being published in November 2013, starting with Harley Quinn #0, which brought together 17 comic book artists, including Harley Quinn co-creator Bruce Timm, to illustrate a fourth wall-breaking story about Harley thinking of the artists that could illustrate her in her own comic book series.[74][75] The rest of the series details Harley Quinn's adventures in Coney Island with her supporting cast.[76] In Harley Quinn #25, Palmiotti and Conner reunited Harley Quinn with the Joker; the story depicts Harley Quinn returning to Gotham City to confront the Joker and end their relationship.[77][78]

With Harley Quinn's longtime friend Poison Ivy being a recurring character in the series, Palmiotti and Conner built on their relationship and hinted at romantic feelings between the two characters; Poison Ivy is shown kissing Harley Quinn multiple times throughout the series, and a sexual relationship between them was alluded to in issue #25.[76][72] When asked regarding their relationship in a Twitter Q&A, Palmiotti and Conner replied: "Yes, they are girlfriends without the jealousy of monogamy".[34]

The New 52 Harley Quinn series received positive reception, and was also one of DC Comics' top-selling series, inspiring multiple spin-offs.[76][73] The series was ended for the DC Rebirth relaunch of DC's titles.[79]


The cover of the first issue of the New 52's Suicide Squad title drew controversy for its sexual depiction of Harley Quinn.[12] This also caused some fans of the character to send Adam Glass hate mail and personal threats.[63]

In September 2013, DC Comics announced an art contest entitled "Break into comics with Harley Quinn!", in which contestants were to draw Harley in one of four different suicide scenarios. This contest drew controversy not only because it was announced close to National Suicide Prevention Week, but also because of the sexualized portrayal of Harley Quinn in the fourth scenario, in which the character attempts suicide while naked in her bathtub, which was highly criticised. The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, American Psychiatric Association, and National Alliance on Mental Illness all responded to the controversy in an emailed group statement to the Huffington Post: "We are disappointed that DC Comics has decided to host a contest looking for artists to develop ways to depict suicide attempts by one of its main villains – Harley Quinn". After seeing the reactions to the contest, DC Comics apologized, saying they should have made it clear it was a dream sequence that was not supposed to be taken seriously. In the final version, the bathtub scene was cut and replaced with Harley Quinn sitting on a rocket while flying in space.[80][81][82]

DC Rebirth

In June 2016, the DC Rebirth event relaunched DC Comics' entire line of comic book titles. Both Harley Quinn as well as Suicide Squad were rebooted, with the latter starting with the one-shot issue Suicide Squad: Rebirth #1 (October 2016). Harley Quinn's DC Rebirth design included pink and blue dyed hair tips and a jacket inspired by Margot Robbie's portrayal of the character in the 2016 film Suicide Squad, a change established in the last issues of her New 52 series.[83][84]

Harley Quinn returned as a regular character in the relaunched Suicide Squad series, written by Rob Williams. The series was canceled in January 2019.[85]

Harley Quinn's relaunched ongoing series is a direct continuation of the former, with Conner and Palmiotti still writing for the character, and Hardin and Timms illustrating the interior art.[86] After having written 64 issues of Harley Quinn's ongoing series, Conner and Palmiotti's five-year run ended with the 34th issue of the series in December 2017, with writer Frank Tieri and artist Inaki Miranda taking over the title.[87][88][89] Tieri's run on the series ended with the series' 42nd issue, followed by a two-issue storyline written by Christopher Sebela and illustrated by Mirka Andolfo.[90] By issue #45 in July 2018, Sam Humphries was the new writer for the series, with John Timms returning to provide art.[89][90] The series ended in August 2020.[91]

Harley Loves Joker

In 2017, Harley Quinn co-creator Paul Dini wrote a backup feature for Harley Quinn's Rebirth monthly series entitled Harley Loves Joker, co-written by Palmiotti and illustrated by Bret Blevins, which ran for 9 issues.[92] The story brought back Harley Quinn's classic characterization and focuses on her past with the Joker. Unlike her characterization in Batman: The Animated Series, Dini and Palmiotti wrote Harley Quinn in the story as less of a "doormat", with Harley Quinn and Joker being on equal footing in their relationship.[93] The story concluded with the two-part limited series of the same name, which also expanded on Harley Quinn's past as a former intern in animal research at S.T.A.R. Labs, where she met her pet hyenas Bud and Lou.[94] In the second part of the story, Dini and Palmiotti explained Harley Quinn's change in costume, establishing the character's modern design as a reflection of her having left her relationship with the Joker.[95][96]

Infinite Frontier

Concept art for Harley Quinn's Infinite Frontier design by Riley Rossmo, which combines his favorite aspects of Harley's classic jester getup and more recent designs.[97][98]

For the 2021 Infinite Frontier relaunch, Harley Quinn is moved back to Gotham City as a superheroine, where she frequently interacts with and aids the Batman family, and she is given a new design by Riley Rossmo.[97] Harley Quinn's fourth ongoing series, written by Stephanie Phillips and illustrated by Rossmo, depicts her "actively looking to make up for her past sins", alongside a former Joker henchman named Kevin.[98][97] Harley Quinn also has a prominent role in the "Fear State" crossover event.[99]

In January 2022, Phillips confirmed Harley would be resuming her previous career as a psychologist.[100]

Powers, abilities, and equipment

Harley Quinn possesses multiple superhuman abilities, having won a gymnastics scholarship at Gotham City's Gotham State University.[101][102][21] Following her transition to the main DC canon in 1999, Harley Quinn was established as having immunity to toxins and enhanced strength, agility, durability, and reflexes, which she received after having been injected with a serum concocted by Poison Ivy.[101] "Vengeance Unlimited, Part Five" (Harley Quinn vol. 1 #30) revealed that it also gave her the ability to breathe underwater.[103] She is strong enough to lift 900-1600 lbs as she is Peak human level in DC and possesses Low Superhuman levels of Strength.

Harley Quinn is skilled in using various weapons, often employing weaponized clown-themed gag items, including pop guns, rubber chickens, and a gun that shoots a boxing glove, as well as oversized pistols and mallets, the latter being her signature weapon.[104][105][106] Other weapons she uses include: unconventional weapons, such as a baseball bat; explosive weapons such as bazookas, customized bombs, and dynamites;[107] firearms, such as pistols, assault rifles, and machine guns;[107] Harley Quinn also has a pair of pet hyenas, Bud and Lou, which she can order to attack her opponents.[101]

Despite being mentally unstable and sometimes distracted, Harley is highly intelligent. Her intellect extends to her psychological, tactical and deception abilities, but she does not stand out for particular strategic or scientific skills and often remains subordinate to the Joker, who between the two is the genius and the inventor. Harleen Quinzel earned a bachelor's degree in psychology and as a former Arkham psychologist, was highly qualified in psychoanalysis, criminology, and forensic psychiatry. While not on par with Joker, she is still an expert tactician, deceiver and escapologist, and still shows traces of her psychological experience. Harley Quinn is the only person besides the Joker to concoct Joker Venom, the Joker's signature weapon, and is shown to have reverse-engineered its formula and developed an antitoxin.[108][109] She also has an indomitable pathological will.

Just like Poison Ivy, sometimes and not as much, Harley uses her feminine charm to attract men but only to manipulate them. Unlike the Joker, she is able to simulate sanity, thus being able to pretend to be a "normal" person. In this way, she disguised herself as a security guard, a lawyer and even Poison Ivy and Batgirl.

Romantic interests

Harley Quinn has had several love interests, the most notable being the Joker and Poison Ivy. Other love interests include Mason Macabre, a character created by Conner and Palmiotti.[110] Plastic Man was initially intended to be a love interest for Harley Quinn by Kesel, but was not approved by DC.[111]

The Joker

"So Harley in her earlier incarnation really felt like she was the one for the Joker, that she could catch him and cure him and bring him back to humanity. But actually, in the process, she lost hers. Before she knew it she had fallen head-over-heels in love with him. I think initially he was looking to play her and get what he could out of her, and then realized he had opened Pandora's box and this woman in her madness could match him at just about anything he does. I think he finds that, in some ways, very sexy and attractive. But he's not really set up to love in the way a regular person is. I think there are sparks and intensity and weird passion of a sort to their relationship, but I would not call it a loving relationship in the traditional sense".

Paul Dini, 2017[11]

The Joker is Harley Quinn's former lover. Harley's solo comics often explore her former association with the Joker through "flashbacks of their past exploits, present-day conflicts", or through Harley as she "laments his absence".[112] Harley often refers to him as "Mistah J" and "Puddin'".[113]

Their relationship is known for its abusive and codependent nature, first established in Harley's first origin story Mad Love.[21] The Joker habitually abuses Harley, and despite the abuse, Harley Quinn returns to him.[114] In the 1999 one-shot comic Batman: Harley Quinn, the Joker decides to kill Harley, after admitting that he does care for her, that their relationship is romantic, and that these feelings prevent him from fulfilling his purpose.[115] Dini describes their relationship as abusive,[116] and empathizes with Harley's feelings of abandonment, with Dini basing most of Harley's dialogue on his past experiences.[117]

The Joker's controlling and codependent relationship with Harley Quinn has been analyzed as a means of the Joker reinforcing his own belief in his power in a world where he may be killed or neutralized by another villain or Batman.[118] Joker mirrors his identity through Harley in her appearance, and even though he may ignore or act indifferent towards her, he continues to try to subject her to his control.[118] When Harley successfully defeats Batman in Mad Love, the Joker, emasculated by his own failure, severely injures her out of fear of what the other villains will think of him; however, while Harley recovers, the Joker sends her flowers, which she accepts, reasserting his control over her.[119]

Poison Ivy

Harley Quinn and Poison Ivy in "New Roots" from Batman: Urban Legends #1, art by Laura Braga.

Poison Ivy is Harley Quinn's current love interest and best friend, and Harley often refers to her as "Red".[120] Ivy was first introduced as a new friend to Harley by Dini in the 1993 Batman: The Animated Series episode "Harley and Ivy".[121] The episode came from Dini wanting to make Harley a stronger character and write a story where she leaves the Joker; Dini decided to pair her up with Ivy because she was "the strongest contrast to Harley".[121] The two later became close friends within the DC Animated Universe. Dini stated that he could see a romantic relationship between the two happening the more he worked with the two characters, but the impossibility of properly portraying their relationship in a kid's cartoon at the time prevented it from happening.[40]

Prior to the New 52 reboot, Ivy is shown as having teamed up on occasion with Harley with Harley being her best friend and recurring ally. Unlike most villain team-ups, their partnership is based on genuine friendship and mutual respect. Ivy sincerely wants to save Harley from her unhealthy abusive relationship with the Joker. Accordingly, Poison Ivy despises the Joker, and the two exchange vicious banter at every opportunity. In the final storyline of the Gotham City Sirens series, Harley suggests that Ivy may be in love with her, an accusation that stuns her.[122] The following issue has Poison Ivy acknowledge that she may indeed love Harley, but the details of her love are never specified, and the series ended with the New 52 reboot before their relationship could be addressed.[123]

Conner and Palmiotti hinted at a romantic relationship in the New 52 Harley Quinn series,[76][72] and later confirmed that Harley and Ivy are in a non-monogamous relationship.[124][34] 2017's Harley Quinn #25 marked their first canonical kiss.[125]

Character biography

DC Animated Universe

Harley Quinn first appeared in Batman: The Animated Series (1992–1995), voiced by Arleen Sorkin, who subsequently reprised her role in other DC Animated Universe series, including Superman: The Animated Series (1996–2000), The New Batman Adventures (1997–1999), Static Shock (2000–2004), and Justice League (2001–2004), as well as the film Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker (2000).

Originally a career-oriented psychologist, Dr. Harleen Quinzel's life took a radical turn when she chose to take an internship at Arkham Asylum for a semester of college. Convinced by the Joker himself to do it, Harleen interviewed him and learned he was abused as a child by his alcoholic father (later learning this backstory to have been one of several different stories he had told to others, some with different details each time), and after more interviews, determined Batman was the primary source of the Joker's anger and was to blame for his actions, but that she also had fallen in love with him. Harleen helped the Joker escape and, renaming herself Harley Quinn, became his sidekick in hopes that she could win his love, going on a crime spree across the United States of America.[126]

After assisting Joker in attempting to assassinate Commissioner James Gordon by planting a bomb at a dinner in his honor, she was subdued by Batman, and subsequently an accomplice in virtually all of Joker's criminal schemes.[127] On occasion, she would be kicked out of Joker's gang when unintentionally upstaging or annoying the Joker, on one of these occasions teaming up with Poison Ivy, with the two becoming close friends and a successful crime duo independently.[128] While imprisoned on her own in Arkham Asylum, Batman offered her a pardon in exchange for helping him track down the Joker after he had stolen a nuclear bomb.[129] The day she is declared rehabilitated and paroled, Harley's hyperactivity and unfamiliarity with the "real" world leads to her accidentally kidnap someone and be returned to Arkham yet again.[130]

In the 31-episode Gotham Girls web series, Harley joins forces with Poison Ivy and Catwoman in a co-starring role.

After several failed attempts at rehabilitation, Harley returns to the Joker's side. However, after another failed attempt to kill Commissioner Gordon leads the Joker to forget their anniversary, Harley re-examines her life and decides that as Batman was the cause of the Joker's obsession, she should capture and kill him herself for him to kill, doing so by falsely pretending to have found sanity and luring Batman into a trap. Recognizing Harley to have come closer to killing him than Joker has ever done, Batman tricks her into facilitating his escape by making her call the Joker and tell him what she has done, knowing that he would not allow anyone other than himself to kill Batman, pushing her aside and unknowingly knocking her out a window. Recovering in Arkham, Harley decides that the Joker will never truly love her, before returning to her devotion upon seeing that he has left her a rose in a vase from him by her bedside table, with a note hoping that she gets better soon.[126] Harley later references having convinced the Joker to attend couple's counseling with her.[131]

In the film Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker, flashbacks reveal Harley's apparent final actions after returning to the Joker again were assisting him in kidnapping Tim Drake and torturing him into insanity to transform him into their son "J.J", so that they can start a family together. She later fought Batgirl who angrily chastised her for even helping Joker commit a heinous act but fell deep into an abyss, leading to the latter presuming her dead, though she survived as depicted in the present, where she appears at the end of the film, revealed to have reformed and become the grandmother of the Jokerz members, the Dee Dee Twins, who address her as "Nana Harley".

DC Universe

Harleen Quinzel was a psychologist at Arkham Asylum, and after meeting the Joker, she became his frequent accomplice, took on the name Harley Quinn, and got into an abusive codependent relationship with him. She eventually splits up with him, and becomes a solo criminal, forming a criminal gang called the Quinntets. Following the Quinntet's dissolution, Harley Quinn moves to Metropolis with her best friend Poison Ivy, where she works as a love columnist in the Daily Planet under the alias Holly Chance. She then moves back to Gotham City, where she then voluntarily incarcerates herself in Arkham.[4] Harley Quinn then spends a year applying for parole, only to see her request systematically rejected by Bruce Wayne, the layman member of Arkham's medical commission. She is kidnapped by Peyton Riley, the new female Ventriloquist, who offers her a job; Harley turns the job down out of respect for the memory of Arnold Wesker, the original Ventriloquist, who attempted to cheer her up during her first week in Arkham while the Joker was still on the loose. She then helps Batman and Commissioner Jim Gordon foil the impostor's plans. Although Riley escapes, Bruce Wayne is impressed with Harley's effort at redemption and agrees with granting her parole.[132] She then briefly joins the Secret Six, then decides to quit.[133]

Final Crisis

During Countdown to Final Crisis, a reformed Harley Quinn resides in an Amazon-run women's shelter. Having abandoned her jester costume and clown make-up, she now only wears an Amazonian stola or chiton. She befriends the former Catwoman replacement Holly Robinson and then succeeds in persuading her to join her at the shelter, where she is working as an assistant. They are both brought to Themiscyra by "Athena" (really Granny Goodness) and begin Amazon training. Holly and Harley then meet the real Athena and encounter Mary Marvel. The group reveals Granny's deception, and Holly, Harley, and Mary follow her as she retreats to Apokolips. Mary finds the Olympian gods, whom Granny had been holding prisoner, and the group frees them. Harley is granted powers by Thalia as a reward. Upon returning to Earth, the powers vanish, and Harley and Holly return to Gotham City.

Gotham City Sirens

Harley Quinn then joins forces with Poison Ivy (Pamela Isley) and Catwoman (Selina Kyle) in the series Gotham City Sirens. In Gotham City Sirens #7, Harley Quinn visits her family in her hometown of Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, during the holiday season. Harley's father is a swindler who is still in jail, and her brother, Barry, is a loser with dead-end dreams of rock stardom. Her mother, Sharon, wants her to stop the "villain and hero stuff". The dysfunctional, "horrible" experience while visiting family causes her to return home to the Sirens' shared Gotham City hideout where Harley, Catwoman, and Poison Ivy spend the rest of Christmas together. Following several adventures with Catwoman and Ivy, Harley betrays them and breaks into Arkham Asylum, intending to kill the Joker for his years of abuse towards her. However, Harley ultimately chooses instead to release the Joker from his cell, and together the two orchestrate a violent takeover of the facility that results in most of the guards and staff members either being killed or taken hostage by the inmates.[134] Harley and the Joker are eventually defeated by Batman and Catwoman, and Harley is last seen being wheeled away while bound in a straitjacket and muzzle.[122] Shortly afterward, Poison Ivy breaks into Harley's cell and attempts to kill her for her betrayal, but instead offers to free her if she helps her kill Catwoman, who had left both of her fellow Sirens behind in Arkham. Harley agrees, and the two set out to trap Catwoman.[123] During the ensuing fight, Catwoman says she saw good in them and only wanted to help. As Batman is about to arrest them, Catwoman helps the two of them escape.[135]

The New 52 and DC Rebirth

Like her previous incarnations, Harleen Quinzel was still the Joker's psychologist, but before she becomes Harley, the Joker pushes her into a vat of chemicals, bleaching her skin white and driving her insane. Harley Quinn is forced to join the Suicide Squad by Amanda Waller. Harley Quinn then leaves Gotham City and moves back to her hometown of Brooklyn and resides in Coney Island.

Infinite Frontier

Harley Quinn moves back to Gotham City in an attempt to reestablish herself as a hero, aiding the Batman Family and trying to make up for her past "where she often enabled the Joker".[97]

Cultural impact

Harley Quinn cosplayers at various comic book conventions.

Harley Quinn has become one of DC Comics's most popular characters.[136] The 2016 relaunch of her comic shipped more copies than any other DC Rebirth title and was one of the best-selling comics of the year.[137] DC Comics Publisher Jim Lee refers to Harley Quinn as the fourth pillar in their publishing line, behind Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman.[138][17][73] Harley Quinn currently stars in four separate ongoing series — three eponymous titles and Suicide Squad. Only Batman and Superman have comparable numbers of monthly appearances, making Harley Quinn the most prominent and profitable female character.[138] Kevin Kiniry, vice-president of DC Collectibles, says Harley Quinn is always a top-seller and she "can go toe-to-toe with Batman and the Joker as one of the most fan-requested and sought-after characters".[138] In 2016, Harley Quinn's Halloween costume ranked as the most popular costume in both the United States and the United Kingdom and it remains a popular subject for cosplay.[139][140] To celebrate the character, DC Comics declared the month of February to be Harley Quinn Month and published 22 Harley Quinn variant covers across their line of comic books.[141] IGN's 2009 list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time ranked Harley Quinn as #45.[142] She was ranked 16th in Comics Buyer's Guide's 2011 "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list.[143] Joker voice actor Mark Hamill attributes the success of Harley Quinn to Arleen Sorkin's performance.[144] On Twitter, he stated: "In the script she was just an unnamed Joker "hench-wench" w/ no discernible personality. When Arleen began reading her lines in that unforgettable voice so poignant & full of heart I nearly fell off my chair! She brought SO much more than was on the page & a legend was born".[144]

Collected editions

This section lists the collected editions, from trade paperbacks to omnibus editions, of various comics in which Harley Quinn is mainly featured.

Ongoing series

Vol. # Title Material collected Pages Publication date ISBN
Harley Quinn (2007–2014)
1 Preludes and Knock Knock Jokes Harley Quinn #1–7 192 December 2007 978-1401216573
2 Night and Day Harley Quinn #8–13 and Harley Quinn: Our Worlds at War 190 June 2013 978-1401240417
3 Welcome to Metropolis Harley Quinn #14–25 288 March 2014 978-1401245955
4 Vengeance Unlimited Harley Quinn #26–38 314 September 2014 978-1401250683
Deluxe Editions
1 Harley Quinn by Karl Kesel and Terry Dodson: The Deluxe Edition Book One Harley Quinn #1–8 224 September 2017 978-1401276423
2 Harley Quinn by Karl Kesel and Terry Dodson: The Deluxe Edition Book Two Harley Quinn #9–19 288 November 2018 978-1401285098
Harley Quinn (vol. 2) (2014–2016)
1 Hot in the City Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #0–8 224 October 2014 978-1401254155
2 Power Outage Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #9–13; Harley Quinn Futures End #1; Harley Quinn Invades Comic-Con International San Diego; material from Secret Origin #4 208 April 2015 978-1401257637
3 Kiss Kiss Bang Stab Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #14–16, Annual #1; Harley Quinn Holiday Special #1; Harley Quinn Valentine's Special #1 168 December 2015 978-1401262525
4 A Call to Arms Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #17–21 and Harley Quinn Road Trip Special #1 176 June 2016 978-1401269296
5 The Joker's Last Laugh Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #22–25 and Harley Quinn: Be Careful What You Wish For 144 September 2016 978-1401271992
6 Black, White and Red All Over Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #26–30 144 January 2017 978-1401272593
Harley Quinn (vol. 3) (2016–2018)
1 Die Laughing Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #1–7 168 March 2017 978-1401268312
2 Joker Loves Harley Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #8–13 144 June 2017 978-1401270957
3 Red Meat Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #14–21 168 September 2017 978-1401273699
4 Surprise, Surprise Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #22–27 and Harley Quinn 25th Anniversary Special 168 January 2018 978-1401275266
5 Vote Harley Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #28–34 168 May 2018 978-1401278823
6 Angry Bird Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #35–42 192 August 2018 978-1401281526
Deluxe Editions
1 Harley Quinn: The Rebirth Deluxe Edition Book 1 Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #1–13 304 September 2017 978-1401273682
2 Harley Quinn: The Rebirth Deluxe Edition Book 2 Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #14–27 and Harley Quinn 25th Anniversary Special 384 July 2018 978-1401280659
3 Harley Quinn: The Rebirth Deluxe Edition Book 3 Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #28–42 392 January 2019 978-1401285531
Harley Quinn (vol. 3) (2018–2020)
1 Harley vs. Apokolips Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #43–49 168 December 2018 978-1401285074
2 Harley Destroys the Universe Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #50–54 and 56 160 April 2019 978-1401288099
3 The Trials of Harley Quinn Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #55 and 57–63 208 October 2019 978-1401291914
4 The Final Trial Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #64–69 and Harley Quinn: Villain of the Year #1 208 March 2020 978-1401294557
5 Hollywood or Die Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #70–75 176 April 2021 978-1779503091
Harley Quinn (vol. 4) (2021–present)
1 No Good Deed Batman: Urban Legends #1 and Harley Quinn (vol. 4) #1–6 168 December 2021 978-1779513465
2 Keepsake Harley Quinn (vol. 4) #7–12 168 August 2022 978-1779516633
3 Verdict Harley Quinn (vol. 4) #13-17 and Harley Quinn 30th Anniversary Special 144 March 2023 978-1779521170
4 Task Force XX Harley Quinn (vol. 4) #18-21, 2022 Annual #1 and Shadow War Zone #1 168 September 2023 978-1779521187

DC Omnibuses

Title Material collected Pages Publication date ISBN
Harley Quinn Omnibus by Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti Vol. One Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #0–16, Annual #1; Harley Quinn: Futures End #1; Harley Quinn Invades Comic-Con International San Diego; Harley Quinn Holiday Special #1; Harley Quinn Valentine's Special #1; Harley Quinn and Power Girl #1–6; material from Secret Origin #4 768 September 2017 978-1401276430
Harley Quinn Omnibus by Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti Vol. Two Harley Quinn (vol. 2) #17–30, Harley Quinn Road Trip Special #1, Harley Quinn: Be Careful What You Wish For – Special Edition, Harley Quinn and Her Gang of Harleys #1–6 and Harley's Little Black Book #1–6 864 October 2018 978-1401284565
Harley Quinn Omnibus by Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti Three Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #1–34, Harley Quinn 25th Anniversary Special #1 and material from Batman Day Special #1 800 October 2019 978-1401294465
Harley Quinn & the Gotham City Sirens Omnibus Gotham City Sirens #1–26 and Catwoman #83 648 April 2018 September 2022 978-1401278397 978-1779516763
Harley Quinn: 30 Years of the Maid of Mischief Deluxe Edition The Batman Adventures #12, Detective Comics #831, The Batman and Robin Adventures #18, Batman: Gotham Adventures #10, Batman: Gotham Knights #14, Harley Quinn #3, Gotham City Sirens #20–21, Harley Quinn Holiday Special #1, Harley Quinn: Be Careful What You Wish For Special Edition #1, Harley Quinn 25th Anniversary Special #1, Harley Quinn: Make 'em Laugh #3, Harley Quinn Black + White + Red #14, Batman #98 and a story from Harley Quinn 30th Anniversary Special #1 336 September 2022 978-1779517180

One-shots and limited series

Title Material collected Writer and artist Pages Publication date ISBN
Batman: Harley and Ivy Batman: Harley and Ivy #1–3; Harley and Ivy: Love on the Lam; a story from Batman: Black and White Vol. 2 Paul Dini, Judd Winick (story)
Bruce Timm, Joe Chiodo (art)
136 July 2007 978-1401213336
Batman: Mad Love and Other Stories The Batman Adventures: Mad Love, Batman Adventures Annual #1–2, Batman Adventures Holiday Special, Adventures in the DC Universe #3 and Batman Black and White #1 Paul Dini, Bruce Timm, Glen Murakami (story)
Bruce Timm, Mike Parobeck, Matt Wagner, Dan DeCarlo, Klaus Janson, and Glen Murakami (art)
208 September 2011 978-1401231156
Batman Adventures: Mad Love Deluxe Edition The Batman Adventures: Mad Love Paul Dini (story)
Bruce Timm (art)
144 April 2015 978-1401255121
Harley and Ivy: The Deluxe Edition Batman: Harley and Ivy #1–3, Batman Adventures Annual #1, Batman Adventures Holiday Annual #1, Batman: Gotham Knights #14 and Batman: Black and White #3 Various 176 February 2016 978-1401260804
Harley Quinn and Power Girl Harley Quinn and Power Girl #1–6 Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti (story)
Stéphane Roux (art)
144 March 2016 978-1401259747
Harley Quinn's Gang of Harleys Harley Quinn and Her Gang of Harleys #1–6 Frank Tieri and Jimmy Palmiotti
Mauricet (art)
152 February 2017 978-1401267858
Harley's Little Black Book Harley's Little Black Book #1–8 Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti (story)
Amanda Conner, John Timms, Mauricet, Joseph Michael Linsner, Billy Tucci, Flaviano, Neal Adams, and Simon Bisley (art)
256 November 2018 978-1401273606
Harley Loves Joker Harley Loves Joker #1–2 and backstories from Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #17–25 Paul Dini and Jimmy Palmiotti (story)
Bret Blevins and J. Bone
128 December 2018 978-1401283490
Old Lady Harley Old Lady Harley #1–5 and Harley Quinn (vol. 3) #42 Frank Tieri (story)
Inaki Miranda, Tom Derenick, and Mauricet (art)
152 July 2019 978-1401292164
Harley & Ivy Meet Betty & Veronica Harley & Ivy Meet Betty & Veronica #1–6 Marc Andreyko and Paul Dini (story)
Laura Braga (art)
160 September 2019 978-1401292751
Harley Quinn and Poison Ivy Harley Quinn and Poison Ivy #1–6 Jody Houser (story)
Adriana Melo, Wade Von Grawbadger, and Mark Morales (art)
152 May 2021 978-1779505989
Harley Quinn Black + White + Red Harley Quinn Black + White + Red #1–17 and two new original stories published here for the first time ever[145] Various 224 June 2021 978-1779509956
Harley Quinn: The Animated Series Vol. 1: The Eat. Bang! Kill. Tour Harley Quinn: The Animated Series Vol. 1: The Eat. Bang! Kill. Tour #1–6 Tee Franklin (story)
Max Sarin and Erich Owen (art)
144 August 2022 978-1779516640

DC Black Label

Harley Quinn stars in various series under DC Comics' adult-oriented Black Label imprint.

Title Material collected Writer and artist Pages Publication date ISBN
Harleen Harleen #1–3 Stjepan Šejić (story and art) 200 February 2020 978-1779501110
Harley Quinn & the Birds of Prey: The Hunt for Harley Harley Quinn & the Birds of Prey #1–4; a short story from Harley Quinn Black + White + Red #12 Amanda Conner and Jimmy Palmiotti (story)
Amanda Conner and Chad Hardin (art)
160 March 2021 978-1779504494
Joker/Harley: Criminal Sanity Joker/Harley: Criminal Sanity #1–8 and Joker/Harley: Criminal Sanity Secret Files (the 2022 edition adds a story from Harley Quinn 30th Anniversary Special #1) Kami Garcia (story)
Mico Suayan, Jason Badower, and Mike Mayhew (art)
304 312 September 2021 September 2022 978-1779512024 978-1779517203

Other versions

  • Harley Quinn's first major appearance outside the Batman animated world was in the Elseworlds miniseries Thrillkiller. This version of Harley is a schoolgirl named Hayley Fitzpatrick who dresses up to help a female version of the Joker called Bianca Steeplechase. After Batgirl kills Bianca, Harley is shown killing her own family, intent on revenge in the final frames of the story.[146]
  • In the Elseworlds 80-Page Giant, one of the stories is about Lex Luthor as a music producer. One of his groups is, as the press puts it, "alternative lifestyle folkies Ivy and Harley".[147]
  • On the new Earth-3, Harleen Quinzel is the Jokester's business manager and is killed by the Owlman.[148]
  • Harley appears in Batman/The Spirit. In this crossover, Harley is one of the many villains who helps try to take down Batman and the Spirit. She initially appears disguised as a flight attendant.
  • In the 2008 graphic novel Joker, Harley Quinn appears as the Joker's helper and aide-de-camp. She at one point acts as a stripper (though this may be a ruse) and is never shown speaking.[149] In Batman: Damned, the sequel to Joker, Harley snaps after the Joker's mysterious death following a battle with Batman and performs surgery on herself and dressing herself to make her resemble the Joker. Harley leads the Joker's remaining henchman on a revenge mission, blowing up several buildings and taking over the GCPD building, and defacing the Bat-Signal so that it resembles the Joker's smile. Batman arrives and defeats the henchman before Harley paralyzes him with a toxin, beats him with her baseball bat, and attempts to sexually abuse him. Batman is then possessed by the Enchantress and strangles Harley against the Bat-Signal.[150]
  • In the Ame-Comi Girls universe, Harley is partnered with the Catwoman and Poison Ivy as part of a trio of villains.
  • The Flashpoint version of Harley Quinn is named Yo-Yo. She was a henchwoman of the Joker, and the Batman chased her down to find the Joker's location, as she had kidnapped Judge Dent's children. He chased her to the ledge of the building around Crime Alley. Batman drops her off the roof, but she is luckily saved by Cyborg.[151]
  • In Batman '66, a version of Harley Quinn designed more around the 1960s television show (she is slightly taller and her hair is short; she also wears prominent slanted glasses, a long red dress, and red blouse, a large pearl necklace, and fairly prominent earrings) appears as Dr. Holly Quinn, Ph.D., a psychologist at Arkham Asylum, referred to as Arkham Institute for the Criminally Insane. She convinces the Joker to cooperate with Batman and Robin in exchange for approving his comedy night proposal.[152] Dr. Quinn is manipulated by the Catwoman and the Joker to perfect the Joker Wave — a hysteria-inducing transmitting dish used on Gotham. Quinn is devastated by her role in the plot and to atone for her mistake, Dr. Quinn reverses the device by submitting herself to its effects — freeing the people of Gotham but sacrificing her sanity in the process. She escapes and becomes a supervillain named Harlequin, wearing a roller derby-inspired version of the classic Harley costume. She retains her considerable intelligence and psychological training, making her a difficult foe for the Dynamic Duo, but is eventually captured when Batman and Robin disguise themselves as criminals (Batman in his regular alternate guise of Matches Malone) who beat up other bad guys who were auditioning to be Holly's henchmen.[153]
  • Harley Quinn appears in the prequel comic to the game Injustice: Gods Among Us. She helps the Joker kidnap Lois Lane and surgically plant a trigger in her heart that will set off a nuclear bomb in Metropolis should her heart stop; when Superman accidentally kills her (thinking she is Doomsday) he becomes devastated, with the grieving Superman killing the Joker as a result. Harley struggles to come to terms with the Joker's death but develops an attachment to the Green Arrow when he kidnaps her to protect her from Superman's wrath but is also grief-stricken when he is killed by Superman. She later confronts the Black Canary but hesitates upon realizing she is pregnant upon vomiting mid-battle and reveals to the Black Canary she has a four-year-old daughter named Lucy who lives with her sister. Harley and the Canary befriend each other as a result and Harley starts helping Batman's Insurgency, though most members distrust her due to her lover's actions. In Injustice 2, she helps to fight Grodd's Society and Brainiac alongside the Black Canary, the Green Arrow, and the other Justice League and Regime members. It is revealed in the ending she later joins the Justice League as a fully accepted member, though she occasionally has to deal with her violent impulses. It is also revealed her daughter thinks her mother is her Aunt Harley, though Harley hopes to one day tell her the truth.
  • In the Batman/Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles crossover, Harley is mutated into a humanoid hyena by the Shredder. She is knocked out by Batman during the battle at Arkham Asylum, and Splinter uses her hammer to take down the rest of the inmates. After the Shredder is defeated, the mutagen in her system decays naturally, causing her and the rest of the mutated inmates to revert to normal.[154]
  • In Batman: White Knight, it is revealed that Harley Quinn was two different women all along. The first Harley Quinn, Harleen Quinzel, quit when the Joker captured and tortured Robin (Jason Todd), and she was replaced by another girl, Marian Drews, without the Joker even realizing it. Once the Joker was cured of his insanity, he proposes marriage to Harley, only for her to beat him and mock him for acting "normal". The original Harley Quinn then appears, kicks the "fake Harley" unconscious, and reveals to Jack Napier (the Joker's true identity in this continuity) there were two Harleys all along. While Harleen loved the Joker "despite his flaws", Marian loved the Joker by "his flaws". She accepts his marriage proposal and joins him in his quest to rid Gotham City of Batman. Drews then takes the mantle of the Joker for herself "until the real Joker returns", calls herself the Neo Joker, and later romances Poison Ivy.[155][156]
  • In DC Comics Bombshells, Harley fell in with the Joker (in this version, a gangster) after leaving Charm School, but left him when he began his journey into the occult. By the time of the events of the story, Harley is drawn to England by a voice she believes is the Joker but turns out to be the Joker's Daughter. She rejects the Joker's Daughter's attempt to have the Joker resurrected in the body of Poison Ivy, instead of beginning a relationship with Ivy herself.
  • In the Marvel Comics series Gwenpool Strikes Back, a variant of Gwen Poole based on Harley Quinn (from Civil War II) is introduced as a member of the GwenHive, dubbed "Harley Gwen".[157]
  • In DCeased, an alternate universe wherein a virus spreads around the world that turns people into zombie-like creatures, Harley Quinn kills a zombie Joker and convinces Ivy to let what was left of the human race take shelter in Ivy's territory.
  • In Batman '89, an alternative continuation of Tim Burton's Batman (1989) and Batman Returns (1992), a blonde psychiatrist called Dr. Q. appears in a talk show to discuss the psychology of masks. Bruce Wayne, who's in the Batcave watching the show, gets angered by her comments and asks Alfred to turn the sound mute. The woman is shown wearing a black and red suit and lozenge-shaped earrings (just like in Harley Quinn's classic costume).[158] She returns as one of the main antagonists in the Batman '89 series Echoes.[159]

In other media


Live action


Harley Quinn
  • Harley Quinn appears in a self-titled series,[176][177] voiced by Kaley Cuoco.[178][162] It focuses on Harley as she attempts to become a solo criminal and step out of the Joker's shadow with the help of Poison Ivy and her crew of supervillains.[179][180][176]


Live action

DC Extended Universe
Margot Robbie as Harley Quinn in Suicide Squad (2016)

Margot Robbie portrays Dr. Harleen Quinzel / Harley Quinn in the DC Extended Universe.[187]

  • The character debuted in the 2016 film Suicide Squad. Paul Dini, the creator of Harley Quinn, said Robbie "nailed" her role.[188]
  • Harley Quinn appears in the 2020 spin-off film Birds of Prey, which Robbie also produced. On Robbie's portrayal of the character in the film, Dini commented: "I think they really got the essence of the character down, and they made her quite a lot of fun and appealing in so many ways. She's not totally the animated version, and it's not totally the Jimmy Palmiotti and Amanda Conner version, but it kind of borrows from all of them and creates its own reality and its own fun. There are so many moments in that movie that I just think are wonderful. [...] When I saw her running, laughing hysterically, pushing a shopping cart full of Peeps, I said, "That's my girl". All those little impish things that she did in the movie – sitting down eating cereal, watching Tweety Bird cartoons, and just kind of skipping through life cheerfully oblivious of the devastation she's caused – that's Harley".[189]
  • Harley Quinn appears in The Suicide Squad (2021), a standalone sequel to Suicide Squad.[190]


DC Animated Movie Universe
Lego Batman

Web series


Video games

DC Animated Universe games

  • Harley appears in The Adventures of Batman & Robin, voiced again by Arleen Sorkin.
  • Harley Quinn appears in Batman Vengeance, voiced again by Arleen Sorkin.[162] At the beginning of the game, Harley dons a mask and wig to pose as a single mother named "Mary Flynn". As Flynn, she tricks Batman into rescuing her "son" from the Joker so he can lure Batman into a trap. Batman seemingly fails to stop the Joker from falling to his death off Gotham Bridge when his scheme fails, and when Harley attempts suicide out of grief, he saves her. Soon afterward, Harley gives up crime and even assists Batman in his investigation of several other unusual crimes across Gotham. In the final phase of the game, it was revealed the Joker is alive and faked his death as part of a bigger plan to destroy the city; Harley was aware of this from the beginning and did her part to make sure that Batman would follow the clues Joker left.
  • Harley Quinn appears in Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu, as an inmate of Arkham Asylum.

DC Universe Online

Harley Quinn appears as an unlockable character in DC Universe Online, initially reprised by Arleen Sorkin before being replaced by Jen Brown starting in 2016.[162]

Lego series

Batman: Arkham series

Harley Quinn appears in the Batman: Arkham franchise. While Arleen Sorkin reprised her role from the DC Animated Universe in the first installment, she was replaced by Tara Strong for the rest of the series.[207][208][162]

  • In Batman: Arkham Asylum, she takes control of the eponymous asylum to facilitate the Joker's escape, and makes subsequent appearances throughout the game; kidnapping Warden Quincy Sharp and Commissioner Gordon, releasing Poison Ivy from her cell and attempting to kill Batman on the Joker's orders. After Batman defeats Harley, he locks her up in a vacant cell, where she remains for the rest of the storyline. In this game, Harley wears an original nurse-themed costume.
  • In Batman: Arkham City, she continues to work with the Joker within the eponymous city prison, making several appearances throughout the main story. Following the Joker's death due to his Titan-inflicted disease, Harley watches in shock as Batman carries his lifeless body outside Arkham City. In this game, Harley wears a biker-girl-themed outfit, using a low-key version of her usual makeup, with heavy eye shadow in lieu of her domino mask.
    • Harley also appears in the Harley Quinn's Revenge expansion pack, set after the events of the main story, wherein she seeks revenge on Batman for the Joker's death. After taking several police officers hostage in Arkham City to lure Batman into a trap, she manages to capture him but is ultimately defeated after Robin rescues Batman. By this point, Harley has taken full control of the Joker's gang and has adopted a new look: mostly black clothes, with hair dyed black, a mourning veil, and a "J" necklace.
  • Harley Quinn appears in the mobile game Batman: Arkham City Lockdown, set before the events of Arkham City, where she takes a reporter as a hostage to ransom her for the Joker's release from prison. After luring Batman into a trap, she tries to execute the bound and gagged reporter but is stopped by one of Batman's batarangs.
  • Dr. Harleen Quinzel appears in Batman: Arkham Origins, which takes place before her transformation into Harley Quinn. She interviews the Joker at Blackgate Prison and falls in love with him after he confesses his fascination with someone whom he considers special to him (with Harley believing the Joker is talking about her, when in reality he is thinking of Batman). She later appears amongst the prison's other staff members held hostage by the Joker when he takes over the facility, but she is rescued by Batman. Quinzel is last seen escorting the Joker to his cell after he is defeated by Batman.
  • Harley returns in Batman: Arkham Knight. Still in charge of the remains of the Joker's gang and vengeful against Batman, she is recruited by the Scarecrow to assist him in his plot to kill the Dark Knight. Harley discovers Batman and Robin's hideout at the abandoned Panessa Studios, where the two are keeping the victims of the Joker's blood transfusion who were not affected by the cure under observation. She leads her gang to invade the hideout and release the Joker patients but is foiled after one of them betrays her and kills the other patients before committing suicide. Harley is then locked up by Batman in one of the Joker victims' cells left vacant, where she remains for the rest of the storyline. In this game, she wears a modified version of her Arkham City costume.
    • Apart from the main game, she is a playable character via downloadable content. She was included in her self-titled expansion pack, which also features four challenge maps and a story-driven mission for the character, set shortly before the events of Arkham Knight, wherein she breaks into the Blüdhaven Police Headquarters to free Poison Ivy on Scarecrow's orders.[209] Harley has several unique gadgets at her disposal, including her baseball bat, explosive jack-in-the-box, and laughing gas, as well as a variant of Detective Mode, called Psychosis Mode, which allows the player to see enemies and objects of interest through walls; when the player keeps Psychosis Mode active for an extended period of time, the character's Harleen and Harley personas can be heard fighting for control of her body. Harley also appears as a boss in the Batgirl: A Matter of Family DLC mission, set before the events of Arkham Asylum, in which she dons her classic jester costume.
  • Harley appears as an unlockable playable character in the mobile game Batman: Arkham Underworld.
  • Harley appears as a playable character in Suicide Squad: Kill the Justice League, voiced again by Tara Strong.[210][211] In the game, she is part of the Suicide Squad assembled by Amanda Waller to eliminate Brainiac and the members of the Justice League brainwashed by him in Metropolis.


  • Harley Quinn appears as a playable character in Injustice: Gods Among Us, voiced by Tara Strong.[212][162] An alternate universe version who established the Joker Clan to honor the Joker following his death also appears.[213]
  • Harley Quinn appears as a playable character in Injustice 2, with Tara Strong reprising her role.[214][215][162] She is a main character in the single-player campaign, wherein she serves as an ally of Batman and assists him and the other heroes in combating Brainiac and the Society. Harley is also shown to have completely overcome her feelings for the Joker after realizing he had been controlling and abusing her for years.

Batman: The Enemy Within

Harley Quinn appears in Batman: The Enemy Within (the sequel to Batman: The Telltale Series), voiced by Laura Post.[216][162] This version was driven insane following her father's long bout with mental illness and eventual suicide. Attempting to avoid her father's fate, she joins a criminal organization called the Pact to steal a virus able to cure her hereditary condition. This depiction initially reverses the dynamic between Harley and the Joker. Quinn manipulates and abuses her former patient at Arkham Asylum, named "John Doe", who is infatuated with her. As the series progresses, John's confidence will increase, and depending on the player's choices, he will either aid Bruce Wayne in capturing Quinn or transform into the traditional version of the Joker. In the latter outcome, Harley becomes the Joker's girlfriend, and the two use the virus to threaten Gotham City.

Other appearances


Harley Quinn has her own novel adaptation from comics as part of the DC Comic Novels series. Mad Love was released in November 2018 and written by Pat Cardigan and original co-creator Paul Dini and published by Titan Books.

In 2022, Penguin Random House launched a Harley Quinn line of their young adult DC Icons series, authored by YA author and neuroscientist Rachael Allen.[223]

Pauline Ketch, a character based on Harley Quinn, appears in The Refrigerator Monologues.[224]


List indicator(s)

This section includes characters who will appear or have appeared in portrayals by actresses, who are listed chronologically by first portrayal.

  • An empty, dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film, or that the character's official presence has not yet been confirmed.
  •  V indicates a voice-only role.
Actor Animated television Animated film Video games Web series Live-action television Live-action film Live performance Podcasts
Arleen Sorkin 1992–1999V 2000V 1995–2011V 2000–2002V
Mia Sara 2002
Hynden Walch 2004–2006V 2013-2020V
Grey DeLisle 2008V
Meghan Strange 2008–2011V
Janyse Jaud 2008–2009V
Poppy Tierney 2011, 2012
Tara Strong 2013–2023V 2011–2022V 2012–2023V 2015–2018V 2014V
Laura Bailey 2013V 2012V
Cassidy Alexa 2014
Margot Robbie 2016–2021
Melissa Rauch 2017V
Sirena Irwin 2017V
Kang Ji-young 2017V
Jenny Slate 2017V
Rie Kugimiya 2017V
Laura Post 2018V
Francesca Root-Dodson 2018–2019[a]
Margot Rubin 2019V
Kaley Cuoco 2019–2023V
Kira Buckland 2021V
Gillian Jacobs 2021V 2021–2022V
Kari Wahlgren 2022V
Christina Ricci 2023V
Lady Gaga 2024
  1. ^ The character's identity is not given but elements such as their story arc or relationships are consistent.

See also


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Further reading

External links

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